IrAchae

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jenny Reddish; Dan Hoyer ♥ These codes were developed at Seshat General Workshop in Oxford 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Achaemenid Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Persia; Persian Empire ♥ "Iran (from Airyanam, genitive plural adjective of Airya-), 'the land of the Aryans' ... western Iran became Media and souther Iran Parsa/Persia."[1] "The Archaemenids did not - could not - provide a name for their multinational state. Nevertheless, they referred to it as Khshassa, 'the Empire.'"[2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 500 BCE ♥ [3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 550-331 BCE ♥ [4]

Cyrus II was "heir to both the Median and Persian thrones. In 550 BCE, Cyrus rose up against his despotic grandfather and overthrew him. From a contemporary document known as the Nabunaid Chronicle and the testimony of Herodotus we learn that, dissatisfied with Astyages, the Media aristocracy, led by a military commander named Harpagus, joined Cyrus and accepted him as the legitimate heir to the throne. This established the Achaemenid - of the first Persian - Empire, in which the Medes shared the status of ruling people with the Persians, so much so indeed that the Greeks frequently called the Persians 'Medes' and coined the term 'Medizing' to denote 'pro-Persian policy' or 'Persian partisan'."[5]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state; confederate state ♥

Loose federation with irregular taxation under Cyrus and Cambyses with automomous satrapies. Relied on non-Persian officials and existing institutions.[6]

After Darius put down rebellions he created the 'world empire'[7] but under this system regions were still autonomous, the improvement was fixed system of tax collection based on surveys[8] and an inspection regime.

Centralization occurred at the satrap level such as with codification of laws, and coinage. Before Darius trade was in barter or Lydian gold coins. Satraps could coin money but only King of Kings could coin in gold.[9] Darius I developed a national script (Old Persian cuneiform)[10] but seems to have been ceremonial and used by Persians, in satraps local languages used.

"Prior to the Parthians, political systems in Southwest Asia were for the most part relatively loose confederations in which central government ruled their 'empires' through unstable alliances with vassals and satraps. Even Hammurabi, Darius, and Alexander were only temporarily successful in linking their centralized governments to local administrative institutions, particularly outside of the core areas of Greater Mesopotamia."[11]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Median Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Between 553 and 550 BCE, Cyrus the Great rebelled against Median control and re-established the independence of Persia. He took control of the area of Elam and Susa and eventually the whole of the Median empire. [12]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Macedonian Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Persian ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [2,500,000-3,000,000] ♥ km squared. Area that includes parts of modern day Turkey, Levant, Iraq, Iran, Caucasus, Transoxania and Afghanistan.

♠ Capital ♣ Pasargadae; Susa ♥ [Pasargadae: 550-521 BCE; Susa: 521-330 BCE]

Susa was the administrative capital. Persepolis was the ceremonial and religious center. Ecbatanna were commercial, strategic and provincial centers.[13]

Susa was the administrative capital, probably from Darius I. [14]

Pasargade was the capital under Cyrus the Great. Thereafter it was used as a ceremonial centre for the coronation of the Achaemenid king. [15] 135 km to northeast of Shiraz.[16]

Persepolis never played an important role in the governments of the empire. It was a ritual centre.[17][18]

Ecbatana and Babylon were strategic and commercial cities. [19]

The actual residence of the king varied between the seasons. Ecbatana was a summer resort, Persepolis was typical for the autumn season, and either at Susa or Babylon over the winter.[20]

Cyrus II moved the capital to Susa after he unified Elam in 559 BCE. [21]

Susa was the main capital. [22]

♠ Language ♣ Old Persian; Aramaic; Elamite; Greek; Egyptian ♥ 'The Persians of the Achaemenid period spoke an early form of Persian - "Old Persian" - a member of the Indo-European language family'.[23] Aramaic used for imperial documents and diplomatic correspondence.[24] Elamite, Babylonian, Aramaic, hieroglyphic Egyotian, Greek all used in royal and provincial chancelleries. Old Persian cuneiform script, from Darius, also used as official language and this was used for ceremonial inscriptions.[25]

General Description

The Achaemenid Empire was established by Cyrus II 'the Great', who inherited the small kingdom of Persia (named after the capital city, Persis) in southwest Iran, a vassal territory of the larger Median Empire to the Northwest. From 553 to 550 BCE, Cyrus led his fellow Persians against Median hegemony (even though the Medes were ruled by his own relatives), establishing the Persians as the dominant group in Iran. His kingdom became known as the Achaemenid Empire after the legendary first King of Persia, Achaemenes, claimed to be an ancestor of the Great Cyrus himself (Achaemenid essentially translates to 'children of Achaemenes').[26]
Capitalizing on these early victories, Cyrus II the Great continued his military domination, conquering the wealthy Lydian Kingdom in modern-day Turkey along with most of Asia Minor and the Neo-Babylonian Kingdom in Mesopotamia, as well as consolidating Persia's hold over much of central Asia as far as modern Pakistan. His son and heir, Cambyses II, continued this tradition, expanding Achaemenid rule into the large and wealthy kingdom of Egypt. After Cambyses II's death in 522 BCE, a noble Persian named Darius came to power after overthrowing an alleged usurper to the throne (Gautama, supposedly posing as Cyrus II's son Bardiya, more commonly known by his Greek name Smerdis).[27] Darius I, who also took the title of 'the Great', was a powerful ruler who inaugurated several military, administrative, and economic reforms,[28] though is most well known for leading the Persian army to defeat at the hands of a coalition of small Greek city-states during the famous Persian Wars of the early 5th century BCE. Despite the fact that Darius' son and heir Xerxes I (the Great) also failed to conquer the Greek Aegean and lost a decisive battle to the same outnumbered coalition of Greeks, the Achaemenid Empire remained intact.[29]
In 330 BCE, Darius III became the twelfth and final emperor in the Achaemenid line when he succumbed to the conquests of Alexander the Great and his invading Macedonian army (twelfth not including the alleged usurper Bardiya/Smerdis nor the short-lived Artaxerxes V, who declared himself emperor for a brief moment after Darius III was killed as Alexander was completing his conquest).[30] Alexander became the ruler of all the territory formerly held by the Persians, incorporating it into the massive, though short-lived, Macedonian Empire and bringing an end to the great Persian Achaemenid Empire.

