IrBuyid

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Buyid Confederation ♥ Buyid Confederation. Buyids or the Buwayhids was the dynasty who came from a people called the Daylamites. [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Daylam State; Buyid Dynasty; Buwayhids; Dailamites; Reign of the Daylam; Dawlat al-Daylam ♥ There are several alternative spellings of Daylam and Buyid which are used throughout literature. [2] [3] Reign of the Daylam; Dawlat al-Daylam. [4]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 983 CE ♥ The reign of Adud al-Duala from his take over of the Baghdad arm of the state, to his death. The Daylam state was nearly unified under one leader . Adud al-Duala was the first to term himself Shahanshah, King of Kings. [5]

"Buyid history can be chronologically divided, roughly, into two divisions. The first half-century, up to the death of Adud al-Dawla, greatest of the Buyid rulers, in 372/983, is one of growth and consolidation when the political initiative was firmly in the hands of the princes of the ruling dynasty. From that point, however, the Buyids were on the defensive, especially in Iraq and central Iran, and political initiative passed to the hands of groups of soldiers and administrators who strove to manipulate their nominal rulers in their own interests." [6]

Adud al-Dawla's "rule in Fars was something of a golden age for the province as Adud al-Dawla made it the basis for his imperial schemes and, realizingthat the prosperity of the area was fundamental to his plans, took active steps to encourage both agriculture and trade."[7]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 932-1062 CE ♥ 932 CE is the probable date of 'Ali b. Būya's capture of the town of Karaj. It was the first of the areas of land that he conquered. From this town he was able to expand to regional control, by taking Fars; then to much greater control of large areas of Iraq and Iran. [8]

The Buyid State was plagued throughout it's existence by succession battles. After the death of 'Adud al-Duala, a fight for the succession took place. Abu Kalijar managed to bring unification back again briefly, but his unexpected death led to further disintegration of the Daylam state, at which point foreign powers began to conquer areas of Daylam land. The empire diminished until in 1062 the Daylam heartland of Shīrāz was taken by the Saljuqs. [9]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ The Daylam State existed in a kind of military feudal system. The Dailamites were natural warriors and a military hierarchy had emerged which was used to rule the people under Buyid control. 'Ali b.Būya took confiscated land and gave it to his generals in lieu of payment. This system had a hereditary element.

The power system was further complicated by 'Ali b. Būya appointing his brothers as kings of areas of the empire. Rukn al-Daula ruled Isfahāhan and Ray. His coins suggest that he was sole ruler in this area since they contain only his name and the caliphs. Mu'izz al-Daula, the youngest brother, was placed in command of Buyid interests in Khūzistān, but only as a representative of 'Ali b. Būya. His coins contain his brother's name, as well as his own and the caliphs. Therefore, there existed a partially independent, partially hierarchical kingship system within the Daylam State. [10]

Furthermore, there existed the Caliphate in Baghdad. The Caliphate were considered religious leaders chosen by God to rule the Islamic world. They had political power by nature of their religious power. 'Ali b. Būya did not seek to overthrow the 'Abbāsid Calliph at Baghdad; instead he treated with him to gain recognition as viceroy, although he never paid the agreed tribute. [11] Since the Buyid dynasty was in control of Baghdad it has been suggested the the calliph were the pawns of the Buyids. [12] There continued to be several exchanges between the caliph and the ruler of the Daylam state to establish the state of power throughout the Buyid dynasty. [13]

Once 'Adud al-Daula had unified the Empire it existed as a confederated state with one ruler and was governed by a network of Buyid princes and other tribal leaders. There were also a number of vassal states which ruled themselves, though acknowledged the overlordship of the Buyids. [14]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Daylamites were foot soldiers but "a purely Daylamite army was not really effective since they had to find allies, usually Turks, sometimes Kurds, who could provide the cavalry to make a balanced fighting unit."[15]

"Marriage links were an important way of consolidating alliances and links through the female line were more important than in much of Islamic society. This was especially true in the Buyid kingdom of Rayy, where traditional Daylamite customs seem to have been less affected by Islamic norms than in Fars or Iraq."[16]

"the alliance of Buyid princes and Farsi landowners ... was to be the foundation of the Buyid state"[17]

