IqAbbs2

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Abbasid Caliphate II ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Abbasid Caliphate ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1226 CE ♥

Al-Nasir (r.1180-1225 CE)

"Modern scholars, most notably Angelika Hartmann, argue that we was the last truly effective caliph in the Abbasid dynasty and 'restored this specifically Islamic institution to its former prestige."[1]

The Caliphate of the late 12th to early 13th century "was a very different institution than the one into which al-Qadir billah entered ... we should view al-Qadir and al-Nasir's caliphates as milestones in the history of the Abbasid Caliphate. Al-Nasir's caliphate was a culmination of caliphal revitalization, a process that did not follow a distinctly linear path, but rather was affected by the unique actions of each of the previous caliphs, starting with al-Qadir, who began the process with his attempts to reassert the caliphal position in Baghdad."[2]

1226 CE since Az-Zahir built an army.

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1191-1258 CE ♥

Al-Nasir (r.1180-1225 CE)

Az-Zahir (r.1225-1226 CE)

Al-Mustansir (r.1236-1242 CE)

Al-Musta'sim (r.1242-1258 CE)

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Alliance

with Alamut (Ismaili assassins). Alliance between Jalal al-Din Hassan III and Abbasid Caliph al-Nasir.[3]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Seljuk Empire ♥ "the majority of extant buildings are in the Abbasid homeland of Iraq."[4]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Il-khanate ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Perso-Islamic ♥ "Abbasid architecture was influenced by three architectural traditions: Sassanian, Central Asian (Sogdian) and later, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Seljuk."[5] "traditional Perso-Islamic administrative apparatus developed in late Abbasid times".[6]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 3,500,000 ♥ km squared. Region of Iraq, Iran, Central Asia, and Afghanistan.

♠ Capital ♣ Baghdad ♥


♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

The Second Abbasid Period (1191-1258 CE) was mostly remarkable for the city of Baghdad which is usually estimated to have had about 1 million inhabitants at the time of the Mongol sack in 1258 CE.

With the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258 CE "the culture, science and learning for which Baghdad had been known for centuries simply disappeared in a period of a week."[7] The city was defended by a garrison of just 10,000 soldiers.[8]

In 1200 CE the Abbasids held Iraq and part of western Iran south of the Caspian, the territories holding perhaps 3.9 million inhabitants. The governance system was still Perso-Islamic with a vizier chief bureaucrat who oversaw government departments.[9]

The reign of al-Nasir (1180-1225 CE) was notable for being absolutely repressive "the caliph's spies were so efficient and the caliph himself so ruthless that a man hardly dared to speak to his own wife in the privacy of his home."[10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 750,000: 1200 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

750,000: 1200 CE.

1207 CE lost Persian territory to Khwarezm Empire.

♠ Polity Population ♣ 3,900,000: 1200 CE ♥ People.

In 1200 CE the Abbasids held Iraq and part of western Iran south of the Caspian.

McEvedy and Jones[11]

Iraq 1.5m in 1200 CE. Northernmost part of Iraq. Not controlled by Abbasids. However, likely most populated regions were under their control so will estimate 1.4m.
Iran 5m in 1200 CE. However, significant population centers e.g. Shiraz and Gulf coast region, Khurasan not controlled by Abbasids. Will estimate half of total for region: 2.5m

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 1,000,000 ♥ Inhabitants.

Baghdad is usually estimated to have had about 1 million inhabitants at the time of the Mongol sack in 1258 CE.

For example. Modelski estimated 1m for Baghdad at 1200 CE.[12]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

1. Capital (Baghdad)

2. Regional city (e.g. Isfahan)
3. Smaller city/town (e.g. port, Basra)
4. Town/Village
5. Hamlet?

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

Based on data for preceding polities of the Perso-Islamic type at least 5 levels.


1. Caliph

_Central government_

Totalitarian

The reign of al-Nasir "was unprecedentedly totalitarian ... the caliph's spies were so efficient and the caliph himself so ruthless that a man hardly dared to speak to his own wife in the privacy of his home."[13]

Mercenary

Recruited mercenaries "from across ethnic and tribal communities that they hoped would be more loyal. Among people they recruited were Turks ... The Abbasid plan backfired, however, and eventually their hired guns took over running the affairs of the state."[14]

Perso-Islamic

"traditional Perso-Islamic administrative apparatus developed in late Abbasid times".[15]
2. Vizier
3. ???
4. ???
5. ???

_Provincial government_

2.
3. ???
4. ???
5. ???


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

1. Caliph

"As the nominal leader of the Dar al-Islam (Abode of Islam), the caliph was charged with a variety of tasks, both temporal and spiritual."[16]
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the muslim world.

♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

Based on data for preceding polities at least 5 levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Iqta system of land revenue grants used to pay military in late Abbasid times.[17]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "decentralized administration of the iqta type".[18] Iqta system of land revenue grants used to pay military in late Abbasid times.[19] Recruited mercenaries "from across ethnic and tribal communities that they hoped would be more loyal."[20]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥ absent as Islam did not have a professional priesthood. [21]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Islamic law, shari'a.

"Medieval scholars accepted the view that although the caliphs were the legitimate bearers of temporal authority within the Sunni Muslim community, the ulama were the true "heirs of the Prophet" in terms of religious authority."[22]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Presumably the late Abbasids employed qadi (judge).

Late Abbasid period: "the religious establishment - that is, the ulama - were responsible for education, administering the awqaf, and the administration of justice".[23]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ multiple references to courts in following sources [24] [25] [26]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "ulama (scholars), both in Baghdad and the outlying provinces."[27] "The Qur'an and all the sciences related in one way or another to the study of this sacred book of Islam found a place in the teaching carried on in the cathedral mosques : traditions (hadīth), exegesis (tafsīr), law and legal theory (fiqh, usūl al-fiqh), grammar (nahw), adab (literature). There, also, professors gave legal opinions (fatwā) and sermons (wa'z), and held disputations on matters of law (munāzara)...On the other hand, a class on law was smaller. For law was a more specialized religious science attracting principally those who were preparing for a professional career" [28]

Ibn al-Sa'i mentions female benefactors who built law schools.[29]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Irrigation canals.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ Cisterns? A city of the size and social development of Baghdad at this time may well have had drinking water cisterns, as did Tabriz under the Ilkhans. But what about piping?
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Roads built to facilitate both commerce and the Hajj.
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Ibn al-Sa'i mentions female benefactors who built waterways.[30]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Manuscripts.[31]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ With the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258 CE "the culture, science and learning for which Baghdad had been known for centuries simply disappeared in a period of a week."[32]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ With the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258 CE "the culture, science and learning for which Baghdad had been known for centuries simply disappeared in a period of a week."[33]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Ibn al-Sa'i (1197-1276 CE), "a Baghdadi man of letters", historian and librarian who wrote "Consorts of the Caliphs, Both Free and Slave" about influential women just before 1258 CE.[34] This time was "an age of historians."[35]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ With the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258 CE "the culture, science and learning for which Baghdad had been known for centuries simply disappeared in a period of a week."[36]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ With the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258 CE "the culture, science and learning for which Baghdad had been known for centuries simply disappeared in a period of a week."[37]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poets, including many female poets.[38] Poets included "almost any contemporary Arabic speaker with any claim to literacy and social competence."[39]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Baghdad was a metropolis and a trade center.
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Baghdad was a metropolis and a trade center.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Dinars. "Toward the end of the Abbasid reign, from 1160 to 1258, a series of poorly struck, light-weight coins were issued in Baghdad. Most of these coins were, in effect, no more than coin ingots and were not consistent with any definite monetary standard."[40]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ "As long-distance trade grew, so, too, did the institutions supporting it. Investment patterns, for example. shifted from mostly land based in the late eighth century to a variety of commercial applications, including ships, horses, and shops in the ninth century. A private express courier service augmented the official Abbasid courier system." (Gutelius 2015, 2) [41]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Present in Caliphate armies.[42]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Present in Caliphate armies.[43]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ The thrown spear was present as a weapon of war during the first Abbasid[44] period and under the Buyids.[45]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ unknown ♥ In first Abbasid period there was a poem about a siege that mentions "the evil man that loads the sling" [46] which could also refer to a siege engine.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Under the earlier Abbasids, 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [47] More powerful composite bow likely used at the expense of the self bow.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Under the Abbasids, 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [48] The Abbasids used Turkish mercenaries who likely used the composite bow.
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Earlier Abbasids had the crowboss.[49] Abbasids referred to the crossbow as the qaws al-rijl, first mentioned in 881 CE. [50]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ The earlier Abbasids had the manjaniq, a swing beam engine similiar to the Western Trebuchet. [51] The Manjaniq was man-powered[52] not gravity powered.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon.[53] Need to confirm with an expert source whether a scholar named Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi created an "instruction manual" on the counter-weight trebuchet for Saladin (Ayyubid Sultanate) in 1187 CE. It's logical copies would soon be made of this effective new technology.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[54] Earlier Abbasids had the mace.[55]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[56] Earlier Abbasids had the battle axe.[57] had battle axes.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[58] Earlier Abbasids had the dagger.[59] had daggers.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Earlier Abbasids carried broadswords and short-swords.[60]
♠ Spears ♣ unknown ♥ thrown-spears are known. were handheld-spears such as a lance used?
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Long pikes may have been present, as they were under the earlier Abbasids.[61]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ The Buyids employed the Turks to be their cavalry[62] and the late Abbasids also hired mercenary Turks, which presumably were cavalry.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Were they used as pack animals?
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all."[63]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[64] Used for shields by the preceding Abbasids[65]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Used for shields in the armies of the earlier Abbasids. [66]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Widely available for soldiers in the armies of the earlier Abbasids. [67]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[68] Widely available for soldiers in the armies of the earlier Abbasids.[69]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[70] Some evidence of breastplates in the sources in the armies of the earlier Abbasids. [71]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[72] Some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources for soldiers in the armies of the earlier Abbasids.[73]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[74] "The early Islamic sources treat the coast of mail as a standard piece of military equipment."[75]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[76] The earlier Abbasids had scale armour.[77]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[78] The earlier Abbasids likely used lamellar e.g. for leg protection.[79]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards."[80]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Likely had some military vessels as they had a southern port on the Gulf, but not extensive.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Earlier Abbasids employed spiked wooden barriers.[81]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Earth ramparts were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Ditches were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Moats were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Around Baghdad but by 1258 CE had suffered decades of neglect.[82]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ around Baghdad?
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ General reference, not sure how academic, and not sure which period, but which states as a whole what I’ve read in fragments elsewhere: "The caliphs were limited in power by the Quran, which they should have followed, as it directed all of their actions ... Moreover, the caliphs were limited in their actions by the Ulema, the special class of religious specialists, including Islamic lawyers, judges, and scholars. These so-called narrators of the Quran had effectively limited the powers of the caliphs by claiming the supremacy of their powers over the caliphs. ... Moreover, as the caliphs were not considered to be rightful and just rulers, strictly following the Quran, the Sunni Islamic lawyers stipulated that on these occasions, the Umma had the right to disobey, impeach, or remove such rulers by all possible means, including revolutionary ones. That stipulation highlighted the nature of the caliphs as only temporary rulers subject to the Quran (the Ulema would explain any issues in the people's lives that were missing from the Quran)."[83]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [84]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [85]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[86]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[87]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[88]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [89] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [90]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [91]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [92] [93] [94]