Population and political organization

The Achaemenid Empire was one of the largest empires in the pre-modern world, stretching nearly 6 million square kilometres across the Near East, Central Asia, the Indus Valley, Middle East, and into Egypt at its greatest extent.[31] It was a massive, multi-ethnic society made up of Medes, Persians, Lydians, Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians, Bactrians, Sogdians, and numerous other cultural-ethnic groups; indeed, Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian, Aramaic, hieroglyphic Egyptian, and Greek were all used in royal and provincial communication.[32] Between the Great rulers Cyrus II, Cambyses II, and Darius I, the Persians had stitched together an empire out of the centres of the oldest civilizations from Anatolia to Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus valley. Persepolis and the grand Pasargadae were large ceremonial and ritual centres in the heartland of Persia, while Susa in western Iran was the major administrative capital. At its peak under Darius I, the empire covered a huge swathe of diverse territory from the eastern Mediterranean all the way to the Indus Valley, incorporating navigable seas and rivers, protected ports and fertile agricultural land as well as rough mountainous passes. This territory held a population of between 17 and 35 million people.[33]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ These codes were developed at Seshat General Workshop in Oxford 2017


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2,500,000-4,100,000]: 539-501 BCE; [4,800,000-5,500,000]: 500-451 BCE; [3,800,000-4,325,000]: 450-331 BCE ♥ Square kilometers. 2,500,000: 550 BCE; 4,100,000: 525 BCE; 5,500,000: 500 BCE; 4,800,000: 450 BCE; 3,800,000: 400 BCE; 4,325,000: 350 BCE [34]

Egypt independent from empire between 403 - 343 BCE. [35]

At peak 6.2m km2.[36]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [20,000,000-26,000,000]: 500 BCE; [17,000,000-35,000,000]: 400 BCE ♥

20-26 million at peak 6.2m km2. [37]

15.5 million. 4 million "in Persia proper." [38]

Table of modern estimates of the population of the Achaemenid Empire from Wiesehofer (2009).

Low Estimates Egypt 3.5m Near East (without Arabia) 12.0m Central Asia and India 1.5m Total 17.0m

High Estimates Total 30-35m[39]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 200,000 ♥ Inhabitants. Babylon.

Persepolis 50,000 430 BCE[40]

Susa 70,000 430 BCE[41]

Babylon 200,000 430 BCE[42]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [5-6] ♥

Susa was the administrative capital. Persepolis was the ceremonial and religious center. Ecbatanna were commercial, strategic and provincial centers.[43]

1. Capital City.

2. Satrap capital.
3. Provincial capital.
4. Town.
5. Village
6. Hamlet

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [6-8] ♥


1. King of Kings

Hereditary kings who ruled from a royal court within a feudal Iranian milieu. Darius I was a slight exception as he was an Achaemenid who was elected by members of the Persian elite.[44]
Dual kingship (father and son) possibly existed from Darius I to Artaxerxes II.
King of kings. "However, unlike previous Near Eastern dynasties, they did not claim divine descent or nature."[45]
King ruled law by decree but 'bound by tradition to respect the views of elders and consult great nobles on important occasions; he had to marry from the great noble's families; he could not pass arbitrary judgement; and there was alway sthe fear of assassination if he went too far in autocracy."[46]


_Central government line_

Designed according to a Babylonian template.[47] Presumably via Elamties? Persians 'learned a good deal of Elamite culture, especially in administration and arts."[48]

2. Head of administration[49] Steward of the House
"during Darius I's reign, Parnaka, the king's uncle, headed the administration, supported by a core of assistants ... and a battalion of lower administrators and scribes[50]
Steward of the House was viceroy of the empire.[51]
The very centre of the bureaucracy was the royal palace and an efficient chancellery.[52]
3. Core of Assistants[53]
4. Scribes
4. Lower administrators[54]
5. Scribes