"Buyid and Kakuyid contenders had often actually welcomed the Seljuks as a means of defeating internal enemies."[18]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Abbasid Caliphate I ♥ Origin region: "Iranian plateau where this alliance with the local civilian élite was a major source of strength for the dynasty. Only in Baghdad, with its powerful Turkish soldiers and its growing religious tensions, was there serious local resistance to their rule.[19] Core region: Fars. The Buyid period was "a golden age when Fars had been the wealthy centre of an empire."[20]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity; elite migration ♥ The ruling dynasty were from "the northern Iranian provinces of Gilam and Daylam ... Gilam was the name given to the area on the south-west shores of the Caspian Sea; Daylam was the mountainous hinterland."[21]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Seljuk Empire ♥ Seljuks overthrew the Buyids.[22]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Perso-Islamic ♥ Persian: "The area [of the Daylamite homeland] had been little affected by the coming of Islam and, like the mountain peoples of nearby Azarbayjan and the remoter parts of Khurasan, its inhabitants had never been effectively conquered by the Arabs, and there was no Arab settlement there. They remained isolated, ruled by kings who took pride in the preservation of old Iranian styles and beliefs."[23] However, the Buyids "were careful to show their attachment to Islam, even when they tried to revive ancient political glories."[24] Perso-Islamic: "the synthesis that had been developed since the early Abbasid period, bringing ancient Iranian, pre-Islamic ideas of kingship into an Islamic context. The tenth century had witnessed the heyday of this synthesis, as under ethnically Iranian dynasties like the Buyids ancient titles like shahanshah (king of kings) were revived."[25] Also, Buyids "openly favoured the Shi'ites, giving them appointments, allowing them to celebrate their festivals, paying handsome sums to Shi'ite poets and littérateurs."[26]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [3,000,000-3,500,000] ♥ km squared. Perso-Islamic: "the synthesis that had been developed since the early Abbasid period, bringing ancient Iranian, pre-Islamic ideas of kingship into an Islamic context. The tenth century had witnessed the heyday of this synthesis, as under ethnically Iranian dynasties like the Buyids ancient titles like shahanshah (king of kings) were revived."[27]

♠ Capital ♣ Baghdad; Shiraz; Isfahan ♥ Baghdad (Iraq); Shiraz (Fars); Isfahan (Khuzestan). These three cities were the capitals of the three areas of kingship of the Buyid brothers. When 'Adud al-Duala took over Mesopotamia, Shiraz became the capital, although 'Adud al-Duala never returned there and remained in Baghdad alongside the calliph. Fars continued to be the heartland of the empire, with all civil servants being drawn from there. [28]

♠ Language ♣ Persian; Arabic ♥ Persian was the mothertongue, the first Buyid rulers were probably not fluent in Arabic, but Adud al-Daula was known as an Arabic poet. [29]

General Description

The Buyid dynasty originated from Shahrud Valley in northwestern Iran. Ali b. Buya, a soldier in the Abbasid state, began taking territory by forced after being removed from his position as administrator of Karaj. By 934 CE, he had reached Fars. [30] In 945 CE the Buyids claimed Baghdad and Basra creating for themselves a stable base of power in Mesopotamia.[31]

The Buyid ruler was known as an amir or shahanshah, the latter "more a recognition of seniority within the family than an office with authority".[32] The Buyids were essentially a provincial military aristocracy with an army composed partly of Daylamite infantry and slave Turkish cavalry. The regiments of the Buyid Princes often fought one another while the central government increasingly became ineffectual. "The Buyid state was divided into several appanages, of which Shiraz and Baghdad were the most important, each held by a different member of the family."[33]

In theory the Buyid amirs were governors under the Abbasid caliph who remained in Baghdad with powers to appoint religious officials,[34] and continued to be symbolically important (in Iraq) appearing on coinage and grants of land. Although Baghdad was the most important political, economic and religious center, whose amir's chief secretary of the bureaucracy was formally granted the title of vizier[35], Fars was the heartland of the empire, with all civil servants being drawn from there.[36] The Buyids replaced previous established bureaucratic families with Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians.

