IrAkKoy

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Ak Koyunlu ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Aq Qoyunlu; White Sheep ♥ Aq Qoyunlu; White Sheep. [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1453-1478 CE ♥

Under Qara Otman 1398 CE the Ak Koyunlu gained more territory, support from more tribes, better relations with Christian sedentary peoples, and he "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type."[2]

"The Āq Qoyunlu empire reached its zenith under Uzun Ḥasan. He was the first of their rulers to declare himself an independent sultan".[3] r. c1453-1478 CE.

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1339-1501 CE ♥

Start 1339 CE.

First Ak Koyunlu leader mentioned in "mutually independent sources" Tur-Ali b. Pahlavan. [4]

End 1501 CE

The Ak Koyunlu "ruled in eastern Anatolia and western Iran until the Safavid conquest in 1501."[5]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state; loose ♥

The Ak Koyunlu were "a confederation of Turkman tribes".[6] "Their political organization was loose."[7]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Allied with Timur[8] and the Venetians.[9]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kara Koyunlu ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ population migration ♥ "Amplifying the earlier view of Minorsky, Sümer notes the eastward reflux from Anatolia of the Mongol Oirot, Jalayir, and Süldüz after 1335/736 in addition to the three Turkmen "waves" composed of the Qaraquyunlu, the Aqquyunlu, and the Safavid Qizilbash that swept out of Anatolia over Iran in the fifteenth/ninth and sixteenth/ tenth centuries. In any case, these later demographic changes differed from the earlier Turkic and Mongol invasions of the Islamic lands from Central Asia in that they essentially involved the relocation or reshuffling of existing elements into new political configurations as distinct from the overlaying of an indigenous population by entirely new peoples." [10]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Safavid Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Amed; Tabriz ♥ Timur gave the city of Amed to the Ak Koyunlu "which was to be their capital for almost seventy years."[11] "At Aleppo, the Aqquyunlu so distinguished themselves in battle that Timur allegedly rewarded Ibrahim, Qara 'Usman's eldest son, with the city of Amid, held by Timur since its capture from al-Zahir 'Isa~Artuqi in 1394/796. This is the first reference to Aqquyunlu control of that city, which remained capital of the Principality until Uzun Hasan's conquests of 1467-69/872-74, when it was replaced by Tabriz." [12] "summer pastures (yeylāq) in Armenia around Sinir, east of Bayburt, and winter pastures (qešlāq) around Kiḡi, Palu, and Ergani in Dīār Bakr."[13]

♠ Language ♣ Persian ♥ "The Qaraquyunlu and Aqquyunlu tribal entities which succeeded the Timurids on the region’s political scene pursued a similarly inclusive 'project': Islam was their religion, their tribal military levies were Turks, their administrators were Tajiks and their cultural discourse was Persian."[14]

General Description

The Ak Koyunlu were a loose confederation of nomadic Turkman tribes that ruled in Iran between 1339-1501 CE.[15] They formed an alliance with the Timurid Emirate (1370-1526 CE) until Uzun Hasan (r. c1453-1478 CE) declared himself an independent sultan.[16] Their rule was ended by the Safavids in 1501 CE.[17]

The initial Ak Koyunlu government system was not complex; the sultan, a member of the Bayandor clan, was the head of a confederation[18] and obliged to attend and abide by the decisions of a powerful council of Amirs (kengac) and tribal chiefs (boy kanlari). This collective "determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate".[19] However, by Qara Otman (c1398 CE) the Ak Koyunlu had gained "at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type."[20] in addition to support from more tribes, and better relations with Christian sedentary people.

In the second half of the fifthteenth century, the complexity of state institutions increased another step with the conquest of eastern Iran.[21] Uzun Hasan maintained the existing administrative system as well as their officials.[22] Woods (1998) notes that there is evidence of an attempt to standardize and regularize administrative and financial procedures.[23]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,800,000: 1500 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

1770270.90 estimate calculated using Google Maps area calculator with the following result, based on Wells 1998's map. [24]


♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Amed was their capital for almost seventy years.[25]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels.

