IqNeoBb

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Chaldeans; Chaldean Empire ♥ [1]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 604 BCE-562 BCE ♥ Reign of Nebuchadrezzar who defeated the Egyptians in Syria and successfully beseiged Jerusalem [2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 626 BCE-539 BCE ♥ In 605 BCE the Babylonians defeated the Egyptians and the remanants of the Assyrian army at Carchemish, thus becoming the great power of Mesopotamia. [3]

In the 540's BCE the Achaemenes fought their way east from Elam, conquering land. Babylon fell without resistance in 539 BCE. [4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ IqNAssr ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ IrAchae ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Babylon ♥ Although Nabonidus left Babylon for 10 years and established the city of Taima in Northwest Arabia [6]

Language ♠ Language ♣ Akkadian ♥

General Description

Babylon was re-populated by the Chaldean people and the rulers reclaimed the title of King of Babylon. While his father Nabopolassar was on the throne, Nebachudrezzar went on campaigns to defeat the Assyrian and Egyptian armies.[7] Having succeeded in creating the Neo-Babylonian empire, he returned to Babylon to be crowned. Nebachudrezzar then undertook a period of building creating some of the most iconic Babylonian architecture. He ruled the Neo-Babylonian empire by enforcing tithes of goods and labour, although some of the most distant Levantine city-states had a deal of autonomy. [8] So the empire continued for several decades until the reign of Nabonidus, whom is presumed to be unpopular. He left Babylon for ten years to live in the desert. Cyrus of the Achaemenid empire subsequently took over Babylon. Some say he was welcomed to depose Nabonidus, other evidence suggests he destroyed the city. [9]

At the height of it's power in the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Babylon was given resources to become the centre of the known world for culture, learning and religion.

The audience of Babylonian documents appears to be the Babylonian nobles and priesthood, therefore, they mostly celebrate building projects. It is thought that the empire had reached it's natural limit within ten years; with the Medians to the north and east, the Egyptians in the south-west and the desert to the south. Therefore, the threatening military literature that pervaded the Neo-Assyrian empire was not needed in the Neo-Babylonian empire. [10] As a result, less is known about the military capabilities of the Neo-Babylonian empire.

The major historical events do not appear to have significantly impacted the material culture. There is continuity in form and style through the Achaemenian transition. [11]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [750,000-850,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. [12] [13]

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown, but the Neo-Babylonian period was one of population growth after a long period of decline. [14]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels. [15] (1) Babylon (2) regional capitals and vassal Levantine city-states. e.g. Jerusalem (3) smaller cities. (4) towns. (5) villages


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels. Two notable fragments exist which give some information about the administrative levels across the Neo-Babylonian empire. They are the Etemenanki cylinder and the Istanbul prism fragment, both dated to the reign of Nebuchadrezzar. Most debate concerns the heirarchy of officials; in particular, whether those appointed by Babylon have higher status that the regional kings. [16]

Private ownership does not seem to have been prominent in the Neo-Babylonian period. Instead temples and palaces owned land. Private ownership was enabled by leasing large tenancies to individuals who could then lease out smaller plots. State administration, therefore, worked on multiple levels. [17]

Official administration levels [18]

(1) King of Babylonia (2) Governors (3) City officers/ Officials in marginal cities (4) Village Headman

The Babylonian empire conquered an area with pre-existing structures, many of which continued alongside Babylonian administration, such as vassal Levantine kings and local nobles within Mesopotamia. The Levantine kings appear to owe allegiance to the Babylonian kings, for example they paid in material goods towards Nebuchadrezzar's building projects, but are largely self-controlled. [19]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. (1) king (2) cult leaders (3) priests [20] (4) regional religious leaders


♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels. (1) king and prince. [21] Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar both led war expeditions. (2) general. [22] (3) soldier.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [23]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ [24]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [25]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation around the Euphrates and Tigris rivers provided sustainable means of agriculture for thousands of years. [26] It has also been suggested, that a complex irrigation system would have been necessary if the hanging gardens of Babylon (thought to have been built by Nebuchadrezzar) existed. [27]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Wells are present in cities. [28] Was there a piped network to domestic residences? Presence of wells in cities suggests not - residents took their drinking water from the wells and brought it to their homes themselves.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Alongside the enforced flow of goods into the capital, trade developed as well. [29] Cut off from the main trade routes, Babylon set up a market to make it the final destination for trade. Other large market centres existed throughout the empire along the trading routes, e.g. Susiana and Lydia. [30]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Nebuchadnezzar II "He also constructed large sewers lined with a mixture of bitumen, clay and gravel. He laid down the first paved streets by setting stone slabs in bitumen-mortar." (Bilkadi, Z. 1984. Bitumen: A History. Saudi Aramco World. November/December. pp 2-9. https://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198406/bitumen.-.a.history.htm)
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The city of Babylon straddled the Euphrates river and a bridge was maintained to join the two parts of the city [31]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Part of a wide-reaching irrigation system. Part of Sippar was known as the Quay of Sippar, although it has not been discovered. Baker speculates that it might have been on the major watercourse, the King's Canal [32]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ The Neo-Babylonian empire included the port cities of the Levant [33]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ [34]
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ cuneifrom [35]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [36]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ [37]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ [38]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ [39]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [40]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ [41]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥ For example manuals on agriculture, military, cooking, etc
♠ History ♣ present ♥ [42]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences [43]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Myths and epics [44]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Food might be used for exchange, but predominantly only on a local level, since it lost its value over long distances. [45]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[46]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Silver, gold and copper were all used within Babylonia with fluctuating levels of popularity. [47]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[48]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[49]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ "The Mesopotamians did not use coinage (invented in Asia Minor in the seventh century B.C.E.) but employed various commodities as media of exchange and measures of value: occasionally gold, copper, and tin, but most commonly silver and grain. The value of goods entrusted to merchants was reckoned in weights of silver or volumes of barley, as was that of the commodities that the merchants brought back from their expeditions. Silver rings, coils of silver wire that could easily be cut into pieces, and other small units (often of 5 shekels weight) were regularly used in transactions, the requisite quantity of silver being weighed out to make a purchase or pay for a service."[50]