_Provincial government_

2. Satrap (or king)
"As long as the subject nations obeyed the central authority and paid their taxes, they were free to follow their own laws and religious traditions, continue their artistic norms, retain their own languages, write in their own script, and maintain their own social system. In some cases, even local dynasties were left undisturbed and native kings retained their hereditary rights to kingship. Hence, the Persian king was called 'the Great King' or 'the King of Kings'."[55]
Twenty taxation districts called satrapies that had a civilian governor, assisted by military commander and treasurer. These individuals were "inspected by the most trusted envoys of the sovereign (called the 'King's ears and eyes'), who had full authority to reward meritorius deeds and punish unlawful ones."[56]
Governor of a satrapy. Had an indefinite period of term. All the satrapies - except the Persians who were governed by the king directly - were responsible to the king's command and had to pay him tribute.
Before Darius the empire had been split into satrapies by Cyrus II but government was mostly at a local level according to local traditions. Darius, who expanded the empire to its peak territorial extent, implemented a more centralized organization.
525-404 BCE "Egypt became a Persian satrapy, along with Libya, Cyrene and Barca (Herodotus 3.91), and was governed by a satrap in Memphis, who had to ensure the payment of tribute to the royal treasury. [57]
Satraps appointed by king. The 'Medizing' Greek Themistocles left Greece after Greek-Persian war c479 BCE to become a Persian satrap.[58]
3. Satrap's court
3. Provincial sub-satraps
Satrapies were themselves divided into provinces which paid a tribute tax to the satraps.[59] [60]
4. Local districts.
5. Village headmen.

"Prior to the Parthians, political systems in Southwest Asia were for the most part relatively loose confederations in which central government ruled their 'empires' through unstable alliances with vassals and satraps. Even Hammurabi, Darius, and Alexander were only temporarily successful in linking their centralized governments to local administrative institutions, particularly outside of the core areas of Greater Mesopotamia."[61]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-5] ♥

1. Achaemenid king

"However, unlike previous Near Eastern dynasties, they did not claim divine descent or nature."[62]
Achaemenid kings claimed a divine right to rule as the representative of the supreme god Ahura Mazdā on earth - a cultural link to the Mesopotamian peoples.[63]
When the empire expanded the Achaemenid kings assumed the pre-eminent position at the top of the religious hierarchy in conquered lands. In Egypt he became "son of the god Atum."[64]
2. Mobats (upper magi) does this term encompass multiple levels?
3. Herbats (lower magi) does this term encompass multiple levels?

"Alexander is cited by Zoroastrian tradition as having "killed the magi ... many teachers, lawyers, Herbats [the lower magi], Mobats [the upper magi]. Much of the literature of Persia, notably works of learning and Zoroastrian texts, simply perished during the Alexandrian conquests."[65]

"Darius supproted alien faiths and temples 'as long as those who held them are submissive and peaceable."[66]

Persepolis was a palatial city and the ritual centre of the empire.[67] However, priests of the temples performed the coronation ritual in Parsargadae, in which the new king had to wear the old clothes of Cyrus the Great.[68]

Numerous religions. State contributed to building of temples. [69] Cyrus II left native religious and political institutions intact. [70]

♠ Military levels ♣ 7 ♥

Decimal system. [71]

1. King

2. General
3. myriad (10 hazaraba)
4. hazaraba (1000 men)
5. sataba (100 men)
6. dathaba (10 men)
7. Individual soldier


Supreme Commander of the spāda. Baivarapati of the Corps. Hazārapati of the division. θatapati of the battalion. Daθapati of the company. [72]

Top position in the army was the commander of the royal guards, the hazārapati or chiliarch. Reputed to be second in power only to the king, this position may have functioned as a prime minister but little evidence supports this idea.[73]

In Egypt "Garrison commanders were usually Persian, but the garrison commander of the Hermopolite nome during the fifteenth year of Darius' reign was Egyptian."[74]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [75] [76]

According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) "The Assyrian army as well as the Persians always retained a large corps of loyal professionals as the centerpiece of their military establishments and ensured that loyal professionals remained in control of key logistics and supply functions of the various national units under imperial command." [77]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [78] Persian army used mercenaries. For example, used Egyptian soldiers during Persian Wars, as mentioned by Herodotus. [79]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ "Alexander is cited by Zoroastrian tradition as having "killed the magi ... many teachers, lawyers, Herbats [the lower magi], Mobats [the upper magi]. Much of the literature of Persia, notably works of learning and Zoroastrian texts, simply perished during the Alexandrian conquests."[80]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ At its peak the permanent bureaucracy employed 3 million, and many millions on contract.[81] Including contractual functionaries, mercenaries and services that were obliged of conquered people estimate for workers in the bureaucracy would be 6-8 million.[82]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ Examination system.[83]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ Present. [84] However, ethnic Persians held the most important civil and military positions[85] so this likely was merit promotion among Persians, or perhaps merit promotion among Persians and among other ethnicity but with a bias toward Persians for the most important positions..

