IrElmCP

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Elam - Crisis Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1100-900 BCE ♥

Steve (1992) divided Neo-Elamite I period into two phases 1000-900 BCE and by implication 900-744 BCE.[1]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ {quasi-polity; confederated state} ♥ "Although Elam did not maintain a political unity during these intervening centuries of obscurity, local chieftains must have preserved a semblance of control in areas where their authority had been traditionally exercised. Cameron suggests that local rule would probably have remained strongest in the remote Eastern districts of Elamite territories, sc. the region of modern Fars." [2] JR: This view may be changing. We asked Wouter Henkelman about the degree of centralization in Elam in the first half of the 1st millennium BCE as a whole. He told us that 'the ascending view is that Elam was an organised and centralised state up until the Assyrian invasions' (of the mid-7th century BCE).[3] For this reason, I've coded for scholarly disagreement.

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Elam - Inshushinak Period ♥ Inshushinak Dynasty.
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "Elamite documentation reveals that the Sutrukid dynasty (the last dynasty of the 2nd mil- lennium b.c.) continued beyond the reign of Hutelutus-Insusinak with kings Silhina-hamru- Lagamar, Humban-numena II, Sutruk-Nahhunte II, and Sutur-Nahhunte I. Texts excavated at Ansan indicate the existence of kings, but no titles are given: Aksir-nahunte and Aksir- simut (both contemporaries of Sutruk-Nahhunte II). There are contextual, paleographic, and onomastic reasons to believe that Hutran-Tepti, Att-hamiti-Insusinak, and Humban-nikas I, son of Humban-tarah, ought to be dated in the period 1000-750 b.c. Finally, after a break of a few years, the name Hallutas-Insusinak appears during the mid-8th century b.c. (paleo- graphic and filiation arguments). These royal names partially fill a gap of some 300 years in the Mesopotamian documentation for the kings of Elam. The royal titulature of these indi- viduals does not, therefore, speak in opposition to an independent Ansan." [4]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Elam - Dark Age ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ unknown ♥ Evidence is very scarce for the period - if it was a quasi-polity, this means there was no single capital. If a unified state, the capital could have been Susa, which was probably still an important centre. The site was still occupied between 1000 and 725/700 BCE. [5]


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The period between c. 1100 and the mid-8th century BCE has been seen as one of decline for the Elamite civilization,[6][7] which had by that time occupied the highlands of the south-western Iranian plateau and the fertile lowlands of the Susiana plain for over a millennium. These historically obscure centuries represent a transitional phase between the Middle Elamite and Neo-Elamite Kingdoms. Following M.-J. Steve, we have split the period at 900 BCE, resulting in a 'crisis phase' between 1100 and 900 and an early Neo-Elamite period between 900 and 744 BCE.[8]
In his 'Elamite war' of 1125-1104 BCE, the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar I invaded Elam and forced the Elamite king Hutelutush-Inshushinak to abandon Susa.[9][10] After this date, there is a drastic reduction in written sources for the history of Elam, both in Mesopotamian documents (either Babylonian or Assyrian) and in inscriptions and tablets from Elam itself.[11] The traditional interpretation has been that there was a disintegration of centralized authority in Elam between the Babylonian invasion and the reemergence of well-attested Elamite kings in the 8th century BCE.[12] However, some scholars question this, pointing out that systematic archaeological excavation of many Elamite sites has yet to be carried out.[13] Further, the gaps in the Mesopotamian historical sources, instead of reflecting the disappearance of Elam as a political entity, may be a function of the political crises and famine that affected Assyria and Babylonia during this period.[14]

Population and political organization

Due to a scarcity of evidence, the political organization of Elam in the centuries between c. 1100 and 744 BCE remain unclear. Some archaeologists and historians argue that Elam split into multiple autonomous chiefdoms after the Babylonian invasion,[15] while others believe it maintained its unity as an organized and centralized state.[16] Documents excavated at the site of Anshan dating to the 11th century BCE hint at the survival of some form of royal administration, at least in the highlands.[17]
Secure population estimates for the area under Elamite control in this period are lacking.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers. Unknown. The region was a quasi-polity with a variety of chieftains controlling small territories. No data has been found on the size of a typical polity.

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People. Unknown.