The Buyids paid their military using iqta holdings whereby "in lieu of salary an amir would be granted the right to collect the taxes of a given area. An iqta could thus vary in size from a whole province to much smaller subdivision, to a single town or village." However, "Under the Buyids, this system was widely credited with economic disaster, as absentee amirs sought to reap the swiftest possible profits before their iqta was removed them."[37]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 900,000 ♥ squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ [4,500,000-5,500,000] ♥

McEvedy and Jones

Amirate of Baghdad: 2,300,000 for modern Iraqi borders. Perhaps 1,500,000? for mid-region to south in 1000 CE.
Amirate of Shiraz and Amirate of Rayy: 4,500,000 for modern Iranian borders. Minus the north and east, perhaps 3,500,000? [38]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [500,000-900,000]: 950 CE; 125,000: 1000 CE ♥ Original code: [800,000-900,000] for 950 CE. AD: the range for 950CE has been extended to reflect some lower population estimates (the difference between 950 CE and 1000 CE was otherwise too important to be explained by pillaging and extortion).

Baghdad

900 CE 900,000 [39]
c942 CE 240,000 houses, 1500 baths (200/family). Population estimates of 1 million probably too large. : 125,000 in 1000 CE. [40]
990 CE "Al Muquddasi finds Madinat al Salam (original core of Abbasid Baghdad the "Round City of Baghdad") in ruins [41]
125,000 in 1000 CE. [42]
1058 CE Al Khatib reports "area covered by houses" 5 miles across "in breadth and width" [43]
Baghdad in decline due to lack of security from pillaging and extortion: "In Buyid times, the richest people in the city were not merchants but government servants. Tax collecting, military service and the holding of iqtas rather than commerce were the main sources of wealth. Those who did make money invested it in land rather than trade. There also seems to have been a continuous emigration of wealthy families, the Banu l-Furat for example, to Egypt where prospects were much brighter."[44]
c996 CE "Baghdad was very much an island of Buyid control in a countryside dominated by powerful bedouin tribes."[45]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

1. Capital city e.g. Shiraz or Baghdad

"Rule in the mediaeval Islamic world was generally city based. The Samanids, Buyids and Ghaznavids based their rule in towns, Bukhara, Shiraz and Baghdad, and Ghazna, respectively. ... Cities frequently possessed a building called the dar al-imara, or in the case of capitals, dar al-mamlaka, which served as the governor's residence and as a physical manifestation of a ruler's authority."[46]
2. Regional capitals
3. Cities
4. Towns
5. Villages

(6) Shiraz, (5) Baghdad, (4) regional capitals, (3) cities, (2) towns, (1) villages [47] Don't know what to make of this reference. In context of Buyid's federated system Shiraz was not above Baghdad. There was no single central capital, the different kingdoms had their own central capital. Also, what do "regional capitals" mean? - ET:

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. [48] [49]

1. Amir or shahanshah

"the title of shahanshah, effectively the presidency of the confederation. ... it was more a recognition of seniority within the family than an office with authority".[50] 983 CE succession conflict
"In theory, the Buyid brothers exercised authority as governors for the Abbasid caliphs. Given their modest social origins and their position as outsiders in the Islamic world, it was vital for them to secure the approval and authority of the caliphs for their actions."[51]
2. Secretary of the amir[52]
"The viziers made appointments to the diwans or confirmed incumbents, but the secretaries of the amir also exercised this power."[53]


_Government of appanage_

"The Buyid lands formed a federation, rather than an empire. The major political units were the principalities centred on Fars, with its capital at Shiraz, al-Jibal, based on Rayy, and Iraq, including Baghdad, Basra and, very briefly, Mosul. ... Of these principalities, Fars was by far the most important... Baghdad enjoyed prestige as the centre of the caliphate and it remained a cultural and intellectual centre of great importance."[54]

"The Buyid state was divided into several large appanages, of which Shiraz and Baghdad were the most important, each held by a different member of the family."[55]

e.g. Iraq.[56]

