IqEDyn*

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General variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Early Dynastic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥ 2296-2271 BCE III dynasty of Uruk and the reign of Lugalzagesi[1]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2900-2500 BCE ♥ according to short chronology. The Early Dynastic Period is subdivided into three phases: Early Dynastic I, Early Dynastic II and Early Dynastic III. The Early Dynastic Period III is additionally divided into two subphases: A and B.[2] The Early Dynastic Period I-II (ED I-II) is dated to 2900-2600 BCE, and ED IIIA is dated to 2600-2500 BCE and ED IIIB is dated to 2500-2270 BCE.[3] Following middle chronology this period is dated: 2900-2334 BCE[4] The end of this period is designated by the beginning of Sargon's reign of Akkad.[5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity; nominal ♥ quasi-polity: 2900-2700 BCE; nominal: 2700-2270 BCE[6]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Uruk ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ There are no traces of any dramatic cultural interruption between these two periods.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Akkadian Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ none ♥ There was no single capital as the Sumer in Early Dynastic Period consisted of many various "city-state' organism. However, the special significance had city of Kish and the title- "lugal of Kish" ("king") was very prestige title. On the other hand, the city of Nippur played a role of religious capital of whole Sumer.[7]

♠ Language ♣ Sumerian ♥ [8]

General Description

The Early Dynastic polity was not a single political unit, but rather a conglomeration of various smaller polities which shared most of the features, either cultural, social, political or economic. To cite Hamblin: "Politically Sumer in the Early Dynastic period was divided into a number of separate and feuding independent city-states engaged in complex pattern of cooperation, alliance, conflict and war.[9] Most of the cities were ruled by the kings-priests (called lugal or en) which competed with other city-states. The Early Dynastic Period is directly linked to previous polities, especially Jemdet Nasr and most of the urban centres were still occupied and developed. According to Chavrat: "For the earlier part of the ED period, three types of architectural layout stand out: spacious residences in enclosures (sometimes oval such as those observed on the west mound of Abu Salabikh and elsewhere); regular buildings on ordered plans, comprising most of those currently described as ‘temples’ and ‘palaces’; and, finally, densely packed urban networks such as those of the Abu Salabikh Central Mound or of the ‘Y’ sounding at Kiš."[10]The position of temples were very high, and fulfilled not only religious or ceremonial role, but also political and administrative. The temples had their own fields and animals and were independent institutions, but also obtained gifts for god or goddess from people. Moreover, many people, mostly farmers were obligated to render some services and work. [11] The recent studies, however, indicated on dominant role of temple as social and economic institution in Early Dynastic Period I, but gradually the palaces gained prominent position. There is assumed that military victory of some rulers played significant role in forming high position of palace and secular power.[12][13] The Early Dynastic Period is also described as a time when the first very intensive military campaigns and conflicts happened. The increase of warfare activity was probably caused by a need of new agricultural lands and water rights, and it also reflected the process of cumulation of power and growth of political significance of some individuals.[14] The main source of information concerning the political history of Sumer in the Early Dynastic Period is the Sumerian king-list, which contained the names of ling ruling in various Mesopotamian cities. The main problem, however, is to reconstruct both the exact time of each ruling and the synchronize the ruling of each king. The list mentioned few royal dynasty such as the first, second and third dynasty of Kish (with kings Enmebarasi, Agga, etc), the first dynasty of Uruk (one of the most known kings were Gilgamesh, Enmerkar, Lugalbanda), the first dynasty of Ur, dynasty of Adab, dynasty of Mari, dynasty of Hamazi, dynasty of Awan, dynasty of Akshak. There is assumed that the supremacy of Uruk dynasty correlates with duration of Early Dynastic Period II (circa 2650-2550 BCE).[15]

"What is known is that by the third millennium B.C., the Sumerians had improved the shape of the bricks - loaf-shaped at first - by making them flat on one side and convex on the other. More importantly, they also invented the kiln to harden the bricks. Now harder and waterproof, the bricks were also porous, and absorbed some of the bitumen used as mortar and became strong as rock. Esir was then mixed with straw or clay to make it into a stiff mortar capable of sustaining the heavy load of the superimposed brickwork without sagging. Thus were built, until 2200 B.C., the palaces and temples of distant Sumerian kings in such ancient cities as Kish, Ur and Uruk. (Bilkadi, Z. 1984. Bitumen: A History. Saudi Aramco World. November/December. pp 2-9. https://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/198406/bitumen.-.a.history.htm)