"Before the Islamic conquest, major concentration of settlement were always localized in the following three major regions: the central Zagros, the lowland steppe, and Marv Dasht. These probably correspond, respectively, with Shimashki, Susa, and Anshan, the three most important historical entities in southwest Iran (Vallat 1980:6). Each major concentration of settlement contained at least one large urban area."[18]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants. Unknown.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Decline of the administrative system. "The causes and characteristics of the crisis were both old and new. The long-term causes (the salinisation of agricultural fields, the collapse of the network of irrigation canals, and the decline of the local administrative systems) were combined with the effects of the more recent wars, the political instability, and the invasions." [19]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Decline of the administrative system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Decline of the administrative system.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The causes and characteristics of the crisis were both old and new. The long-term causes (the salinisation of agricultural fields, the collapse of the network of irrigation canals, and the decline of the local administrative systems) were combined with the effects of the more recent wars, the political instability, and the invasions. The latter eventually led to famines and epidemics, a drastic reduction of the population, and low birth rates." [20] "Ruins of reservoirs have been discovered along with water intakes, spillways and outlets and even the sewerage systems dating as far back as the Pre-Archaemenid and Assyrian (1500-600 BC) periods." [21] Possible expert disagreement, although the later quote does not seem to be time-specific.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ "Thus, these seals, once thought to show strong continuity with earlier traditions, have been redated to the Middle Elamite phase. The final date of c.1000 BC for AIX is far from certain and it is possible that the frit seals of this style continued in use through the Neo-Elamite I period (c. 1000-725/700 BC). [22]
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier and later periods
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ "Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [23]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ "Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [24]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ "Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [25]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Present in the Ur III period [26] but not mentioned after then.
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Coded as present as the following has been found for a time frame in the region covering this polity: copper and bronze weapons found in graves [27]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Coded as present as the following has been found for a time frame in the region covering this polity:copper and bronze weapons found in graves [28]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ ‘Major categories are pear-shaped stone maceheads, copper/bronze spiked and star maces, shortswords, knives/daggers with upturned ends, iron socketed spears, and arrowheads’ [29] Hasanlu, a major city in western Iran destroyed by invaders in the 9th century BCE, was 'a centre for metal-working and a pioneer in making iron' and excavations there have uncovered an iron making furnace, and their technological advances included a steel knife [30] For the ancient state of Elam and the Zagros Mountains region there is not much data, although archaeologists have dated Iron Age Period III to 800-500 BCE.[31] Luristan borders Susiana region to the NW. Here Vanden Berghe divided the Iron Age into three periods 1000-800/750 BCE in which bronze and iron used together and 800/750-600 BCE when weapons were made from iron and ritual articles from bronze.[32]
♠ Steel ♣ ♥