2. wazir[57]
"Administrators in other Buwayhid centers were referred to as vizier, but there is no record of their being granted the title, for the word in reality had two meanings: the chief secretary of any petty potentate was called vizier, but the title, formally granted was reserved to the secretary of the amir at Baghdad."[58]
3. Deputy-vizier
"viziers maintained a deputy". among his duties was "overseeing the financial agents".[59]
3. al-Diwan (main office)
4.
5.
3. diwans of al-Sawad and al-Basra (Land tax)[60]
3. diwan al-jaysh (army) [61]
3. diwan al-ma'awin (security)[62]
3. diwan al-nafaqat (expenditure)[63]
3. diwan al-khizana (treasury)[64]
3. diwan al-mazalim (complaints)[65]
3. diwan al-rasa'il (chancellery)[66]
3. diwan al-barid (post)[67]

Chief judgeship. The censorship. Prefect of police.[68]

_Kakuyids_

"Much of western Iran was dominated by another Iranian family of Caspian Daylamite origin, the Kakuyids, based in Isfahan, who alternately recognised Buyid and Ghaznavid suzerainty."[69]

2. Local kingdoms
3. Local bureaucracies [70]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Caliph

"They left the caliphs in position as titular heads of state, reorganized them as the chiefs of all Sunni Muslims, conceded their right to make appointments to religious offices, and accepted the idea that their own right to make appointments to religious offices was based on caliphal recognition. The sermon at Friday prayers, government coinage, and (in Iraq) even grants of land and appointments to offices referenced the names of the caliphs. Although it was deprived of actual administrative and military power, this allowed the caliphate to mobilize the support of the Sunni population of Baghdad and to retain an important role in Baghdadi politics."[71]
Under Buyids the caliph was a religious but not administrative/military head

However, Buyids "openly favoured the Shi'ites, giving them appointments, allowing them to celebrate their festivals, paying handsome sums to Shi'ite poets and littérateurs."[72]

Religion was an interesting concept in the Buyid Dynasty. The major religion was Islam, although Christians were employed in high levels of office. [73] Amongst the Muslims; some were Sunni, some Shīīte and some Zaidites. The ruling Buyid dynasty, by descent Shīīte, seemed uninterested in installing a single religion or removing the Sunnī calliph. [74] Therefore, while the calliph was the highest religious figure in the Daylam State; he was not a personal religious figure for many of the inhabitants.

(3) calliph, (2) syndics, (1) immam [75]

1. Caliph

2. Syndics
3. Imams

♠ Military levels ♣ 8 ♥ levels. The army that the Buyid Dynasty controlled was comprised of two parts: the Dailamite infantry, of which the Buyid's were the original leaders of a force of less than one hundred men, and the Turkish cavalry. They operated their own military systems and hierarchies. In charge of them all was the Amir, protected by his own personal bodyguards, the palace retainers. The Dailamite system provides the greatest number of military levels which is the value coded. There is also documentation of another system of levels, which are thought to be the levels of development of slaves in the military. [76]

1. amir

_Dailamite infantry_

2. commander-in-chief,
3. commander
4. chief sergeant
5. sergeant
6. upper grade
7. middle grade
8. lower grade

Turkish cavalry: chief chamberlain, chamberlain, commander, sergeant, retainer

Slave training system?: chief of stables, equerry, chief messenger, procession leader, groom, cup bearer, shield bearer, stirrup holders

"The Buyid wazirs did not confine themselves to purely administrative functions. They advised on, and sometimes decided, policy and in some cases they commanded armies in their own right. The distinction between the civil and military administration which is apparent in the later phases of Abbasid government had largely disappeared."[77]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

A "military aristocracy" grew out of the success of the Dalamite conquest.[78] [79]

"The iqta had been the Buyid answer to the problem of paying the military in a period when specie was in short supply: in lieu of salary an amir would be granted the right to collect the taxes of a given area. An iqta could thus vary in size from a whole province to much smaller subdivision, to a single town or village. In principle, the iqta remained in the figt of the sultan, and could be withdrawn at any moment. Under the Buyids, this system was widely credited with economic disaster, as absentee amirs sought to reap the swiftest possible profits before their iqta was removed them."[80]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥

Soldiers were paid through a type of feudal system governed by military officers. [81]

"It has been estimated that in the early fourth/tenth century foot soldiers were being paid about six dinars a month while the cavalry received forty. This meant that the cavalry became a privileged class, anxious to preserve their position, and the conflict was made worse by the fact that the cavalry were Turks while the infantry were almost entirely Daylamites." [82]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ With power being held by those in the military profession, a system of bureaucrats was necessary to deal with the administration of the polity. [83]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Daylamites showed strong family loyalties; true, there were often disputes within the kin, but their leaders tended to think in terms of family rather than in terms of more abstract ideas of state or the Muslim community."[84]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ A sacred legal code (sharī'a) was present. [85]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Judges were semi-religious, semi-political figures. There was a heirarchy of judges: the chief judge appointed deputies in the provinces, who appointed their own deputies. [86] [87] Full-time judges seem to have been absent.

