IqUrIII

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Ur - Dynasty III ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Dynasty III; Sumer Renaissance Period; IIIrd dynasty of Ur; Neo-Sumerian Empire; Ur III ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 2097-2038 BCE ♥ the peak time is related to ruling of two kings: Shulgi and his son Amarsin[2]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2112-2004 BCE ♥ or 2047-1940 BCE according to short chronology

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ [3]

Inscriptions from time of Ur (Shu-Sin) suggest unity within internal land. "the celebratory tone was not directed against Mesopotamian cities or other urbanised centres (such as the ones in Elam and Syria) anymore. The inscriptions rather focused on those turbulent 'barbarian' groups from the steppes and mountains, considered to be uncivilised and inhuman."[4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ personal union; alliance ♥ [5]

"The kings of Ur interacted with the regions of Anshan (Fars), Shimashki and Zabshali (north of Susiana) through a series of peace treaties, containment policies and threats. At times this interaction was expressed through marriages between the daughters of the kings of Ur and the Elamite kings, or military expeditions."[6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Gutian Dynasty ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Isin ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥

♠ Capital ♣ Ur ♥ [7]


♠ Language ♣ Sumerian; Akkadian ♥ [8] Shulgi could write in both Sumerian and Akkadian.[9]

General Description

The founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur was Ur-Nammu who probably came from Uruk, however he was a military commander (šagina) of Ur, and later its independent ruler who conducted victorious fights with the Gutians and took by force other lands of Sumer and consolidated the whole Akkad and Sumer. Moreover, he also conquered Elam and even reached Susa. His political power was related not only to his conquest, but mainly to his cultural and legislative activities. He was a builder of few great temples and was a lawgiver of one of the oldest 'code' called Code of Ur-Nammu.[10] His son - Shulgi continued father's politics and he "reorganized system and territorial administrative structure, but also much enlarged its lands and increased international prestige, turning it into a dominant power of the region."[11] He seized among other Simurrum, Lullubum, Kimaš, Hurti, Karahar, Šašrum, Harši. He used the political marriages and various alliances as well to cement his state (e. g. his daughters married the ruler of Marhaši and the ensi of Anshan). Two sons of Shulgi reigned 9 years each - Amar-Sin(Amar-Suen)and Shu-Sin(Su-Suen). Amar-Suen led few victorious campaigns against Urbilum, Šašrum and Hurrians. Su-Suen fight against Amorites, however his strategy was more defensive than offensive. The last king from this dynasty -Ibbi-Sin was less successful in fights with Amorites, Gutians and Elamites. After he was betrayed by the governor of Isin named Ishbi- Irra, the Ur became much weaker. Eventually the city of Ur was captured and looted in 2010 and Ibbi-Sin lost his throne and was transported to Susa. Generally speaking, the Ur III period is perceived as a flowering time when many significant changes took place, especially on the field of literature, culture and architecture. However, many important transformation concerning administration, army as well as the position of the ruler were happened. Ur is described often in the literature as "the centralized bureaucratic state"[12] with many civil servants and elaborated administration structures. According to Jason Ur: "The kings of Ur created centralized temple and above all royal administrative systems, and attempted to resuscitate a Sumerian identity.[13] The state of Ur consisted of three main zones: core, periphery and vassal territories. The core encompasses lands of Sumer and Akkad and it includes 18 provinces. The peripheral areas are defined as the land which were attached by Shulgi (in a consequence of his military activity) such as eastern Iraq, the western provinces of Kurdistan, Luristan, Khuzestan. The third zone, so called "sphere of influence" included vassal states.[14] Besides its military achievements, the marital alliances were often used tool to establish or broaden the power of Ur's kings.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

Susa within boundaries of empire of the Third Dynasty of Ur according to map on p.157 Liverani (2014). The region is marked "internal land" that is "under direct control of the empire."[15]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [175,000-225,000] ♥

"In the Neo-Sumerian period, the population of Ur was ca. 200,000 people. Both this population increase and the urban improvements were largely supported by agricultural activities."[16]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 200,000 ♥ "In the Neo-Sumerian period, the population of Ur was ca. 200,000 people. Both this population increase and the urban improvements were largely supported by agricultural activities."[17] The territory of the largest cities is bigger than 200 ha ( e. g. Umma, Girsu, Lagash, Larsa, Isin, Suheri), the capital - Ur-50 ha, smaller cities- between 40-200ha (e. g. Zabalam, Adab), bigger towns - 20-40 ha (e.g. Wilaya), smaller towns - 10-20 ha and villages[18]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. [19]

1. Large cities
2. smaller cities
3. Towns
4. Villages[20]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. [21]

1. Ruler

_Palatial government_

2.
3.
4.

