IqIsinL

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Old Babylonian Period ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2004-1763 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ "The Ur III Empire broke up into a number of autonomous smaller states, controlling and fighting over other ancient cities."[1]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ "During Ibbi-Sin’s reign, imperial control over the surrounding regions broke down. As a result, an increasing number of autonomous centres began to appear. This facilitated the rise of about a dozen of independent States competing with each other. While Isin took over a large portion of the inheritance of the Third Dynasty of Ur, further south Larsa and Uruk remained independent."[2]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ IqUrIII ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "The Ur III Empire broke up into a number of autonomous smaller states, controlling and fighting over other ancient cities."[3]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ IqBabAm ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ none ♥ "During Ibbi-Sin’s reign, imperial control over the surrounding regions broke down. As a result, an increasing number of autonomous centres began to appear. This facilitated the rise of about a dozen of independent States competing with each other. While Isin took over a large portion of the inheritance of the Third Dynasty of Ur, further south Larsa and Uruk remained independent."[4]


Language

♠ Language ♣ Akkadian ♥ "Sumerian continued to be the language of scholarship but was no longer spoken; Akkadian, in contrast, was used for international communication from Anatolia to Elam."[5]

General Description

There were four main settlement types during the Old Babylonian period: large cities, secondary provincial cities, smaller towns, and villages. [6][7]

While the temples still held great importance as in previous polities, the state administration of the entire state was under control of the king. However, over the course of this period imperial control over surrounding regions began to break down, increasing the number of small autonomous states who began competing with each other for other cities. [8]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People. "Despite these changes, the total number of inhabitants and the relations between cities and villages remained roughly the same [as in the Ur III period]."[9]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [175,000-225,000] ♥ Inhabitants. "Despite these changes, the total number of inhabitants and the relations between cities and villages remained roughly the same [as in the Ur III period]."[10] "In the Neo-Sumerian period, the population of Ur was ca. 200,000 people. Both this population increase and the urban improvements were largely supported by agricultural activities."[11]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. "Despite these changes, the total number of inhabitants and the relations between cities and villages remained roughly the same [as in the Ur III period]."[12] Copied over from IqUrIII page: The territory of the largest cities is bigger than 200 ha ( e. g. Umma, Girsu, Lagash, Larsa, Isin, Suheri), the capital - Ur-50 ha, smaller cities- between 40-200ha (e. g. Zabalam, Adab), bigger towns - 20-40 ha (e.g. Wilaya), smaller towns - 10-20 ha and villages[13]

1. Large cities
2. smaller cities
3. Towns
4. Villages

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. Copied from IqUrIII.

1. Ruler

_Palatial government_

2.
3.
4.

_Provincial government_

2. Provincial/regional governors - sukkalmah
3.
4.
3. town mayors - ensi
4. village heads - hazannum.[14]

"The temple authorities, while still of great importance, now gave way politically to the king, who had full control of the state’s administration, as is vividly shown in a number of surviving archives."[15]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. Copied from IqUrIII.

♠ Military levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels. Copied from IqUrIII.

1. Ruler
2. Shagina (generals)
3. Nu-banda (higher officers)
4. Ugula gešda (officers commanding 60 soldiers)
5. šeš-gal-nam (officers commanding 10 soldiers)
6. Erin (soldiers)[16], [17]

Worth noting that the sukkal-mah (vizier) might have played important role during the war as well.[18]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Copied from IqUrIII. "Many records clearly show the aga-uš in specifically military activities (...), particularly in the entourage of the king and of the army’s leadership (...). His life was that of a soldier (...); he was provided with weapons, for the use of which a regular regime of training was necessary (...) and he clearly served under a military chain of command". [19]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Copied from IqUrIII. "Many records clearly show the aga-uš in specifically military activities (...), particularly in the entourage of the king and of the army’s leadership (...). His life was that of a soldier (...); he was provided with weapons, for the use of which a regular regime of training was necessary (...) and he clearly served under a military chain of command". [20]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations. In other words, members of these elite groups prevented anyone outside this clique from accessing their posts. They also monopolised the technical knowledge needed for the management of these institutions."[21]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations. In other words, members of these elite groups prevented anyone outside this clique from accessing their posts. They also monopolised the technical knowledge needed for the management of these institutions."[22]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ Temples and palaces both doubled as administration buildings--inferred from knowledge of preceding and succeeding periods, as well the following quote: "the transmission of one’s professional knowledge from father to son was not a particularly negative tendency for the palace. In the long run, however, it transformed the palace and temple personnel into a series of closed corporations."[23]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "A number of kings in this period have left law codes, following the earlier example of Shulgi, and consciously upholding and imitating ancient values."[24]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Copied from IqAkkad. "There was also a formal court procedure before judges, but this cost money, so was presumably resorted to only by people with means. Judges were important dignitaries, entitled to enjoy the income from good-sized estates given them by the king's officials; the act of judging was a divine attribute, associated with profound knowledge, probity, fairness, and wisdom, rather than with specific legal training."[25] Was this "important dignitary" a specialist at judging or did they also have other jobs?