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ jurists, Shi'i legal scholars (Modaressi 1991) [88]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ A dam was built near Shīrāz which diverted the water from the rive Kūr for agricultural use. [89] Muizz al-Dawla restored irrigation ditches.[90] Adud al-Dawla "invested heavily in irrigation projects, one of which, a great dam known as the Band-i Amir, remains to this day as a testimony to his activities."[91] Qanats.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Bazaars were part of Abud al-Daula's building programme. [92]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ In an effort to establish a quick postal service, Adud al-Daula concentrated on improving the roads between Baghdad and Shīrāz. [93]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Abud al-Daula restored the bridge over the Hinduwān at Ahvaz. [94] The Amir Barrier in Fars had three purposes: join river banks (bridge), water supply for irrigation, and energy (to turn water wheels for a millstone).[95]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Rukn al-Duala's canal marked the beginning of a building renaissance at Shīrāz. [96] Adud al-Dawla restored canal network in Baghdad.[97]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Sīrāf was the most important port on the Persian Gulf. Adud al-Daula also held control of the 'Umān peninsula, which had ports that were very important for shipping. [98] Imports came through coastal cities Siraf and Najairam.[99]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Written records[100]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Written records[101]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ The Quran is the sacred text of Islam and Islam was the main religion of the Daylam state. [102]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Theologians present in society. [103] Buyids paid "handsome sums to Shi'ite poets and littérateurs."[104] "al-Daula financed considerable scientific, medical, and Islamic religious research." [105]
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Philologist present at court. [106]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Philosophers were present in society; therefore, in a society with a significant written record, it can be inferred that they wrote down their philosophy. [107]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Hospital built in Baghdad became centre for medical research and scholarship. [108] Mathematicians: "Abūl Wafā' Būzjānī (d. 998) and Omar Khayyám (d. 1122) who conveyed, in so-called conversazioni, their knowledge to architects and artisans committed to building and decorating the religious and secular buildings." [109] "al-Daula financed considerable scientific, medical, and Islamic religious research." [110]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ There were poets at court, including 'Adud al-Daula. [111] Buyids paid "handsome sums to Shi'ite poets and littérateurs."[112]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Payment in kind of taxes.[113]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The few ninth and tenth century hoards of precious coin recovered in Bilad al-Sham reveal the continuing unified nature of the monetary system in the Islamic world, even though political unity was lost with the progressive disintegration of the Abbasid caliphate."[114] Bilad al-Sham is in Syria and not within the region occupied by the Buyids; however Buyid coins are well represented in coin hoards found here.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ [115] government coinage. [116] Striking of coinage was one of the institutions of Islamic statehood.[117]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "In an effort to establish a quick postal service, Adud al-Daula concentrated on improving the roads between Baghdad and Shīrāz." [118] a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [119]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ "In an effort to establish a quick postal service, Adud al-Daula concentrated on improving the roads between Baghdad and Shīrāz." [120] The barid "post and intelligence service that had been established by the early Abbasids, and which allowed the caliphal government to keep tabs on its most far-flung provinces ... was used by both the Buyids and the Ghaznavids".[121] "Under the Buyids rapid and efficient service was established first between Baghdad and Ray, then between Baghdad and Shiraz, with couriers arriving in the capital daily (Ebn Jawzī, VI, p. 341; Helāl Ṣābeʾ, p. 18; cf. Busse, p. 311)."[122]
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ unknown. "In an effort to establish a quick postal service, Adud al-Daula concentrated on improving the roads between Baghdad and Shīrāz." [123] Was this a general postal service or one just for the government? a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [124]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Present in Caliphate armies.[125]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Present in Caliphate armies.[126]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ In the Ghaznavid armies there were "Daylamite infantrymen, who fought with their characteristic weapons of the spear and javelin".[127] Each man was equipped with three spears. [128]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Abbasid era poem about a siege mentions "the evil man that loads the sling". [129] This could also refer to a siege engine.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Under the Abbasids, 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [130] More powerful composite bow likely used at the expense of the self bow.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Under the Abbasids, 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [131] The Turks provided mounted archers to the Buyid army.[132]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Abbasids had crossbows.