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[33] This passage does not say the javelin had no role at all. The weapon may have had a secondary role. The last reference for the military use of the javelin in this region was Ur. The lament for Sumer and Ur mentions javelins in the battle for Ur c2000 BCE.[34]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Slings had been present since the Chalcolithic.[35] Before the Archaemenid king Cyrus (c600 BCE), Persian light infantry carried only the bow and sling.[36]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[37] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the 'bow' for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces.[38] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless."[39] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The effective range of the simple bow varied from 50 to 100 yards. And the arrow shot by a simple bow was unable to penetrate leather or bronze armour. The effective range of the composite bows varied between 250 and 300 yards."[40] However, the composite bow itself could not penetrate armour more than 2mm thick [all designs or just the early designs?] and was susceptible to rotting in high-moisture environments.[41] "The composite bow was a recurve bow made of wood, horn and tendons from oxen, carefully laminated together. These bows were probably invented by the nomads of the Eurasian steppe and brought into Sumer by the mercenary nomads."[42] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[43] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the 'bow' for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces.[44] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless."[45] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[46] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[47]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[48] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[49] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[50] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[51] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[52] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[53] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ ‘Major categories are pear-shaped stone maceheads, copper/bronze spiked and star maces, shortswords, knives/daggers with upturned ends, iron socketed spears, and arrowheads’ [54]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in the previous polity and axeheads found in the neighboring region of Luristan at this time.[55] The war axe evolved after the development of body and head armour. Invented by the Sumerians, the socketed penetrating axe was "one of the most devastating close-combat weapons of the Bronze and Iron ages."[56]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ ‘Major categories are pear-shaped stone maceheads, copper/bronze spiked and star maces, shortswords, knives/daggers with upturned ends, iron socketed spears, and arrowheads’ [57]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE but until c2000 BCE their use were restricted because the blade often became detached from the handle.[58] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[59] Late Bronze/Early Iron Age: shortswords.[60]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘Major categories are pear-shaped stone maceheads, copper/bronze spiked and star maces, shortswords, knives/daggers with upturned ends, iron socketed spears, and arrowheads'. [61] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[62] "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[63]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[64] Donkey herder was a profession in Akkadian (c2200 BCE) period Mesopotamia.[65] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)."[66] The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train.[67] Likely to have been used as donkeys appear to have been raised in the wider region at least since Akkadian times. It is possible they were not used frequently, however, as there were other options.
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train.[68]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured. The Archaemenids used cane: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[69]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured.
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference to shields present is during Ur III c2000 BCE.[70] Next reference for shields is the Archaemenids: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[71] Likely to be inferred present but will leave this one for an expert to confirm.
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[72]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "May Ninurta, Enlil's son, set the helmet Lion of Battle on your head, may the breastplate (?) that in the great mountains does not permit retreat be laid on your breast!"[73] In India, cuirasses or breastplates of copper, iron, silver and gold are referenced in the Vedic epic literature.[74] Breastplates are known to have been worn by early Romans[75] and the advanced Greek Cairan armour c600 BCE included the breastplate.[76] In Persia, the Archaemenids (c5th century CE?) are known to have used iron breastplates[77] - did the cavalry of the Medes (715-550 BCE), who preceded them, wear breastplates? Physical evidence for the breastplate does not appear to be common in the ancient world though there appears to be some text references. We also code present on the basis of fabric/textile breastplates which are least likely to survive in archaeological contexts. For that reason a code of suspected unknown may be best at least back to the late bronze age.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Reference for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[78] Reference for Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection.[79] Reference for 'Etruscan Rome' (400 BCE?): "bronze greaves to protect the shins and forearms of the soldier were standard items of military equipment."[80]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[81]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[82] Higher ranks in the Assyrian army (9th century CE?) wore scale armour.[83] "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[84] Coding this as scale armor.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[85] No mentioned of laminar armour up to the Medes (715-550 BCE). Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[86]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention of plate armour until the Archaemenids who used iron breastplates.[87] The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran: ‘Other major object and material categories include iron and bronze armor’.[88] Is this relevant? What was this metal armour? "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[89] Coding this as scale armor.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[90] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf in all periods. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[91] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[92] The Achaemenids (from c500 BCE?) possessed possibly the first large-scale militarised naval force[93] (one imagines largely based in the Mediterranean but presumably also some craft in the Persian Gulf) - the fleet consisted of over 600 tiremes that had 170 oarsmen and 30 fighters.[94] Have not found any earlier reference to naval operations occurring on the Persian Gulf that would require fighting ships. Did the Achaemenid fleet come out of nowhere or did it have some smaller-scale precedents in the Neo-Elamite civilization or Sumerian before that? Perhaps most unlikely before the Neo-Elamite Period.