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Copied from IqAkkad. "There was also a formal court procedure before judges, but this cost money, so was presumably resorted to only by people with means. Judges were important dignitaries, entitled to enjoy the income from good-sized estates given them by the king's officials; the act of judging was a divine attribute, associated with profound knowledge, probity, fairness, and wisdom, rather than with specific legal training."[26]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "The court procedure entailed appearing before a judge or judges, who may have been paid for hearing the case, and hiring a bailiff, whose task it was to schedule the trial and assemble the parties and witnesses at the right time and place, for which he too received a fee. A scribe was needed to draw up a summary of the case and finding. No doubt he received a fee as well."[27]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Maintenance of canals and irrigation works were crucially important for the well-being of the state."[28]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "It is true, as Karl Polányi has pointed out, that we have to distinguish between market-place and market: the former is securely attested (Akkadian mah˘ı¯rum) in Mesopotamia from the Old Babylonian period onwards".[29]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "Paved roads were rare outside the cities; the major highways and many minor ways were, nevertheless, genuine roads, created by leveling and compacting the ground, and regularly repaired after damage by rain and other natural hazards. Army engineers preceded military expeditions to identify the most appropriate line of march, check and clear or repair existing roads, and, where necessary, construct new ones."[30]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "Routes were often dictated by the location of oases, mountain passes, and river crossings, by bridge, ford, or ferry."ref>(McIntosh 2005: 139) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.</ref>
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ "Rivers and canals were the main highways wherever possible since water transport, particularly of bulk goods, was easier than that over land."[31]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ "As a southern city easily connected to the Persian Gulf, Ur appears to have been involved in maritime commercial activities organised by its main sanctuary, the temple of Nanna (and his divine consort Ningal)."[32] "Textual references to maritime trade make it clear that ships from Dilmun, Magan, and Meluhha docked at Sumerian ports, and there is some indication that Sumer’s merchants sailed to Dilmun and probably Magan."[33]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "Frequent records of the construction or restoration of city walls reflect the instability of the times and the need for constant defense."[34]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "Syllabaries were adapted to accommodate the characteristics of [Akkadian] (the voiced-unvoiced-emphatic triad, the use of long vowels and double consonants and so on)."[35]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ "Syllabaries were adapted to accommodate the characteristics of [Akkadian] (the voiced-unvoiced-emphatic triad, the use of long vowels and double consonants and so on)."[36]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "Price lists were also an integral part of these codes (from the one of Ur-Nammu to the one of Eshnunna; see Text 11.2). [...] Consequently, royal steles were left in market-places as references for the fair prices established by the king."[37]
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ "The bulk of Sumerian texts, composed from late ED onward, survive as copies made in the OB period, the peak of Mesopotamian literary creativity, found particularly in private houses in Nippur and Ur. These included school exercises in mathematics and writing, accounts of school life, hymns and lamentations, mythological and historical poems, law codes, disputation poems, love songs and lullabies, proverbs and riddles, formal letters, and incantations."[38]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "The bulk of Sumerian texts, composed from late ED onward, survive as copies made in the OB period, the peak of Mesopotamian literary creativity, found particularly in private houses in Nippur and Ur. These included school exercises in mathematics and writing, accounts of school life, hymns and lamentations, mythological and historical poems, law codes, disputation poems, love songs and lullabies, proverbs and riddles, formal letters, and incantations."[39]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "There were other, more practical, compositions, such as the equally classic, but shorter, ana ittišu series. This was a handbook of legal formulas developed for the writing of legal contracts. Then, there were numerical texts (with multiples, multiplications, reciprocals and so on) to facilitate calculations."[40]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "the Old Babylonian period experienced a surge of the historiographical activities of scribes, normally in connection to current political problems (such as royal legitimacy and royal decisions). This historiographical effort generated at least three types of compositions. First, there were king lists[...]. The second type of composition consists of the collections of Akkadian and Ur III royal inscriptions (copied from the monuments that still stood in the main Mesopotamian sanctuaries) and from the royal correspondence of the Ur III kings. [...] The third type of composition, partly derived from the second type, was that of pseudo-historical texts, from ‘false inscriptions’ (narû), imitating authentic inscriptions, to historical poems of the kings of Akkad."[41]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "The structure was also applied to texts of a ‘scientific’ nature, such as medicine."[42]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "The bulk of Sumerian texts, composed from late ED onward, survive as copies made in the OB period, the peak of Mesopotamian literary creativity, found particularly in private houses in Nippur and Ur. These included school exercises in mathematics and writing, accounts of school life, hymns and lamentations, mythological and historical poems, law codes, disputation poems, love songs and lullabies, proverbs and riddles, formal letters, and incantations."[43]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ "Trade between Ur and Dilmun consisted in exporting textiles (as well as silver and other products, like sesame oil or leather) and returning with ingots of copper from Magan."[44]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Silver.[45]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[46]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[47]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[48]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[49]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ ♥
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Used in earlier periods.
♠ Self bow ♣ ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The later third-millennium development of the composite bow revolutionized warfare."[50]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[51]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[52]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[53]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[54]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ The following quote seems to suggest that horses were used in warfare just after the period under consideration. "The introduction of horses set in train a revolution on the battlefield. Faster and more powerful than donkeys, horses were better suited for drawing war chariots, particularly later in the millennium when the bit replaced the earlier nose-ring, improving their control and traction power. The seventeenth century B.C.E. also saw structural improvements to chariots."[55] In earlier periods, "leaders [rode] in ponderous war-carts with four solid wheels, drawn by donkeys or mules".[56]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following quote seems to suggest that horses were used in warfare just after the period under consideration. "The introduction of horses set in train a revolution on the battlefield. Faster and more powerful than donkeys, horses were better suited for drawing war chariots, particularly later in the millennium when the bit replaced the earlier nose-ring, improving their control and traction power. The seventeenth century B.C.E. also saw structural improvements to chariots."[57]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ "Protection against weapons was still generally made of leather or thick felt, although the later second millennium saw growing use among those who could afford it of body armor made of overlapping copper or bronze platelets sewn onto the leather. It became more common in the first millennium, now made with iron rather than bronze scales."[58]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "Protection against weapons was still generally made of leather or thick felt, although the later second millennium saw growing use among those who could afford it of body armor made of overlapping copper or bronze platelets sewn onto the leather. It became more common in the first millennium, now made with iron rather than bronze scales."[59]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in earlier periods.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in earlier periods.
♠ Breastplates ♣ ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "Protection against weapons was still generally made of leather or thick felt, although the later second millennium saw growing use among those who could afford it of body armor made of overlapping copper or bronze platelets sewn onto the leather. It became more common in the first millennium, now made with iron rather than bronze scales."[60]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ "Protection against weapons was still generally made of leather or thick felt, although the later second millennium saw growing use among those who could afford it of body armor made of overlapping copper or bronze platelets sewn onto the leather. It became more common in the first millennium, now made with iron rather than bronze scales."[61]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ "Protection against weapons was still generally made of leather or thick felt, although the later second millennium saw growing use among those who could afford it of body armor made of overlapping copper or bronze platelets sewn onto the leather. It became more common in the first millennium, now made with iron rather than bronze scales."[62]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "Protection against weapons was still generally made of leather or thick felt, although the later second millennium saw growing use among those who could afford it of body armor made of overlapping copper or bronze platelets sewn onto the leather. It became more common in the first millennium, now made with iron rather than bronze scales."[63]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[64]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[65]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ In the second millennium BCE, "Moats were becoming a common feature of city defenses"[66]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone."[67]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "Its walls were built from stone."[68]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ "In order to overcome the shock, a concrete attempt was made to exorcise it, with a conscious effort to provide a sense of ideological continuity with the past. This effort was pursued especially by the kings of Isin, who presented themselves as the heirs of the kings of Ur. These kings took over the deification, titulature and ambitions of the kings of Ur and created a king list promoting a direct succession from the dynasty of Ur to that of Isin."[69]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [70] [71] [72]