Towns and villages.[26]

Provincial capitals: "The structure of the central administrative council was probably mirrored on a smaller scale in the provincial council of the princely appanages(huku­ mat, iyalat, ulka, saltanat) and the military governorships (darughagi, hukumat, iyalat). Though ulka is not, strictly speaking, a technical term for princely appanage during the Turkmen period as previously discussed, the word frequently occurs in conjunction with the term khurish, a fixed share of provincial revenues allotted to a royal prince for his upkeep. The appanage-holding prince theoretically may have been immune from interference by the central authorities, but the inhabitants could nevertheless refer their grievances against the actions of a royal prince to the sultan.65 Minor princes were usually accompanied to their appanages by their guardians, representing either the confederates or the warband, who then became chiefs of staff of the provincial councils and garrison commanders of the provincial capitals." [27]

1. Capital. Amid until 1467-1469 when it was replaced by Tabriz.

2. Provincial capitals
3. Villages
4. Hamlets

"At Aleppo, the Aqquyunlu so distinguished themselves in battle that Timur allegedly rewarded Ibrahim, Qara 'Usman's eldest son, with the city of Amid, held by Timur since its capture from al-Zahir 'Isa~Artuqi in 1394/796. This is the first reference to Aqquyunlu control of that city, which remained capital of the Principality until Uzun Hasan's conquests of 1467-69/872-74, when it was replaced by Tabriz." [28]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3: 1339-1398 CE; 4: 1339-1470 CE; 5: 1471-1501 CE ♥ levels.

_1339-1398 CE_

1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)

"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan".[29]

1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.

"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan."[30]
2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns
"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army".[31]

_1398-1471 CE_

1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)

"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan".[32]

_Central government_

1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.

"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan."[33]
2. Head of bureaucracy
Qara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type."[34]
3. Department within bureaucracy inferred
4. Scribe inferred


_Provincial government_

2. Amir / Tribal chief
3. Military officer in villages and towns
"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army".[35]


_1471-1501 CE (conquest of Iran)_

Conquest of Iran shifted Ak Koyunlu core to the east and "Iranian influences were soon brought to bear on their method of government and their culture."[36]


1. Head of Confederation (Sultan)

"The confederation (il or ulus) was led by members of the Bayandor (Bāyandor) clan".[37]


_Central government_

1. Council of Amirs and tribal chiefs.

"The highest decision-making authority was a council (kengač) of amirs and tribal chiefs (boy ḵānları) who determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate; the council’s decisions were binding on the sultan."[38]
2. Vizier of the divan[39]
"In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations"[40]
3. Department within bureaucracy
3. Sadr head of "religious dignitaries"[41]
4.
5.
"In the Iranian provinces, Uzun Ḥasan maintained the preexisting administrative system along with its officials, whose families had in some cases served under different dynasties for several generations"[42]


_Provincial government_

2. Amir / Tribal chief
2. Governor
There was a governor of Shiraz.[43]
3. Military officer in villages and towns
"Military and political control of the adjacent villages and towns, necessary for the safety of the pasturage, was maintained by the army".[44]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels. AD: coded as a range to reflect various possibilities in the following (tentative) hierarchy:

1. Head of Safawiya Shi'ite order at Ardabil

2. ?
3. Local imam

"The Qaraquyunlu and Aqquyunlu tribal entities which succeeded the Timurids on the region’s political scene pursued a similarly inclusive 'project': Islam was their religion, their tribal military levies were Turks, their administrators were Tajiks and their cultural discourse was Persian."[45]

Uzun Hasan r. c1453-1478 CE funded religious activities.[46]

Uzun Hasan married a daughter to the head of the Safawiya Shi'ite order at Ardabīl. "The argument that there was a clear-cut contrast between the Sunnism of the Āq Qoyunlu and the Shiʿism of the Qara Qoyunlu and the Ṣafawiya rests mainly on later Safavid sources and must be considered doubtful."[47]

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

"On parade, the Aq Qoyunlu Turkman troops were drawn up in the Turco-Mongol fashion of right wing, left wing, and center (sag wa sol wa manqalay)."[48] Does this suggest, also like the Mongols, they used the decimal chain-of-command?