_Provincial government_

2. Provincial/regional governors - sukkalmah
3.
4.
3. town mayors - ensi
4. village heads - hazannum.[22]


"The economy of earlier empires was predominantly based on commercial activities and political relations with states that were controlled by the centre and were dependent on it. However, the empires themselves did not directly control these resources. The direct management of resources was an innovation of the kings of Ur, who applied in throughout the centre of the empire, which was itself no longer divided into several tributary city-states, but into provinces governed by functionaries (the ensi) appointed by the kings of Ur. The bureaucratic management of these provinces was uniform and interchangeable, and could be applied throughout the land (although some some local variations remained in place)."[23]
"Under Ur III control, Susiana was governed by an ensi appointed by the king. The area was therefore included in the Mesopotamian nucleus of the empire and fully integrated both on a political and administrative level. However, in the surrounding areas, the rest of Elam remained independent. In fact, from an Elamite perspective Susa was only a marginal city bordering with Sumer. The kings of Ur interacted with the regions of Anshan (Fars), Shimashki and Zabshali (north of Susiana) through a series of peace treaties, containment policies and threats. At times this interaction was expressed through marriages between the daughters of the kings of Ur and the Elamite kings, or military expeditions."[24]
Inscriptions from time of Ur (Shu-Sin) suggest unity within internal land. "the celebratory tone was not directed against Mesopotamian cities or other urbanised centres (such as the ones in Elam and Syria) anymore. The inscriptions rather focused on those turbulent 'barbarian' groups from the steppes and mountains, considered to be uncivilised and inhuman."[25]
"The Ur III rulers imposed their suzerainty over the Elamite princes of Anshan, who were probably semi-nomadic, in the southeast, and over others, including the princes of Shimashki, in an area that is likely to have extended to the north and southeast of Susiana."[26]
"With the rise of Ur, cities lost their traditional autonomy (which is an entirely different concept from their fluctuating state of independence). They were still ruled by an ensi. Now, however, the title did not designate a local ruler governing on behalf of the local city-god. The ensi became a governor, appointed by Ur and acting on behalf of the king of Ur".[27]
"The deified kings of Ur consequently replaced the city-gods as ultimate heads of the land. They therefore controlled the entire production and redistributive system, whose management was inevitably delegated to the local ensi."[28]
"The substitution of local rulers with functionaries appointed by Ur could not have been welcomed without opposition and conflict."[29]
"The farming of sheep was mainly focused on the production of wool. When a herd was entrusted to a shepherd its composition was recorded and the parameters of births and deaths were established. Similarly the quantity of wool to be produced was calculated, keeping in mind the differences between sheep and rams, as well as their size. Wool was then rank according to its quality (there were at least six or more categories) and sent to manufacturing centres. Each operation had its own parameters. The administration took into account losses during manufacturing (carding, spinning and washing) and the working days it required. Consequently, a given amount of wool needed a certain number of working days to produce a certain quantity of thread (either warp thread or weaving thread). In order to produce a fabric of given dimensions, then, the administration knew the quantity of working days and warp and weaving thread required. It was then able to calculate the cost and raw materials needed before the whole operation even began."[30]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

Coded 4 for Akkadian period.


"Ur-Nammu and his successors continued the tradition of deifying the ruling king. However, the king was not seen as a hero, like in the Akkadian period, but as a central cultic and administrative figure."[31]

"The deified kings of Ur consequently replaced the city-gods as ultimate heads of the land.</ref>

♠ Military levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels. [32], [33]

1. Ruler
2. Shagina (generals)
3. Nu-banda (higher officers)
4. Ugula gešda (officers commanding 60 soldiers)
5. šeš-gal-nam (officers commanding 10 soldiers)
6. Erin (soldiers)[34], [35]

Worth noting that the sukkal-mah (vizier) might have played important role during the war as well.[36]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "Many records clearly show the aga-uš in specifically military activities (...), particularly in the entourage of the king and of the army’s leadership (...). His life was that of a soldier (...); he was provided with weapons, for the use of which a regular regime of training was necessary (...) and he clearly served under a military chain of command". [37]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [38] "literary texts emphasising the need for full commitment, the relationship between masters and students, and the prospective earnings and social advancements available to the scribe." - [39] earnings = professional

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥ At least a few years of practice were necessary condition for obtaining the title of scribe [40].