Postal System

Code the variables below as absent/present/unknown

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Steel ♣ ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in previous and subsequent polities
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent in previous and subsequent polities
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ [present; absent] ♥ The Babylonian Chronicles detail the fall of Assyria. They state that the king of Akkad (Babylonia) bought siege engines against the city of Rahilu, but it does not specify what kind of siege engine. [51]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ [present; absent] ♥ The Babylonian Chronicles detail the fall of Assyria. They state that the king of Akkad (Babylonia) bought siege engines against the city of Rahilu, but it does not specify what kind of siege engine. [52]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ ♥
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Breastplates ♣ ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥ (also known as banded mail, example: lorica segmentata)
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥ (such as galleys and sailing ships)

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ A Babylonian inscription "begins with the names and titles of Nebuchadrezzar the Great (604 B.C.) and discusses the building of various temples and palaces as well as the ramparts of Babylon and Borsippa."[53]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Popular text refers to a 'Moat of Babylon' (Neo-Babylonia) and the index of a work from 1915 mentions 'Moat, of Babylon'. Likely but cannot find reference at this time.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in previous and subsequent polities.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Babylon had at least an inner and outer defensive wall [54]
♠ Long walls ♣ 43 ♥ km. The Median Wall, built between the Tigris and Euphrates, north of Babylon, to defend against barbarian tribes.[55] Extended "from Sippar to Opis" to the north of Babylon.[56] Distance between locations considered to be Sippar and Opis is 43 km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak; Dan Mullins ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ [57]

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥According to Bidmead, rulers were legitimated by gods[58][59]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [60] [61] [62]

References

  1. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson. p.126-127
  2. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson. p.128-130
  3. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson. p.128
  4. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson. p.134-135
  5. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59. p.46
  6. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson.
  7. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson. p.128-130
  8. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59. p.46
  9. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson.
  10. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.541
  11. Baker, H. D. 2012. The Neo-Babylonian Empire. In Potts, D. T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Volume II. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. p.915
  12. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59. p.39-40
  13. Kriwaczek, P. 2010. Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization. London: Atlantic Books. p.246
  14. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.545
  15. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.541
  16. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59. p.94-99
  17. Meyers, E. M. (ed.) 1997. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.259
  18. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.541
  19. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59. p.97
  20. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.547
  21. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.538
  22. Sallaberger, W. 2007 Palace and temple in Babylonia. In Leick, G. (ed.) The Babylonian World. London: Routledge. p.273
  23. Sallaberger, W. 2007 Palace and temple in Babylonia. In Leick, G. (ed.) The Babylonian World. London: Routledge. p.273
  24. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.547
  25. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.547
  26. Mori, L. 2009. Land and Land Use: the Middle Euphrates Valley. In Leick, G. (ed.) The Babylonian World. London: Routledge. p.41-42
  27. Baker, H.D. 2012. The Neo-Babylonian Empire. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Volume II. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. p.916
  28. Baker, H.D. 2012. The Neo-Babylonian Empire. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Volume II. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. p.916
  29. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Seimitc Muesum Monographs 59. p.47
  30. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.549
  31. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.104
  32. Baker, H.D. 2012. The Neo-Babylonian Empire. In Potts, D.T. (ed.) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Volume II. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. p.920
  33. Kriwaczek, P. 2010. Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization. London: Atlantic Books. p.246
  34. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  35. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  36. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  37. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  38. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  39. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  40. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  41. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  42. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  43. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  44. Huehnergard, J. and Woods, C. 2008. Akkadian and Eblaite in Woodard, R.D. (ed.) The Ancient Languages of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Aksum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.84
  45. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.146
  46. (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  47. Gill, A. 2008. Gateway of the Gods: The Rise and Fall of Babylon. London: Quercus. p.146
  48. (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  49. (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  50. (McIntosh 2005: 132) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  51. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.538
  52. Liverani, M. 2011. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. p.538
  53. (Semper 2004, 347) Gottfried Semper. 2004. Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts, Or, Practical Aesthetics. Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles.
  54. Vanderhooft, D.S. 1999. The Neo-Babylonian Empire and Babylon in the Latter Prophets. Harvard Semitic Museum Monographs 59. p. 30
  55. Oates, J. 1986. Babylon. London: Thames & Hudson. p.130
  56. (Nemet-Nejat 1998, 44) Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat. 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  57. Joannes, F. 2007. Historia Mezopotamii w I tysiącleciu przed Chrystusem. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 102.
  58. Juyle Bidmead 2017 Jan Oxford workshop, interview by Tom Currie and Dan Mullins
  59. Joannes, F. 2007. Historia Mezopotamii. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 126.
  60. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  61. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  62. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html