1. Sultan

2. Chief of Personal Guard (kawass) inferred
"the sultan maintained a force of paid personal guards (ḵawāṣṣ) who were recruited from several different nomadic and semi-nomadic groups."[49]
3. Soldier in Personal Guard
2. amīr-e noʾīn (commander) 10,000s?
The top commanders were called amīr-e noʾīn (Mongolian noyan “master, lord”),
3. 1,000s?
"one group of the rank-and-file was called nowkars (Mongolian nökär “companion”)"[50]
4. 100s?
"the term for smaller, component units of the army (in the Timurid army, for a mere company of 50 to 100 men) was qošūn (Mongolian k/qošiḡun)"[51]
5. 10s?
6. Soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥

"the sultan maintained a force of paid personal guards (ḵawāṣṣ) who were recruited from several different nomadic and semi-nomadic groups."[52] This includes the chief of personal guard (kawass).

"land grant system practiced since Saljuq times" (Iqta system) used to pay soldiers. [53]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥

"the sultan maintained a force of paid personal guards (ḵawaṣṣ) who were recruited from several different nomadic and semi-nomadic groups."[54]

"land grant system practiced since Saljuq times" (Iqta system) used to pay soldiers. [55]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent: 1339-1397 CE; inferred present: 1398-1501 CE ♥ Qara Otman 1398 CE "had at his command at least a rudimentary bureaucratic apparatus of the Iranian-Islamic type."[56]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Simultaneously with and probably in response to this development, the central bureaucratic apparatus staffed by Iranian urban notables, many of whom had served the Qaraquyunlu Turkmens and the Timurids before the Aqquyunlu conquests, also underwent tremendous expansion and elaboration. Representatives of such important local Iranian families as the Kujuji of Azarbayjan, the Savaji of Persian Iraq, the Sa'idi of Persian Iraq and Fars, the Daylami of Persian Iraq and Gilan, and the Bayhaqi of Khurasan were appointed to supervise the administrative, fiscal, and religious affairs of the government. There is also evidence of an attempt to standardize and regularize the administrative and financial procedures in this period." [57] Implies that administrative positions were given to members of elite families.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Simultaneously with and probably in response to this development, the central bureaucratic apparatus staffed by Iranian urban notables, many of whom had served the Qaraquyunlu Turkmens and the Timurids before the Aqquyunlu conquests, also underwent tremendous expansion and elaboration. Representatives of such important local Iranian families as the Kujuji of Azarbayjan, the Savaji of Persian Iraq, the Sa'idi of Persian Iraq and Fars, the Daylami of Persian Iraq and Gilan, and the Bayhaqi of Khurasan were appointed to supervise the administrative, fiscal, and religious affairs of the government. There is also evidence of an attempt to standardize and regularize the administrative and financial procedures in this period." [58] Implies that administrative positions were given to members of elite families.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Indigenous coins are present, which implies the presence of mints.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥