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ [41]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ It appears that temple structures were used for the purposes of state administration. Livernai writes that the temple 'was the unit at the heart of the state administration, and was only accessible to the sons of the ruling class (sons of ensi and high officials, as well as scribes)'.[42]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present♥ Ur-Nammu or Shulgi's code. Regulated criminal, administrative and social cases, and included some protection for the poor against usurers and loan sharks [43].

earliest known law codes.[44]

Law codes "not just laws meant to alleviate structural disfunctions in the system. They were an organic and solid re-organisation of the way justice was administered, and it is evident that the intention behind them was to create a uniform system."[45]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ [46] construction of agricultural fields, drained marshes.[47]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ Unknown. Is there a piped network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements?
♠ markets ♣ ♥ worked to improve trade.[48]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥ Unknown.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Shulgi built a road from Ur to Nippur[49]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ [50] construction of canals.[51]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Cuneiform [52] Shulgi could write in both Sumerian and Akkadian.[53]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ [54]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ [55] "land register, a text recording the measures of individual administrative districts, their borders, gods and imperial functionaries."[56]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ [57]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ religious hymns[58]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "land register, a text recording the measures of individual administrative districts, their borders, gods and imperial functionaries."[59] "Scribal culture already existed in earlier temple-cities in a more or less developed way. Now, however, the pan-Mesopotamian unification of the state made scribal culture more uniform and of a better quality. ... Sign lists and lexical lists became almost like 'encyclopaedias', organising all the knowledge of the period in a canonical way."[60]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ e. g. lamentation over destruction of Ur[61]
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ mostly silver and gold[62]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Ur III polity.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Ur III polity.
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Ur III polity.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Shulgi introduced the system of couriers and postal stations[63] royal messengers very important to the Ur III system.[64]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Shulgi introduced the system of couriers and postal stations[65]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak; Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Required for bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [66]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "He shall take my axe whose metal is tin, he shall wield my dagger which is of iron."[67] Presumably refers to the use of meteoric iron?
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence of steel use are dated to 1800 BC and site Kaman-Kalehoyuk in Central Anatolia.[68] Not sure what to make of this reference. More context/info needed.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Present.[69] What did this reference say? "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[70]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ slingshots[71] "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[72]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [73], [74] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[75]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The first evidence of the composite bow appears on the victory stele of Naram Sin (2254-2218 B.C.E.)".[76] "The effective range of the simple bow varied from 50 to 100 yards. And the arrow shot by a simple bow was unable to penetrate leather or bronze armour. The effective range of the composite bows varied between 250 and 300 yards."[77] However, the composite bow itself could not penetrate armour more than 2mm thick [all designs or just the early designs?] and was susceptible to rotting in high-moisture environments.[78] "The composite bow was a recurve bow made of wood, horn and tendons from oxen, carefully laminated together. These bows were probably invented by the nomads of the Eurasian steppe and brought into Sumer by the mercenary nomads."[79] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[80] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[81]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[82] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[83]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Note: the alternative translation of this hymn states slings shot the rocks. In the hymn - 'Lamentation over destruction of Ur and Sumer', there is mentioned some 'sieges' throwing big stones, however the interpretation of this siege engines is controversial.[84]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ The gunpowder was invented around 9th century AD, but the gunpowder artillery was in use since Middle Age. [85]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ The first very simple firearms came from China and are dated to 13th century AD [86]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Present.[87] Present.[88] What explanation accompanied these suggestions of present? Gabriel says the mace was the dominant weapon of war from 4000 BCE but had disappeared from Sumerian illustrations before 2500 BCE, a time when the helmet appears.[89]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ e.g. battle axes were found in the graves at Asur.[90] Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "He shall take my axe whose metal is tin, he shall wield my dagger which is of iron."[91]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ e.g. battle axes were found in the graves at Asur.[92] Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "He shall take my axe whose metal is tin, he shall wield my dagger which is of iron."[93]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE but until c2000 BCE their use were restricted because the blade often became detached from the handle. The sickle-sword of c2500 BCE was cast whole but it was unable to break armour so the battle axe was preferred.[94] Also present before this time: Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Urutum stone, they shall sharpen you for the battle-mace; with bronze, the arrowheads of the gods, they shall smash you with the axe, stinging with fierce swords."[95] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Each girded with a sword belt, the strength of battle, they parade before her, holy Inana."[96]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ [97], [98] Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[99] "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[100]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ [101]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ [102]
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present.[103] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)."[104]
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Horse riding was present before the iron age but there is no explicit evidence of use in warfare at this time.[105]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ 3rd millenium BC, bactrian camels appear in engravings showing their importance but no military use until much later.[106]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ No evidence has survived for obvious reasons but the presence of shields strongly suggests the use of wood.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ No evidence has survived for obvious reasons but the presence of shields might indicate use of hide.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [107]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[108] The example from Sumer was "a cap of hammered copper" fitted onto a leather cap.[109]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "May Ninurta, Enlil's son, set the helmet Lion of Battle on your head, may the breastplate (?) that in the great mountains does not permit retreat be laid on your breast!"[110]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ This time is earlier than the earliest reference, for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[111] Closest reference is Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection.[112]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[113]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "The first recorded instance of body armor is found on the Stele of Vultures in ancient Sumer, which shows Eannatum's soldiers wearing leather cloaks on which are sewn spined metal disks. The disks do not appear to be arranged in any order, and we do not know if the disks were made of copper or bronze. By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[114]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[115]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "The first recorded instance of body armor is found on the Stele of Vultures in ancient Sumer, which shows Eannatum's soldiers wearing leather cloaks on which are sewn spined metal disks. The disks do not appear to be arranged in any order, and we do not know if the disks were made of copper or bronze. By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[116] Coding this as scale armor.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ There were some boats which were used to "control of the foreign maritime trade" in Persian Gulf during the Ur-Nammu's reign, but there is no detailed information concerning type of ship or existence of any special naval military formation.[117] Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "He hurried to battle on the boat Ma-kar-nunta-ea".[118]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ e. g. Badigihursaga[119], also two fortresses were erected by Shulgi - Shulgi-Nanna and Ishim-Shulgi[120] Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "the fortress is too high and cannot be reached".[121]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[122]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[123]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Irrigation ditches referred to frequently in late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE texts but I cannot find any in the context of a fortification.[124]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ e. g. at Ur.[125]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone."[126]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone."[127] Mortar existed at this time because they also built with brick which would have required mortar. Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "Now Aratta's battlements are of green lapis lazuli, its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red, their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows."[128]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Complex Ziqqurat of Ur-Nammu.[129]
♠ Long walls ♣ [190-300] ♥ km. 200km - the wall erected against Amorites by Shu-Sin[130], [131] "The Neo-Sumerian mental map of an internal land (Sumer and Akkad) surrounded by a turbulent periphery found its concrete application in the construction of a fortification wall crossing the alluvial plain. This wall was located slightly to the north of Akkad, and was meant to protect the empire from the Martu. This small 'Chinese wall' was built roughly at the same time as the Prince's Wall, built by the Egyptian twelfth dynasty to face the same nomadic group."[132] 26 danna. 190-300 km. 1 danna most likely = 10.8km. "wall of the land". [133] Late 3rd - early 2md millennium BCE text: "Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net."[134]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ; Kiran Basava ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The standardised, hierarchic position of the characters depicted and the presence of the divine king clearly mirrors the political ideology of the scribal and priestly classes, the main owners of these seals."[135] "The king had become divine and his authority was supreme."[136]