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ E.g. government mints.[86]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

"The Persian word for 'law' was data." "By royal decrees, local jurists codified the laws of their own nations, and imperial authorities enforced those laws. Thus, the Jews worked according to Biblical laws with the royal sanctions, the Egyptians according to older Egyptian laws, the Iranians according to Avestan injunctions and their local traditions."[87]

Civil law based on Persian law. Cyrus II and Darius I known to have made reforms. "Unfortunately no Achaemenid law code, comparable to the Babylonian one or to the Hittite laws, has survived, if any ever existed."[88]

"Universal justice system" and judges. [89]

"Punishment was as cruel as in the ancient Near East generally. Execution, crucifixion, impalement, mutilation, banishment were common."[90]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Corrupt judges could be sentenced to death. [91]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Law courts mentioned here for Egypt: In Late Period Egypt "Egyptian women (unlike Greeks) could act in transactions on their own behalf and without any guardian whatsoever; equally, women could come forward in law-courts totally unaided as plaintiffs or defendants. And it is quite evident that women were capable of independent economic activities regardless of marital status."[92]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "Alexander is cited by Zoroastrian tradition as having "killed the magi ... many teachers, lawyers, Herbats [the lower magi], Mobats [the upper magi]. Much of the literature of Persia, notably works of learning and Zoroastrian texts, simply perished during the Alexandrian conquests."[93] This quote seems to imply that Greek women might need the assistance of a lawyer, although a male relative could have been used: In Late Period Egypt "Egyptian women (unlike Greeks) could act in transactions on their own behalf and without any guardian whatsoever; equally, women could come forward in law-courts totally unaided as plaintiffs or defendants. And it is quite evident that women were capable of independent economic activities regardless of marital status."[94]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "From the earliest times, the flow of water was controlled for agricultural purposes by an elaborate system of canals, sluices, dams, embankments, and dikes."[95] 1000 miles of irrigation canals. [96] Qanat technology. Subterranean irrigation canals.[97] Royal control over most of the irrigation systems and canals.[98] Egyptians called Darius the Great a Pharaoh "since by digging qanats and other initiatives he had supplied the south of Egypt with irrigation water."[99] "Iranians were the inventors of qanats ... during the Archaemenid era there appeared an extensive system of underground networks known as qanats" [100]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ "The infrastructural and agricultural measures (the extension of the road system, the maintenance of river traffic and irrigation, and the provision of drinking water and new crops), modeled on Near Eastern examples, facilitated the rapid transfer of troops and improved the diet of royal subjects."[101] "One of the greatest deeds of Darius the Great was the creation of "Water Organisation". The head of the organisation was called "Ao-Tar" or "Water Master" and he controlled the qanats, dams, rivers, etc." [102] "Darius ordered the reconstruction of the city of Sarod destroyed by the Greeks. Mendrokles presented to Darius a plan of the city, which was to be built over an area of 50 x 50 Ostad [1 Ostad = 200m]. Piped water and sewers were considered in the plan."[103]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "The state was not only an important final recipient of merchandise and raw materials that had been acquired by Phoenician traders in the open market and that often finally flowed into the coffers of the Great King. It also played a pivotal role in the organization of the exchange of raw materials and rations for precious metals or even coins, therefore promoting the development of local markets."[104]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Warehouses and granaries provisioned garrisons and workers. [105]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Royal road from Susa in Elam (near the Persian Gulf) to Sardis in Lydia (near the Aegean sea). [106] Paved road building ordered by Darius I. High quality and suitable for wheeled vehicles. Royal road is the best known of a number of roads built to facilitate the speedy movement of troops, royal inspectors and trade caravans. Other roads included Babylon to Persepolis via Susa, Babylon to Bactria via Ecbatana, and Issus to Sinope. The Royal road was 2,600 km long and had 111 royal post stations. [107]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ "Mandorcles, another engineer of the Darius period, constructed a bridge over Begas Bosporus to allow the army to pass over. Bolts and nuts were used to fix the boards in its construction."[108] "Darius crossed into Europe (in about 513) over a pontoon bridge built by his Samian engineer, Mandrocles (a feat not rivaled until 1973), which continued the royal road into Europe."[109]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Suez Canal and Atosa Canal. [110] Suez Canal which linked the west and east of the empire by sea was already planned by the Egyptians and was finished by Darius I. [111] Darius ordered a canal dug between Red Sea and the Nile; the commemorative stela suggests his primary transit interest was 'from Egypt through this canal to Persia'.[112]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Sources include official and private documents in Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian, Aramaic, Greek, Egyptian, Hebrew [113] and Akkadian. [114] Behistun Inscription of Darius I contains 3,000 words. Combined, the other royal inscriptions amount to 2,600 words. Other inscriptions include two texts from Cyrus the Great (8 words), 44 other texts from Darius I (1500 words), 13 texts from Xerxes (850 words), 7 texts from Artaxerxes I and II (180 words), 1 unassigned fragment (8 words). Persepolis fortification tablets from Darius I is an additional, a magnitude larger,source of text. [115]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Cuneiform. [116] Aramaic widespread in bureaucracy from Darius I. Totally replaced Elamite language and cuneiform writing by c460 BCE.[117]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic (semisyllabic) cuneiform script that was the primary script for Old Persian. Texts written in this cuneiform have been found in Persepolis, Susa, Hamadan, Armenia, Romania (Gherla) and emerged around 515 BCE during the reign of Darius I and continuing on through the reign of his son, Xerxes I. Later kings down to Artaxerxes III used more recent forms of the language classified as "pre-Middle Persian". [118]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic (semisyllabic) cuneiform script that was the primary script for Old Persian. Texts written in this cuneiform have been found in Persepolis, Susa, Hamadan, Armenia, Romania (Gherla) and emerged around 515 BCE during the reign of Darius I and continuing on through the reign of his son, Xerxes I. Later kings down to Artaxerxes III used more recent forms of the language classified as "pre-Middle Persian". [119]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ land registers [120]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ In approximately 539 BC, Persia's rulers conquered Babylon, and soon afterwards - at least by the 4th century BC - adopted the Babylonian luni-solar calendar for civil purposes. [121]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ The Achaemenid period "witnessed major developments in art, philosophy, literature, historiography, religion, exploration, economics, and science, and those developments provided the direct background for the further changes, along similar lines, that made the Hellenistic period so important in history." [122]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ The Achaemenid period "witnessed major developments in art, philosophy, literature, historiography, religion, exploration, economics, and science, and those developments provided the direct background for the further changes, along similar lines, that made the Hellenistic period so important in history." [123]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ The Achaemenid period "witnessed major developments in art, philosophy, literature, historiography, religion, exploration, economics, and science, and those developments provided the direct background for the further changes, along similar lines, that made the Hellenistic period so important in history." [124]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "Ancient Iranians favored oral narration of history, which allowed successive transmitters to rework narratives of events and reattribute them to different heroes at different times (Boyce, 1954, 1955, 1957; Shahbazi, 1990). Their oldest historical traditions are the heroic material found in the Avestan Yašts (Christensen, 1917, 1928, 1931; Boyce, Zoroastrianism I, pp. 92-108; Yarshater, pp. 411-53), in which "historical facts and accurate genealogies" are interwoven with "poetic fiction and fable." In these traditions "are seemingly preserved both secular and priestly traditions, transmitted by minstrel poets as well as by religious schools; and there are elements also of popular superstition and dread, in the tales of demons and witches and fearsome beasts. These intermingle with the stories of valour which show also the power of the gods to grant to men's prayers and succor them in distress" (Boyce, Zoroastrianism I, p. 108). With the conquest of the ancient Near East, the Iranians became familiar with cultures that had long established traditions of written history (Klima, pp. 214-17; Grayson, 1975a, pp. 1-7; G. Cameron, pp. 79-81). This led to a number of developments. Firstly, the Iranians began keeping records of historical events, of which Cyrus's Chronicle from Babylonia (see CYRUS CYLINDER) and Darius's Bisotun inscriptions (q.v.) and their Aramaic versions, which were dispatched to the empire's provinces, are the best examples. They meant to convincethe reader that "Persians were divinely appointed saviors whose mission was to bring justice, order, and tranquillity to the people of the world" (G. Cameron, pp. 81-94, esp. p. 93). The Achaemenids also kept Babylonian-style "diaries" (on the genre see Grayson, 1975a, p. 1)."[125] The Achaemenid period "witnessed major developments in art, philosophy, literature, historiography, religion, exploration, economics, and science, and those developments provided the direct background for the further changes, along similar lines, that made the Hellenistic period so important in history." [126]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "Iranians were familiar with Greek philosophy from the Achaemenid period."[127] The Achaemenid period "witnessed major developments in art, philosophy, literature, historiography, religion, exploration, economics, and science, and those developments provided the direct background for the further changes, along similar lines, that made the Hellenistic period so important in history." [128]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Greeks practised medicine at the royal courts of Darius I and Artaxerxes II.[129] Darius the Great "dispatched Estilakis and a delegation to India to report on the regional facilities for construction of a dam. The latter presented a report, equal in quality to those prepared by modern day geography and hydrology experts."[130]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Present due to the presence of fictional literature in the regions they conquered. For the Persian tradition only the code would appear to be absent,. The possibly that some oral works were occasionally written down or imported and read by the scribal class cannot be excluded but ancient Mesopotamian royalty was often not literate. The Achaemenid period "witnessed major developments in art, philosophy, literature, historiography, religion, exploration, economics, and science, and those developments provided the direct background for the further changes, along similar lines, that made the Hellenistic period so important in history." [131] "The interest in oral literature in pre-Islamic Iran meant that, apart from state or commerical records and documents and, on rare occasions, religious works, nothing was written down until the Sasanian period. Secular oral literature was preserved orally by gosan (poet-ministrels) or khunyagar (story-tellers)."[132] "Epic stories, frequently in verse, remained an oral form until the Sasanian period".[133] inferred present due to presence of fictional literature in regions they conquered. for Persian tradition only code would appear to be inferred absent at this time.