Qazi Isa "pleaded the desirability of replacing Mongol law (yasa) with Islamic law (šarīʿa) when he abolished the tamḡā (excise on merchandise)".[59]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥ present in the Timurid period.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ present in the Timurid period.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "The revenue of the Aq Qoyunlu came from taxes and dues levied on the sedentary population of Armenians, Kurds, and Arabs, as well as tolls collected along the main trade routes through eastern Anatolia."[60] General reference for Seljuk? - Safavid? time period: "The bāzār was usually, though not always, divided into a number of sūqs (markets) in which different crafts and occupations had separate quarters. At night, after members of the crafts and shopkeepers had shut their premises and retired to their homes, the gates of the bāzārs were locked and barred."[61] Grand Bazaar of Isfahan first built in the Seljuk period. "There are abundant material remains and other nonwritten sources for the Aq-quyunlu period. Metin Sözen has catalogued nearly one hundred Aqquyunlu architectural structures in almost thirty locales in Anatolia alone. These buildings include mosques, madrasas, tombs, hospices, markets, caravanserais, baths, bridges, fountains, palaces, and fortifications. Unfortunately, no similar work exists for these monuments constructed in Iran during the imperial period, many of which have now disappeared." [62]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "The revenue of the Aq Qoyunlu came from taxes and dues levied on the sedentary population of Armenians, Kurds, and Arabs, as well as tolls collected along the main trade routes through eastern Anatolia."[63]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ "There are abundant material remains and other nonwritten sources for the Aq-quyunlu period. Metin Sozen has catalogued nearly one hundred Aqquyunlu architectural structures in almost thirty locales in Anatolia alone. These buildings include mosques, madrasas, tombs, hospices, markets, caravanserais, baths, bridges, fountains, palaces, and fortifications. Unfortunately, no similar work exists for these monuments constructed in Iran during the imperial period, many of which have now disappeared." [64]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ "Public works such as seminaries, hostels, markets, warehouses, baths, and canals are also mentioned in the narrative sources, all of which attest to the flourishing condition of the Aqquyunlu capital." [65] Not necessarily transport canal, could be irrigation canal.
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "cultural discourse was Persian."[66]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ "cultural discourse was Persian."[67]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ "cultural discourse was Persian."[68]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier periods
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "Uzun Hasan patronised religious structures, encouraged religious endowments and students, including Tajik sayyids, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (d. 632), and patronised the arts and sciences".[69] "theologian and philosopher Jalal al-Din Davani (d. 1503)".[70]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ In the 11th century and after "the genre of writing treatises on statecraft in Persian develops, such treatises usually containing advice on the organizing of armies and on the art of war."[71]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ "cultural discourse was Persian."[72]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "cultural discourse was Persian."[73] "theologian and philosopher Jalal al-Din Davani (d. 1503)".[74]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "Uzun Hasan patronised religious structures, encouraged religious endowments and students, including Tajik sayyids, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (d. 632), and patronised the arts and sciences".[75]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Uzun Hasan "patronised the arts and sciences".[76] "The great Persian Sunni Naqshbandi Sufi poet Jami (d. 1492)".[77]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ " Despite the appearance in Cairo in August 1434/Muharram 838 of an Aqquyunlu envoy with a few token coins minted in al-Ashraf Barsbay's name, the news of the resumption of Aqquyunlu raids on the Euphrates salient in conjunction with another Timurid thrust into Azarbayjan bespoke the complete failure of al-Ashraf Barsbay's vendetta against Qara 'Usman." [78]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "However, this ancestral title is well established by the time of Qara 'Usman whose coins bear traditional Bayandur arms or tamgha (see figures 5 and 13)." [79]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "Members of the warband regularly filled important posts in the sultan's : "outer service" (birun) or ministry of court (darbar), such as the positions of chamberlain (qapuchi, eshik-aqasi),37 keeper of the seal (muhrdar), and equerry (amirakhur). They were also frequently appointed guardians (lala) to the royal princes38 and commanders (darugha) of royal garrisons in urban centers). In addition, a host of nonmilitary, non administrative service personnel including falconers, cooks, librarians, musicians, armorers, couriers, messengers, post riders, and heralds were attached to the court and thus technically considered part of the royal bodyguard." [80]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ possibly inherited from the Timurids.