References

  1. (McIntosh 2005: 84) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  2. (Liverani 2014, 187) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  3. (McIntosh 2005: 84) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  4. (Liverani 2014, 187) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  5. (McIntosh 2005: 84) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  6. (Liverani 2014, 186) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  7. Ur 2013, 143-144
  8. (Liverani 2014, 187) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  9. (Liverani 2014, 186) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  10. (Liverani 2014, 186) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  11. (Liverani 2014, 161) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  12. (Liverani 2014, 186) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  13. Ur 2013, 143-144
  14. Roux 1998, 149
  15. (McIntosh 2005: 84) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  16. Hamlin 2006, 114
  17. Rutkowski 2007, 18
  18. Lafont 2009, 14
  19. Lafont 2009,9-10
  20. Lafont 2009,9-10
  21. (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  22. (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  23. (Liverani 2014, 196) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  24. (McIntosh 2005: 84) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  25. (Foster 2016, 38) Foster, Benjamin R. 2016. The Age of Agade. Inventing Empire In Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. London.
  26. (Foster 2016, 38) Foster, Benjamin R. 2016. The Age of Agade. Inventing Empire In Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. London.
  27. (Foster 2016, 39) Foster, Benjamin R. 2016. The Age of Agade. Inventing Empire In Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. London.
  28. (McIntosh 2005: 85) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  29. (Liverani 2014, 200) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. London: Routledge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7DRZQS5Q/q/liverani.
  30. (McIntosh 2005: 189) McIntosh, J. 2005. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspective. Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
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