References

  1. (Hanne 2007, 204) Hanne, Eric J. 2007. Putting the Caliph in His Place: Power, Authority, and the Late Abbasid Caliphate. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.
  2. (Hanne 2007, 204) Hanne, Eric J. 2007. Putting the Caliph in His Place: Power, Authority, and the Late Abbasid Caliphate. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.
  3. (Mirza 1993, 53) Mirza, Nasseh Ahmad. 1993. Syrian Ismailism: The Ever Living Line of the Imamate, AD 1100-1260. Psychology Press.
  4. (Petersen 2002, 1)Petersen, Andrew. 2002. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge.
  5. (Petersen 2002, 1)Petersen, Andrew. 2002. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge.
  6. (Shaw 1976, 5) Shaw, Stanford J. 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280-1808. Cambridge University Press.
  7. (DeVries 2014, 209) Kelly DeVries in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  8. (DeVries 2014, 207) Kelly DeVries in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  9. (Shaw 1976, 5) Stanford J Shaw. 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280-1808. Cambridge University Press.
  10. (Bray 2015, xxi) Shawkat M Toorawa ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  11. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 151-153) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd.
  12. (Modelski 2003, 63) Modelski, George. 2003. World Cities: -3000 to 2000. FAROS2000. Washington D.C.
  13. (Bray 2015, xxi) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  14. (Volk 2015) Volk, Lucia ed. 2015. The Middle East in the World: An Introduction. Routledge.
  15. (Shaw 1976, 5) Shaw, Stanford J. 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280-1808. Cambridge University Press.
  16. (Hanne 2007, 22) Hanne, Eric J. 2007. Putting the Caliph in His Place: Power, Authority, and the Late Abbasid Caliphate. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.
  17. (Lapidus 2014, 286) Lapidus, Ira M. 2014. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press.
  18. (Roberts 1973, 529) Roberts, J. 1973. Civilization: The emergence of man in society. CRM Books.
  19. (Lapidus 2014, 286) Lapidus, Ira M. 2014. A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press.
  20. (Volk 2015) Volk, Lucia ed. 2015. The Middle East in the World: An Introduction. Routledge.
  21. Lapidus, A History of Islamic society pp. 133-192
  22. (Hanne 2007, 22) Hanne, Eric J. 2007. Putting the Caliph in His Place: Power, Authority, and the Late Abbasid Caliphate. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.
  23. (Elbendary 2015, 40) Elbendary, Amina. 2015. Crowds and Sultans: Urban Protest in Late Medieval Egypt and Syria. The American University in Cairo Press.
  24. (Tillier, M., 2009. Women before the Qādī under the Abbasids. Islamic Law and Society, 16(3-4), pp.280-301. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/7SKACCD7/item-list).
  25. (Tillier, M., 2009. Qadis and the political use of the mazalim jurisdiction under the'Abbasids. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/I4769ESG/item-list)
  26. (Ziadeh, F., 1996. Compelling defendant's appearance at court in Islamic law. Islamic Law and Society, 3(3), pp.305-315. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/TWIBVCXP/item-list)
  27. (Hanne 2007, 22) Hanne, Eric J. 2007. Putting the Caliph in His Place: Power, Authority, and the Late Abbasid Caliphate. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press.
  28. (Makdisi, G., 1961. Muslim institutions of learning in eleventh-century Baghdad. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 24(1), pp.1-56. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/3D6X5HUM/item-list)
  29. (Bray 2015, xiv) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  30. (Bray 2015, xiv) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  31. (Grabar 2006, 142) Grabar, Oleg. Islamic Visual Culture, 1100-1800, Volume 2. 2006. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  32. (DeVries 2014, 209) DeVries, Kelly in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  33. (DeVries 2014, 209) DeVries, Kelly in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  34. (Bray 2015, xviii, xix, xx) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  35. (Bray 2015, xviii) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  36. (DeVries 2014, 209) DeVries, Kelly in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  37. (DeVries 2014, 209) DeVries, Kelly in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  38. (Bray 2015, xiv) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  39. (Bray 2015, xxiv) Toorawa, Shawkat M ed. 2015. Consorts of the Caliphs: Women and the Court of Baghdad. NYU Press.
  40. http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/abbasid-coins-750-1258ce