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [81]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ "This type of shield was characteristic of the cavalry of the Ak Koyunlu. It had a high steel boss and, in battle, was generally strapped to the wearer's left arm."[82]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[83]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapons.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[84]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Archers. [85] Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword.[86]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[87]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[88]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent: 1400 CE; present: 1500 CE ♥ "Towards the end of the fifteenth century the Aq Qoyunlu used captured Ottoman cannons, as well as having some locally cast ones for sieges."[89]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent: 1339-1472 CE; present: 1473-1501 CE ♥ The Ottomans "drove their rivals - the Ak Koyunlu and the Safavids in Persia, and the Mamluks in Egypt" to import firearms from Europe.[90] Venetians allies shipped firearms in 1473 CE[91] but do not know if they were used in battle. The Ak Koyunlu military's "weakness was its lack of firearms"[92] but that does not mean they had no fire arms at all, as the shipment of firearms from the Venetians demonstrates. Bosworth, referring to a battle near Terǰān 1473 CE against the Ottomans, says "One significant aspect of Āq Qoyunlu military organization is their use of firearms."[93] "The sultan’s personal guard (nowkarān-e ḵāṣṣa, bōy-e nūkarān, īnāqān) had handguns" later 15th century.[94]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[95] Ak Koyunlu armies had infantry and auxiliaries.[96] Islamic infantry of the period used maces and pole-arm weapons.[97]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[98]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities were bow and arrow, sword, shield, javelin, dagger, club, axe, catapult and arrade."[99]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "Islamic swords usually straight until 11th century when Turkish cavalry sabres started to be used."[100] Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword.[101]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword.[102]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Ak Koyunlu armies had infantry and auxiliaries.[103] Islamic infantry of the period used maces and pole-arm weapons.[104]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Available in the region and could have been used as a pack animal.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry was the most important force in the Ak Koyunlu army.[105] Islamic armies of the period used a lot of horse archers, as well as cavalry with lance and sword.[106] "Many of these 'Turcomans' were probably Islamised and Turkified Mongols. These tribesmen appear almost completely to have continued the military tradition sof the Mongols, that is, the army was composed primarily of masses of disciplined light cavalry. ... The Turcoman armies, however, were smaller than their Mongol predecessers."[107]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Available in the region and could have been used as a pack animal.
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all."[108]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul."[109] "This type of shield was characteristic of the cavalry of the Ak Koyunlu. It had a high steel boss and, in battle, was generally strapped to the wearer's left arm."[110]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Between the 11th and 16th centuries, the weapons and armour of the Islamic world ... mail coat (a dir or zirh) ... Islamic helmets were most often conical, egg- or turban-shaped, and of metal or organic material."[111]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul."[112] "This mail and plate armour is characteristic of the Ak Koyunlu Turkoman".[113]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul."[114] "This mail and plate armour is characteristic of the Ak Koyunlu Turkoman".[115]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "The Ak Koyunlu were the natural enemies of the Ottomans who, however, unwittingly aided the preservation of samples of their armour and weaponry by capturing the entire Ak Koyunlu baggage train at the battle of Otluk Beli in 1473. This equipment was shifted to the armoury of St. Irene in Istanbul."[116] "This mail and plate armour is characteristic of the Ak Koyunlu Turkoman".[117]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India. Aq Qoyunlu vessels plied such waters, but whether any could be regarded as warships to suppress the endemic piracy of the Gulf is again unknown."[118] "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities ... Principalities with an outlet on the sea are believed to have had small naval forces."[119]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India. Aq Qoyunlu vessels plied such waters, but whether any could be regarded as warships to suppress the endemic piracy of the Gulf is again unknown."[120] "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities ... Principalities with an outlet on the sea are believed to have had small naval forces."[121]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ "A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India. Aq Qoyunlu vessels plied such waters, but whether any could be regarded as warships to suppress the endemic piracy of the Gulf is again unknown."