[133]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Ibn al-'Amīd was a famous siege engine designer [134]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Abbasids had the manjaniq, a swing beam engine similiar to the Western Trebuchet. [135] Manjaniq was man-powered not gravity powered? [136] First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[137]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[138] Sassanids[139] and Abbasid Caliphate[140] had war clubs or maces.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[141] Sassanids[142] and Abbasids[143] had battle axes.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[144] Abbasids[145] had daggers.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Buyids had swords. [146] Broadswords and short-swords.[147]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Each man was equipped with three spears. [148] -- are these thrown spears? this variable is for handheld spears, such as a lance.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Long pikes may have been present, as they were under the earlier Abbasids.[149]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ "Adud al-Daula agreed to leave the Baloch if every family would furnish him with a dog. After the Baloch sent him the dogs, these were sent back with burning naphtha on their necks. In the mayhem that followed the burning dogs, the army entered the valley from the narrow pass and massacred the Baloch. With the use of this innovative tactic, he was able to burn the whole settlement of the Baloch and annihilate the population."[150]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ The Buyids employed the Turks to be their cavalry. [151]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Daylamites were infantry warriors and had to hire their cavalry. Likely did not have access to camels or use camel warriors. May have been used as pack animals as camels were present for postal duty: "A network of camel stations was established under the Abbasids and continued under the Buyid and Samanid successor regimes."[152]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ A book called 'War Elephants' (Nossov and Nossov 2012) lists Buyids in the index. Needs checking. "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times. Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all." [153]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[154] Used for shields by the preceding Abbasids[155] and the Buyids used shields.[156]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[157] Used for shields by the preceding Abbasids[158] and the Buyids used shields. [159]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Buyids used shields. [160]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[161] The Sassanids[162] wore helmets as did the Abbasids. [163]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[164] Sassanid cavalrymen wore a breastplate[165] and evidence that Abbasids had breastplates. [166]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[167] Sassanids[168] and Abbasids used limb protection.[169]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[170] The Sassanids[171] used chainmail and so did the Abbasids. "The early Islamic sources treat the coast of mail as a standard piece of military equipment."[172]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[173] The Sassanids[174] had scale armour as did the Abbasids.[175]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[176] Samanid period bowls show mounted warriors wearing lamellar armor [177] and the Abbasids likely used lamellar e.g. for leg protection.[178]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[179] Unknown? if Sassanids used plate armour, whilst absent for the Abbasids.[180]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Likely in Persian Gulf to protect sea trade.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Abbasids used spiked wooden barriers.[181]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Earth ramparts were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Ditches were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Moats were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ There was a city wall at Medina, built to protect against Qarmatis. There was also a walled citadel in Shīrāz. [182]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ around Baghdad?
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ General reference, not sure how academic, and not sure which period, but which states as a whole what I’ve read in fragments elsewhere: "The caliphs were limited in power by the Quran, which they should have followed, as it directed all of their actions ... Moreover, the caliphs were limited in their actions by the Ulema, the special class of religious specialists, including Islamic lawyers, judges, and scholars. These so-called narrators of the Quran had effectively limited the powers of the caliphs by claiming the supremacy of their powers over the caliphs. ... Moreover, as the caliphs were not considered to be rightful and just rulers, strictly following the Quran, the Sunni Islamic lawyers stipulated that on these occasions, the Umma had the right to disobey, impeach, or remove such rulers by all possible means, including revolutionary ones. That stipulation highlighted the nature of the caliphs as only temporary rulers subject to the Quran (the Ulema would explain any issues in the people's lives that were missing from the Quran)."[183]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [184]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [185]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[186]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[187]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[188]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [189] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [190]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [191]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [192] [193] [194]

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