Social Mobility


Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Founder of third dynasty used the political marriages and various alliances as well to cement his state (e. g. his daughters married the ruler of Marhaši and the ensi of Anshan). Two sons of Shulgi reigned 9 years each

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ Shulgi and his son Amarsin were adored as a god[137]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ [absent; present] ♥ From Shulgi: "Subsequent rulers of the Ur III Dynasty adopted the custom of deification and at the same time worshipped their predecessor, the late king, as a god. In addition to pursuing a building program and a standardized visual program in the arts, Shu-Suen commissioned statues of himself and had them distributed throughout the empire. God and king were thus united, and this was typified by his drive to build temples for his own worship all over the empire." [138]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ i.e. deification of rulers[139], slavery [140]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Rulers were deified starting with Shulgi [141]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ i.e slavery common practice during this period [142]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [143] [144] [145]

References

  1. Crawford 2004, 35
  2. Roux 1998, 146
  3. Szeląg 2007, 10
  4. (Leverani 2014, 159) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  5. Stępień 2009, 16
  6. (Leverani 2014, 168-169) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  7. Roux 1998, 149
  8. Wygnańska 2007, 29
  9. (Leverani 2014, 159) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  10. Stępień 2009, 11-12
  11. Stępień 2009, 16
  12. Ur 2014, 256
  13. Ur 2013, 143
  14. Stępień 2009, 55-60
  15. (Leverani 2014, 157) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  16. (Leverani 2014, 161) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  17. (Liverani 2014: 161) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/Liverani.
  18. Ur 2013, 143-144
  19. Ur 2013, 143
  20. Ur 2013, 143
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