[122] "The weapons used in the military forces of the Anatolian Principalities ... Principalities with an outlet on the sea are believed to have had small naval forces."[123]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ "A perhaps unexpected role that fell to Turcomans who had risen to power in the mountains of Anatolia, far from the sea, was to garrison forts along the Arabian Gulf coast to protect the rich trading links with India."[124]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Citadel on the ridge above Urfa had a moat and was held by the Ak Koyunlu: "The Mamelukes tended to use smaller stones, while the Ak Koyunlu Uzun Hasan in his rebuilding campaign of 1462-63 imitated the original masonry."[125]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Citadel on the ridge above Urfa had stone walls: "The Mamelukes tended to use smaller stones, while the Ak Koyunlu Uzun Hasan in his rebuilding campaign of 1462-63 imitated the original masonry."[126]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Citadel on the ridge above Urfa had stone walls: "The Mamelukes tended to use smaller stones, while the Ak Koyunlu Uzun Hasan in his rebuilding campaign of 1462-63 imitated the original masonry."[127]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ hereditary within a clan The initial Ak Koyunlu government system was not complex; the sultan, a member of the Bayandor clan, was the head of a confederation and obliged to attend and abide by the decisions of a powerful council of Amirs (kengac) and tribal chiefs (boy kanlari). This collective "determined military matters and the recurrent issue of succession to the sultanate".[128]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Following the execution of the "last universally accepted 'Abbasic caliph" in 1258/656, "various forms of sacral sovereignty and legitimacy were the only means available to post-Mongol Muslim warlords to endow their regimes with the trappings of legality" [129] According to this new "sacral model of rule", "the king or worldly ruler (sultan, padshah) is chosen directly by God, who makes him the repository of sovereignty on earth, raising him above the rest of humanity and endowing him with the charisma of universal rule (ta'yidh-i ilahi, 'divine support', farr, qut, ughur)." [130]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [131]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ [present; absent] ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[132] However, following the execution of the "last universally accepted 'Abbasic caliph" in 1258/656, "various forms of sacral sovereignty and legitimacy were the only means available to post-Mongol Muslim warlords to endow their regimes with the trappings of legality" [133] According to this new "sacral model of rule", "the king or worldly ruler (sultan, padshah) is chosen directly by God, who makes him the repository of sovereignty on earth, raising him above the rest of humanity and endowing him with the charisma of universal rule (ta'yidh-i ilahi, 'divine support', farr, qut, ughur)." [134] Moreover, nomads (particularly the military "Turkic" elite) were seen as superior to sedentists (particularly the urban 'Tajik' elite of eastern Anatolia and Iran): "this social and political cleavage received ideological sanction through the regime's official exaltation of pastoralism and parallel depreciation of sedentary life. Dwelling in cities was already forbidden in the Yasa of Changiz Khan, and this notion is echoed in a dictum attributed to Qara 'Usman, founder of the Aqquyunlu Principality, who continually advised his sons, 'Do not become sedentary, for sovereignty resides in those who practice the nomadic Turkmen way of life.' During the Empire Period at the end of the fifteenth/ninth century, this principle was reiterated by Khunji-Isfahani, a court historian of the Qara 'Usman's great grandson Ya'qub b. Uzun Hasan. He first praised the members of the Bayadur family for their origins in the open spaces (sahari) of their summer and winter encampment (yaylaqat va qishlaqat) and for not settling in 'filthy cities and perverse towns' (mudun-i khabisa va... bilad-i fasida) where they woud have been corrupted by associating with the depraved and witnessing their despicable actions. He later provides a Qur'anic justification for their maintenance of nomadic practices by quoting Surah 106 on the summer and winter movements of the Quraysh - another example of the common tendency during this phase of substituting Islamic legitimizing principles for pagan steppe traditions. Elsewhere, he rails against the sedentarization - and hence devitalization - of the army and the transformation of some of its leaders into agrarian warlords." [135]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[136] However, following the execution of the "last universally accepted 'Abbasic caliph" in 1258/656, "various forms of sacral sovereignty and legitimacy were the only means available to post-Mongol Muslim warlords to endow their regimes with the trappings of legality" [137] According to this new "sacral model of rule", "the king or worldly ruler (sultan, padshah) is chosen directly by God, who makes him the repository of sovereignty on earth, raising him above the rest of humanity and endowing him with the charisma of universal rule (ta'yidh-i ilahi, 'divine support', farr, qut, ughur)." [138]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[139]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [140] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [141]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [142]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [143] [144] [145]

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