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ taxes could take form of contributions in kind [134]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ part of taxes in form of precious metals. [135] "Achaemenid "bar-ingots" may have been ancestral to some of the Indian "bent-bar" currency."[136]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Royal coinage encouraged trade. Before Darius trade in barter or Lydian gold coins.[137]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent: 550-516 BCE; present: 515-330 BCE ♥ Daric. [138] Darius I was probably the first Achaemenid king to mint coins. Created a single currency monetary system. Standard coin was the gold Daric which was maintained at 97% purity. 3,000 darics made one talent. Silver coins were called shekels and were at least 90% pure. Twenty shekels to one daric, for a 40:3 silver-gold ratio. The currency system was maintained from 515 BCE until 330 BCE. The reluctance of the Persian kings to release their treasure to be minted hampered the empire's economy.[139] Royal coinage encouraged trade. Before Darius trade was in barter or Lydian gold coins. Satraps could coin money but only King of Kings could coin in gold. Coin potraits first appeared in Persia.[140]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Royal road basis of a courier system.[141]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ [142] Lettered communication between central bureaucracy and the satrapies.[143] "The Archaemenids introduced the world's first postal service, and it was said the network of relay horses could deliver mail to the furthest corner of the empire within 15 days."[144] "In Persia the postal service appears to have originated in the Achaemenid period. ... There were way stations where the couriers could rest and where fresh horses could be obtained. The itinerary was measured in parasangs, or stages, along roads that seem not to have been paved or well maintained (cf. Olm­stead, p. 299)."[145]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ [146] Lettered communication between central bureaucracy and the satrapies.[147] however unsure if this was available to private individuals "The Archaemenids introduced the world's first postal service, and it was said the network of relay horses could deliver mail to the furthest corner of the empire within 15 days."[148]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jenny Reddish ♥ These codes were developed at Seshat General Workshop in Oxford 2017