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,200-20,200] ♥ in squared kilometers. Adams mentions two settlement enclaves: southern and northern. The southern enclave was inhabited by 86300 people on area of 2398 in squared km and the northern enclave had 20240 people living on area of 1184 in squared km[16] 30,000[17]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [20,200-86,300] ♥ Adams mentions two settlement enclaves: southern and northern. The southern enclave was inhabited by 86300 people on area of 2398 in squared km and the northern enclave had 20240 people living on area of 1184 in squared km[18] 100,000-200,000[19] Most of the population lived in the cites. According to Adams, 10% of the settlement was nonurban (occupying villages smaller than 10ha) and almost 78,4% settlement was large urban area (and had more than 40 ha) in the Early Dynastic Period II/III[20]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels. (1) Large City (200 ha and bigger) (2) City (100-200 ha) (3) Large Town (30 ha and bigger) (4) Town (around 15 ha) (5) Village (around 7 ha) (6) Hamlet (around 2 ha).[21]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ damgar in Sumerian[22]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Full-time specialists absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The bureaucratic system was very elaborated but there usually, the administrative works were done either by temple or palace officials[23]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ Ruler's residence was also an administrative building:"The palace (Sumerian e.gal, Akkadian ekallum) was the residence of the royal family in city-states and imperial capitals, such as Mari and Nineveh, and of governors in provincial cities and towns, such as Eshnunna. It was also an administrative, industrial, and economic center."[24]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ [25]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ [26] Is this a piped network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements?
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ [27]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ e.g. glyptic, stela[28]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [29]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ cuneiform[30]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ [31]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ [32]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ e. g. Temple Hymns[33]
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ [34]
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ silver, gold, copper[35]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Early Dynastic Period.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Early Dynastic Period.
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Early Dynastic Period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ [36]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [37][38]
♠ Iron ♣ ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence of steel use are dated to 1800 BC and site Kaman-Kalehoyuk in Central Anatolia[39]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions of equally detailed military iconography.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Troops also included archers and soldiers armed with slings and ovoid stones, probably mainly recruited among the hunters and fishermen of the south."[40] maceheads[41]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "Troops also included archers and soldiers armed with slings and ovoid stones, probably mainly recruited among the hunters and fishermen of the south."[42] arrowheads were discovered in many graves dated to Early Dynastic Period[43]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "The later third-millennium development of the composite bow revolutionized warfare."[44]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ There are no archaeological records regarding the invention of this machine before 4th century BC[45]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ This type of engine is known from ancient time, and the first evidence came from 4th century BC. [46]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ inferred absent ♥ The gunpowder was invented around 9th century AD, but the gunpowder artillery was in use since Middle Age. [47]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ The first very simple firearms came from China and are dated to 13th century AD [48]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[49] maceheads[50]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[51][52]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[53]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "It was not until iron came into widespread use in the early first millennium that swords in particular and iron weapons in general began to replace the more expensive bronze spears, arrowheads, axes, and daggers of earlier times."[54]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Standard of Ur' and 'The Stele of Vultures' (see p. 75) depict foot soldiers armed with spears or pole-mounted axes, their heads protected by leather or felt helmets."[55]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Standard of Ur' and 'The Stele of Vultures' (see p. 75) depict foot soldiers armed with spears or pole-mounted axes, their heads protected by leather or felt helmets."[56]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ scene at cylindrical seal[57]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ there are depicted the war-carts pulled by donkeys[58]
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Camels ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ some leather-like cloths protecting the warriors were shown on the Standard of Ur[59]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [60]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [61]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ E.g., greaves.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ (also known as banded mail, example: lorica segmentata)
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥ Some boats were used during military campaigns, but there is impossible to establish what type of boats were used[62]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥ (such as galleys and sailing ships)

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ e. g. Tell Taja[63]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Partly stone walls were discovered at Tall Taja.[64] Were these defensive stone walls or the walls of a building? More detail needed.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ used after the introduction of gunpowder, e.g., trace italienne/starfort

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [65] [66] [67]

References

  1. Hamblin 2006, 64-66
  2. Roux 1998, 110
  3. Brisch 2013, 116
  4. Hamblin 2006, 35
  5. McIntosh 2005, 70
  6. Brisch 2013, 117-120
  7. Hamblin 2006, 44
  8. Cunningham 2013, 95-97
  9. Hamblin 2006, 44
  10. Chavrat 2012, 235
  11. Gadd 1971, 137-138
  12. Evans 2012, 121
  13. Cohen 2005, 3-5
  14. McIntosh 2005, 71
  15. Hamblin 2006, 44-49
  16. (Adams 1981, 90) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/MAIAZJ3K.
  17. Roux 1998, 115
  18. (Adams 1981, 90) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/MAIAZJ3K.
  19. Peregrine 2002, 113
  20. Adams 1981, 138
  21. Adams 1981, 142
  22. Roux 1998, 117
  23. Roux 1998, 119
  24. (McIntosh 2005: 153) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  25. Charvat 2012, 212
  26. Delougaz 140, 38
  27. Emberling 2015, 253
  28. Roux 1998, 114
  29. Roux 1998, 114
  30. Cunningham 2013, 97-99
  31. Taylor 2013, 298-99
  32. Cohen 1983, 9
  33. Postgate 2007, 26
  34. Postgate 2007, 26
  35. Roux 1998, 115
  36. Hamblin 2006, 48
  37. Hamblin 2006, 48-9
  38. Charvat 2012, 223
  39. Akamuna 2005, 147-158
  40. (McIntosh 2005: 187-188) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  41. Postgate 2007, 30-31
  42. (McIntosh 2005: 187-188) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  43. Charvat 2012, 198
  44. (McIntosh 2005: 188) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  45. Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.
  46. Campbel 2003,3, 8.
  47. Needham 1987, 266.
  48. Ho Peng Yoke 1997, 389.
  49. (McIntosh 2005: 190) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  50. Postgate 2007, 30-31
  51. (McIntosh 2005: 190) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  52. Hamblin 2006, 48
  53. (McIntosh 2005: 190) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  54. (McIntosh 2005: 190) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  55. (McIntosh 2005: 187) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  56. (McIntosh 2005: 187) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/KK2E3KMD.
  57. Hamblin 2006, 50
  58. Hamblin 2006, 49
  59. Hamblin 2006, 49
  60. Hamblin 2006, 48
  61. Hamblin 2006, 48
  62. Hamblin 2006, 50
  63. Roux 1998, 113
  64. Roux 1998, 113
  65. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  66. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  67. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

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