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Late Bronze, Early Iron Age: ‘Large fortresses occupied mountain spurs at strategic points, and smaller forts were built along important lines of communication’.[95] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "the fortress is too high and cannot be reached".[96] If forts were positioned on hills were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and in Elam in c1000 BCE it is likely they also were used between times, and possibly after.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[97]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam.[98] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[99] The unfinished city of Chogha Zanbil began by Elamite king Untash-napirisha (1275-1240 BCE) had a section "designated as the royal city, covers an area of c. 85 ha, lying to the east of the temenos, and protected by a rampart."[100] Later, after c500 BCE?, the Achaemenids built a long rammed mud defensive wall (the Kam Pirak).[101] Earth ramparts are a known defensive fortification c2000 BCE and c500 BCE and there is also a reference to them being used during the Elamite period. They seem to be a consistent feature of the architectural landscape over the period.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Irrigation ditches referred to frequently in late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian texts but I cannot find any in the context of a fortification.[102]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam.[103] The Achaemenids built a moat at Susa.[104] It is not much of a stretch to suggest that if moats were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and c500 BCE they also were used between times. However, since I have not yet found a reference to a moat specific to the Elamite period I will leave an expert to make the decision on if/when to code inferred present.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Elam in the Iron Age: stone wall technology used for burial chambers.[105] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone."[106]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Elam in the Iron Age: stone wall technology used for burial chambers.[107] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone."[108] Mortar existed at the time of Sumer because they also built with brick which would have required mortar. Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "Now Aratta's battlements are of green lapis lazuli, its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red, their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows."[109] During the Shutrukid Period new construction activity replaced mudbrick with glazed and baked brick (but no specific mention is made of defensive structures).[110]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No reference.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In the north-west of Persia by c800 BCE: "Double and triple stone walls, with a thickness of 3.6 m and a height of 12 m, surrounded some cities"[111] - present for that region at that time; however this is not a direct reference to the Elamite region.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. No reference to any long walls.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jenny Reddish ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ Liverani claims that in the Neo-Elamite kingdom, 'it is still possible to see a system in which the ruling king (residing in Susa) was surrounded by a series of high functionaries. These were all more or less his relatives, ruled over regions and cities, and were involved in the succession to the throne'.[112] Here, we can see that membership of the ruling family confers elite status in the form of official positions. It should be noted that Liverani sees the Neo-Elamite period as starting in the second half of the 8th century BCE,[113] so this may not be intended to apply to the 'crisis phase'. Nevertheless, the rock reliefs at Kul-e Farah (in use from the Middle Elamite through to the Neo-Elamite periods) depict an 'intricate social pyramid',[114] so I think we can infer some form of hereditary elite status in this earlier period.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Jenny Reddish ♥ EC coded these variables, making ample use of JR’s work on the Achaemenids.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “Another prerogative of the gods was to confer and protect kingship. Puzur-Insusinak spoke of “the year when Insusinak looked at him (and) gave to him the four regions” (Scheil, 1908, p. 9). It was also Insusinak who conferred kingship upon Humban-numena and the latter’s son Untas-Napirisa (König, nos. 4, no. 13), but it was Manzat who conferred it on Igi-halki (Steve, 1987, no. 2).” [115]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to Henkelman, there was very strong continuity between Elam and Achaemenid Persia, including in terms of ideology: “the Elamite state, both before and after the Assyrian wars, must have been a real Fundgrube for the emergent Persian society and culture in terms of literacy, art, craftsmanship, bureaucracy, royal ideology, military organization, trade networks, administrative mechanisms, and political structure. Persia may indeed be seen as “the heir of Elam” (not of “Media”), to quote Mario Liverani’s provocative comment on the matter (2003: 10; cf. Henkelman 2008a: 4; forthcoming a; forthcoming b).” [116] And '[t]he Achaemenid kings were no gods ... and they were not of divine origin.'[117]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Though this feast probably celebrated the community as a whole, iconographic evidence suggests that a certain emphasis was also placed on hierarchy: “Visible hierarchy was a key element. As De Waele (1972: 2-3; 1989: 34) notes, the Kul-e Farah reliefs are a panorama of an intricate social pyramid in which status is expressed by size, arrangement, closeness to the king, representation in frontal view or in profile, garments, hair-cut, and beard.” [118]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Though this feast probably celebrated the community as a whole, iconographic evidence suggests that a certain emphasis was also placed on hierarchy: “Visible hierarchy was a key element. As De Waele (1972: 2-3; 1989: 34) notes, the Kul-e Farah reliefs are a panorama of an intricate social pyramid in which status is expressed by size, arrangement, closeness to the king, representation in frontal view or in profile, garments, hair-cut, and beard.” [119]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Though this feast probably celebrated the community as a whole, iconographic evidence suggests that a certain emphasis was also placed on hierarchy: “Visible hierarchy was a key element. As De Waele (1972: 2-3; 1989: 34) notes, the Kul-e Farah reliefs are a panorama of an intricate social pyramid in which status is expressed by size, arrangement, closeness to the king, representation in frontal view or in profile, garments, hair-cut, and beard.” [120]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Ultimately, “[t]hat which is celebrated is the community that convenes and reconstitutes itself. Group identity, social hierarchy, and bonds of loyalty are reconfirmed in the sacrifice and the ensuing banquet.” [121]

♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. For commoners, “the banquets meant access to rare meat rations” [122].

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [123] [124] [125]

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