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Copper used to make bronze. Greek mercenaries under Cyrus had "helmets, greaves and shields of bronze" [149] "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales ... and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron."[150]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Greek mercenaries under Cyrus had "helmets, greaves and shields of bronze" [151] "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales ... and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron."[152]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Breastplates of iron.[153] "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales ... and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron."[154]
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ May have imported high quality steel. "It is believed that Indian steel was exported in the early centuries A.D. and was known even in the time of Alexander. By the sixth century there is more definite evidence of the manufacture of Damascene swords and the steel used for this purpose came from India."[155] Artaxerxes II of Persia (Achaemenids, ruled around 400 BCE) had a Greek physician called Ctesias of Cnidus who was impressed by his sword of Indian steel.[156][157]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Egyptians had javelins and Libyans had "fire-hardened" javelins. [158] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) heavy cavalry carried two short bronze or iron tipped javelin (for stabbing and throwing). The Achaemenids invented this particular form of javelin (zhubin).[159]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Persian light infantry carried the bow and sling, and Cyrus also made them carry spear and sword.[160]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Ethiopians had "rudimentary archery equipment."[161] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity): "The greatest number of Persian cavalry were light cavalry armed with the simple bow (noncomposite) and comprised mostly of irregular nationality troops, sometimes officered by Persians."[162]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) heavy cavalry and light infantry carried the bow, the type not specified by the author.[163] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[164] However, the composite bow is present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ The Macedonians of the time had "battering rams, catapults, and other siege engines" so Achaemenids would certainly have had them. [165]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Counter-weight trebuchet first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) the mace was the dominant weapon of war from 4000 BCE but had disappeared from Sumerian illustrations before 2500 BCE, a time when the helmet appears.[166] Almost certainly the technology was still present but the weapon may have been used less frequently. Coded present for Ur III, Akkad and Middle Elam and could possibly be 'inferred present' at this time.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Sargarthians in the Persian army may have had battle axe.[167] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Persian heavy cavalry were armed with the battleaxe.[168] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) heavy infantry carried long spear, short sword and battle axe.[169]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Knives.[170] Sargarthians in the Persian army carried a dagger.[171]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Archaemenid cavalry used kopis swords.[172] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[173] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Persian light infantry carried the bow and sling, and Cyrus also made them carry spear and sword.[174] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) heavy infantry carried long spear, short sword and battle axe.[175]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[176] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Persian heavy cavalry carried two short javelin (for stabbing and throwing) and long wooden or metal lance or spear.[177] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Persian light infantry carried the bow and sling, and Cyrus also made them carry spear and sword.[178] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) heavy infantry carried long spear, short sword and battle axe.[179]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) infantry that held its ground could deter chariot charges with their shields and spears.[180]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Cambyses in the 6th century BCE placed ibexes, sheep, dogs and cats on the front line to have a psychological impact on Egyptians who worshiped these animals and did not want to fire arrows near them.[181]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Achaemenids (Darius the Great) used donkeys in their baggage train.[182]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Chariots.[183] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) small chariot corps.[184] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) light cavalry armed with a simple bow and heavy cavalry. Initially the heavy carried were armed with bow, battleaxe and oval shield, later carried two short javelin (for stabbing and throwing), long wooden or metal lance or spear and oval shield.[185]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) "The Persians experimented with the use of camel cavalry."[186] "Arab troops were equipped with swords slung over their backs, and many fought as archers on camels."[187] "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC."[188] Cyrus I pushed baggage camels on to the front lines to throw Lydian cavalry horses into a confused retreat. This event was a touchstone for future commanders who sought to keep their horses acquainted with camel scent.[189]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) "After conquests in India, the Persians introduced elephants into their armies."[190] With this reference we can date the code of present more precisely. Darius III of Persia had a few war elephants.[191] Indian war elephants at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BCE.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Rhomboid wicker shield.[192] Wicker targes.[193] "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[194]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) cavalry carried a small oval shield made of leather with a metal rim.[195] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) cavalry wore leather greaves to protect the legs.[196] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) body armour of cavalryman could include a "leather coat covered with overlapping disks of bronze, iron, and sometimes gold."[197] Archaemenid cavalry wore scale armour but may also have worn linen armour of the Greek style.[198] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) heavy infantry wore black hoods in close combat though this does not seem to be armour.[199]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[200] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Persian heavy cavalry carried an oval shield.[201] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) front ranks of the phalanx carried a tall wicker shield.[202]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Greek mercenaries under Cyrus had "helmets, greaves and shields of bronze" [203] "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron."[204]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Breastplates of iron.[205]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Greek mercenaries under Cyrus had "helmets, greaves and shields of bronze" [206] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) Archaemenid cavalry wore leather greaves to protect the legs.[207]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[208]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) body armour of cavalryman could include a "leather coat covered with overlapping disks of bronze, iron, and sometimes gold."[209] Archaemenid cavalry wore scale armour but may also have worn linen armour of the Greek style.[210] "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron."[211]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[212]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[213] Breastplates present. Isn't that the same thing as "plate" armour? Present in previous and subsequent periods.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥ In 345 BCE vs Sidonians: "The fleet consisted of 300 warships and 500 cargo vessels."[214]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Infantry, cavalry and navy. [215] In 345 BCE vs Sidonians: "The fleet consisted of 300 warships and 500 cargo vessels."[216] Navy had 600 fighting ships - tiremes, that had 170 oarsmen and 30 fighters.[217] According to one military historian (data needs to be checked by an expert for this polity) "the Persians were the first to introduce a large-scale navy used primarily in support of ground operations."[218]


Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Long wall building: "The tradition seems more prevelant in Central Asia, although the oldest dated example is only Achaemenid. This is the wall of Kam Pirak, a rammed mud defensive wall that has been traced for about 60 kilometres across northern Afghanistan."[219] "In respect to Sogdiana of the fourth century B.C., Arrian and Curtius remarked that the city of Marakanda possessed a strongly fortified citadel, encircled by a wall and a moat. Both town and citadel were surrounded by a defensive wall with a circumference of approximately thirteen kilometres. ... It would appear that this large city originated in the Achaemenid period (Masson 1959: 127)."[220] Was the wall of Marakanda made of rammed mud or stone? Assuming former.
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Simple fortification that was likely to have been incorporated somewhere within the huge Empire.
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Sidon, which was taken by the Achaemenids in 345 BCE, was "surrounded by three high walls and a moat." [221] "In respect to Sogdiana of the fourth century B.C., Arrian and Curtius remarked that the city of Marakanda possessed a strongly fortified citadel, encircled by a wall and a moat. Both town and citadel were surrounded by a defensive wall with a circumference of approximately thirteen kilometres. ... It would appear that this large city originated in the Achaemenid period (Masson 1959: 127)."[222]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Fortress in Susa enlarged by Darius I. [223]
♠ Long walls ♣ 60 ♥ km. Long wall building: "The tradition seems more prevelant in Central Asia, although the oldest dated example is only Achaemenid. This is the wall of Kam Pirak, a rammed mud defensive wall that has been traced for about 60 kilometres across northern Afghanistan."[224]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jenny Reddish; Jill Levine; Edward A L Turner ♥ These codes were developed at Seshat General Workshop in Oxford 2017


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ absent ♥ 'Darius and several of his successors say that Ahura Mazda "made them kings, the one the king of many, the one the lord of many" (cf. Aeschylus, Persae 762f.). This means, at the same time, that the Persian king was no primus inter pares but rather a sovereign governor, who united in his person all power as supreme lord and judge in peace and warfare and therefore stood far above his subjects ... The king was above the law and allowed to do whatever he liked (Herodotus 3.31.4).'[225] A passage from Llewellyn-Jones' recent book also strongly suggests a lack of constraints on the Achaemenid king: 'European Christian monarchy was counter-balanced by political groups from among the social classes and castes of the realm, whereas the absolute tribute-gathering rulers of the east tended to govern with greater independent autocracy as kings fused their political rule with their integral religious identity, so that they were not answerable to a clergy or an independent parliament.'[226]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥ 'Darius and several of his successors say that Ahura Mazda "made them kings, the one the king of many, the one the lord of many" (cf. Aeschylus, Persae 762f.). This means, at the same time, that the Persian king was no primus inter pares but rather a sovereign governor, who united in his person all power as supreme lord and judge in peace and warfare and therefore stood far above his subjects ... The king was above the law and allowed to do whatever he liked (Herodotus 3.31.4).'[227]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ I have found no evidence of a legal mechanism for removing Achaemenid kings from the throne. Instead, assassination was the fate of kings who failed to hold onto power, as in the cases of Bardiya, Xerxes I, Xerxes II, Sogdianus, Artaxerxes III, Artaxerxes IV, and Darius III.[228]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Llewellyn-Jones tells us that 'A comparatively small group of nobles occupied a high place in this pyramidal structure [of the court], for these were the hereditary Persian nobility, whom the Greeks called the ‘People of the Gate’ (Plutarch, Themistocles 26.6), and who were obliged - because of blood and status - to serve at court and wait on the king'.[229] At a lower level of prestige, 'State and temple civil servants, priests, scribes, merchants, free craftsmen and farmers were counted among the ranks of citizens with full rights. In a legal sense, they were all regarded as enjoying equal rights, and their status was hereditary.'[230]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Jenny Reddish ♥ These codes were developed at Seshat General Workshop in Oxford 2017 and Axial Age Workshop, Oxford, 2015