  41. (Pomeranz, K., Northrup, C.C., Bentley, J.H., Topik, S., Eckes Jr, A.E. and Manning, P., 2015. Encyclopedia of World Trade: From Ancient Times to the Present: From Ancient Times to the Present. Routledge.)
  42. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  43. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  44. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  45. (Bosworth 1998, 113) in Bosworth, C E and Asimov M S. and Bosworth CE. 1998. History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 4. UNESCO.
  46. (Kennedy 2001, 110)
  47. (Kennedy 2001, 177-178) Kennedy, Hugh N. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the early Islamic State. Vol. 352. Routledge.
  48. (Kennedy 2001, 177-178) Kennedy, Hugh N. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the early Islamic State. Vol. 352. Routledge.
  49. Kennedy, Hugh N. The armies of the caliphs: military and society in the early Islamic state. Vol. 3 Routledge, 2001. pp. 168-182
  50. Nicolle,David, Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1526(Osprey Publishing 2003)
  51. Kennedy, The Armies of the Caliphs p. 184
  52. (Nicolle 2003, 14) Nicolle, David. 2003. Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1526. Osprey Publishing.
  53. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  54. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  55. (Nicolle and Hook 1998) Nicolle D, Hook A. 1998. Armies of the Caliphates 862-1098. Osprey Publishing.
  56. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  57. (Nicolle and Hook 1998, Cover Illustration) Nicolle D, Hook A. 1998. Armies of the Caliphates 862-1098. Osprey Publishing.
  58. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  59. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  60. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  61. (Nicolle 1982, 20) Nicolle, D. 1982. The Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Osprey Publishing.
  62. Busse, H. 1975. Iran under the Būyids. In Frye, R. N. (ed.) The Cambridge History of Iran. Volume 4. The period from the Arab Invasion to the Saljuq's. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.251
  63. (Wink 1997, 102-103) Andre Wink. 1997. Al-Hind. The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Volume II. The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest 11th-13th Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.
  64. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  65. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  66. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  67. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  68. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  69. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  70. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  71. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  72. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  73. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  74. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  75. (Kennedy 2001, 168) Kennedy, H. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs. Routledge. London.
  76. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  77. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  78. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  79. Kennedy, the Armies of the Caliphs pp. 168-178
  80. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  81. (Kennedy 2001, 189) Kennedy, H. 2001. The Armies of the Caliphs. Routledge. London.
  82. (DeVries 2014, 207) Devries, Kelly in Morton, N. John, S. eds. 2014. Crusading and Warfare in the Middle Ages: Realities and Representations. Essays in Honour of John France. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  83. (Sazanov 2014, 90-91) Kuanysh-Beck Sazanov. 2014. The Grand Chatrang Game. AuthorHouse. Bloomington.
  84. Tibi, Bassam . "Authority and Legitimation." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0085 (accessed 11-Aug-2016).
  85. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ pp. 23-28. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  86. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  87. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  88. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  89. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ pp. 39-40. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  90. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 44. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  91. Kahf, Monzer. "Waqf." In The [Oxford] Encyclopedia of Islam and Law.Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:5323/article/opr/t236/e0844?_hi=21&_pos=3 (accessed 11-Aug-2016).
  92. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  93. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  94. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html