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥The Cyrus Cylinder (composed by priests of Marduk as a record of Cyrus the Great's conquest of Babylon and his proclamations) records that 'Bel-Marduk cast his eye over all countries, seeking for a righteous ruler ... Then he called by name Cyrus, King of Anshan, and pronounced him ruler of the lands'. Bel-Marduk was the 'national god' of the Babylonians [231][232] Because he 'released all the exiles and enslaved peoples' from Babylon, including the Jews, Cyrus the Great also occupies an extraordinary position in the Hebrew canon.[233] The book of Isaiah calls Cyrus the Lord's 'anointed' and his 'shepherd'.[234] Schmitt says that although the Achaemenid kings were not gods or descendants of gods, 'the other fundamental basis of their kingship beside the genealogical principle is the theory of divine right of kings, Gottesgnadentum. They are kings vasna Auramazdaha, "by the favor of Ahura Mazda;" it is unthinkable that Darius would have erected an inscription saying that "he obtained the Persian kingship by the excellence of his horse and groom," as claimed in Herodotus 3.88.3. This supreme god "bestowed the empire" (xsacam frabara) on the kings. As these and similar expressions show, the Achaemenids' reign is legitimized by the gods, and the king is invested by them; i.e., he is their elect and their representative on earth ... These two principles, the dynastic one and that of divine right, belong to contrasting areas and periods—respectively, to prehistoric nomad tribes of Indo-European origin and to the highly civilized Mesopotamian peoples.'[235]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ 'The Achaemenid kings were no gods, in spite of Aeschylus (Persae 157), where Queen Atossa is called "a god's [Darius'] wife" and "a god's [Xerxes'] mother" (here and elsewhere Greek ideas are brought forward); and they were not of divine origin.'[236] v"The Persian King was not a god, but he was a person set apart" [237]

"However, unlike previous Near Eastern dynasties, they did not claim divine descent or nature."[238]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ The Avestas contain evidence of the 'egalitarian ideals' of Zoroastrianism.[239] However, the paragraphs below cover contexts in the Achaemenid Empire in which religion was utilized to reinforce inequality of various forms: there is something of a gap between religious doctrine (especially concerning eschatology) and the use of religious imagery and rhetoric by those in power. Alternatively, we could say that maintaining that (for example) men and women can both attain salvation after death does not necessarily mean advocating gender equality in this world.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Although Zoroastrian eschatology held that the potential for resurrection and salvation was universal,[240] the religion as practised in the Achaemenid Empire, and particularly as interpreted by Achaemenid rulers, did not tend to stress the essential equality of kings and commoners (perhaps unsurprisingly). The kings used public inscriptions to proclaim their special status and right to rule, divinely bestowed by the great Zoroastrian God Ahura Mazda. Most famously, Darius I's Behistun inscription says: 'By the will of Ahuramazda I am king. Ahuramazda gave me kingship', repeating similar formulations throughout the text.[241]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ A passage from Shaki's article suggests that in Zoroastrian thought, elites were understood as cosmologically distinct from other social groups: 'The omniscient Mazdean religion is likened to a mighty tree with one trunk (the mean), two main boughs (action and abstention), three branches (good thoughts, good words, and good deeds), four small branches (the estates of the priests, warriors, husbandmen, and artisans), five roots (the lord of the house, the village headman, the tribal chieftain, the ruler, and the highest religious authority, the representative of Zoroaster on earth ...), and above them all the head of all heads ... the king of kings, the ruler of the whole world.'[242]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ In an article that stresses continuities between ancient and modern Zoroastrianism, Boyce describes offerings to the dead and the rituals connected with these among modern worshippers: 'Many of these rituals are accompanied by offerings of food and drink, which are afterwards partaken of by the living in communion with the dead, the soul being invited back to join its kinsmen and friends, not in grief but in companionable happiness. In Irani idiom such observances are for "the rejoicing of the soul" ... Some of the offerings are also given to the poor, so that piety towards the dead, cheerfulness, and charity are combined in a way that is wholly Zoroastrian.'[243] Cantera says that 'from its very beginnings Zoroastrianism has developed an ethical imperative of assistance to the needy members of the community'.[244] (CC: If this is based on modern Zoroastrianism then maybe it should be 'inferred present'? The same with the next four variables)

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ Balali, Keulartz and Korthals link Zoroastrian ethics to the construction of qanats, an ancient irrigation system, in pre-Islamic Iran. Through the Zoroastrian exhortation to carry out 'good deeds', they argue that the worshipper 'is directed to relieve the poor, to irrigate and cultivate the soil, to provide food and fresh water in places where needed, and to devote the surplus of his wealth in charity to the well-being and prosperity of his fellow man'.[245] However, the focus of their article is on the lessons we could learn from 'traditional' systems of water management, rather than on rigorous historical analysis. It is unclear to what extent Achaemenid-period worshippers of Ahura Mazda actually laboured to produce public goods, directed solely by their religious values.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [246] [247] [248]

References

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