IqAbbs1

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Abbasid Caliphate I ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Abbasid Caliphate; al-Khilafah al-Abbasiyyah; First Abbasid Caliphate Period ♥ al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyyah

♠ Peak Date ♣ 809 CE ♥ The end of the reign of Harun- al Rashid (763-809 CE) whose rule is described in The Thousand and One Nights. [1] Or alternatively the year range 786-809 CE, which the whole reign of Harun- al Rashid (763-809 CE) [2].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 750-946 CE ♥ In 750 CE the Abbasid Dynasty took over power from the Umayyad Dynasty. In 946 CE the Caliph lost autonomy when it was taken over by the Daylamite Buyids, reducing the Caliphate to a nominal figurehead of the Islamic world. This resulted also in the loss of an independent military. The Caliph still retained prestige and could influence legitimacy in its former territory. In 1258 CE Baghdad, the capital, was sacked by the Mongols and this extinguished the last vestigial power of the Abbasid Dynasty, although the Abbasid Caliphate was restored in Cairo in 1261. [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state; nominal ♥ unitary state: 750-936 CE; nominal: 937-946 CE In 936 CE, the Caliphate lost substantial powers of authority and was reduced in its ability to control outlying territory because of bankruptcy and the disintegration of the army. The Caliph granted Ibn Ra'iq the control of military and civil power. Ten years later, the Daylamite Buyids conquered Baghdad, reducing the Abbasid Caliphs to figureheads. [4].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Umayyad Caliphate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Buyid Confederation ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Perso-Islamic ♥ "Abbasid architecture was influenced by three architectural traditions: Sassanian, Central Asian (Sogdian) and later, during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Seljuk."[5] Abbasid military was dominated by the Persian technology and tradition.
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kufa; Baghdad; Al-Raqqah; Samarra; Baghdad; Merv ♥ {Kufa: 750-762 CE; Baghdad: 762-833 CE; Al-Raqqah: 796-809 CE; Samarra: 833-893 CE; Baghdad 833-946 CE} [6]. Samarra was the military and administrative headquarters of the Caliphate 836-870 CE. [7] Merv was the capital of the caliphate from 810-819 CE.[8]

Both Baghdad and Samarra were purpose built cities.

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥ Regional languages included Aramaic, Armenian, Berber, Coptic, Georgian, Greek, Kurdish, Persian, Oghuz Turkic. However, Arabic became the language of trade and governance in a vast territory.[9]. In Egypt the adoption of Arabic as the language of local government took over 100 years. Initially almost all papyruses were written in Greek. 643 CE saw the first bilingual Greek-Arabic document and 719 the last. Earliest known Arabic only document is dated 709 CE. The last papyrus written in Greek was in 780 CE. [10]

General Description

In 750 CE, following a revolt, Abbasid rulers took power from the Umayyad Dynasty under Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah. To secure his rule, Abu al-'Abbass al-Saffah sought to destroy the male line descending from Fatima and Ali,[11] and had about 300 members of the Umayyad family killed.[12] The last 80 Umayyads were tricked into attending a banquet with their hosts in Damascus and massacred there.[13] (One twenty-year-old prince, Abd al-Rahman, famously managed to escape this fate: he dodged assassins all the way to Spain, where he founded an Umayyad Emirate). The First Abbasid Caliphate Period ended in 946 CE when the Daylamite Buyids from northwestern Iran reduced the caliph to a nominal figurehead. Ironically, given the bloody manner in which the dynasty began, the final Abbasid caliph was rolled up in his own carpet and trampled to death by Mongol horsemen in 1258 CE.[14] The zenith of the Abbasid period is considered to be the reign of Harun al Rashid (763-809 CE), whose rule is described in The Thousand and One Nights.[15]

Population and political organization

The capital of the Abbasid Caliphate eventually settled at Baghdad, but in the earlier years the central administration was run from Kufa (750-762 CE), Al-Raqqah (796-809 CE), Merv (810-819 CE),[16] and Samarra (836-870 CE).[17][18] The Abbasid caliph, spiritual leader of the Sunni Muslim world and commander-in-chief of its army, left the day-to-day administration to his vizier and heads of the diwans in the complex bureaucracy.
The departments were divided into three main areas of responsibility: the chancery (diwan-al-rasa'il); tax collection (diwan al-kharif); and army administration (diwan al-jaysh).[19] Professional officials and soldiers were paid both in cash and in kind.[20] The task of organizing the 'collection and payment of revenues' fell to the Abbasid military.[21] However, while it was a professional institution, it lacked a rigid hierarchy or a well-defined officer class.[22] Below the caliph himself, the top military rulers were the provincial governors in Iraq, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, Western Iran and Khuzistan. In Iraq and Egypt, local government was divided into a hierarchy of districts, with subdivisions (kura, tassuj and rustaq) used for assessing taxation, which was passed to the governor.[23] Within the Abbasid Caliphate there were also relatively independent vassals, who were required to pay tribute to the central government at Baghdad.[24] The law code was based largely on sharia law and the ijma' (legal opinions of religious scholars).[25]
The Abbasid state provided centres of medical care, built ornate public markets, often with drinking fountains, and furnished welfare for the poor.[26] As paper technology diffused from China, libraries became a common fixture in the cities of the caliphate. In Baghdad, the Khizanat al-Hikma, or 'treasury of wisdom', became a refuge for scholars, providing access to a large collection as well as free lodgings and board.[27] Each important city included an official called the saheb al-sorta, who was responsible for maintaining public order, and the amir al-suq, in charge of regulating the bazaar.[28]
The territory possessed by the caliphate was lost in dramatic fashion, shrinking from 11.1 million square kilometres in 750 CE, to 4.6 million around 850 CE, to just 1 million square kilometres half a century later as Egypt, Afghanistan and Central Asia were all lost.[29] Nevertheless, in 900 CE the core region of Abbasid control in the Middle East still had a substantial population of about 10 million people.[30] Over 300,000 (or maybe 900,000) of these lived in Baghdad,[31] which by this date had probably outgrown Byzantine Constantinople.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 8,300,000: 800 CE; 1,000,000: 900 CE ♥ kilometers squared. 11,100,000: 750 CE; 8,300,000: 800 CE; 4,600,000: 850 CE; 1,000,000: 900 CE; 200,000: 946 CE [32]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [23,000,000-33,000,000]: 800 CE; [9,000,000-11,000,000]: 900 CE ♥ persons.

[23,000,000-33,000,000]: 750-799 CE ET: is this expert disagreement or a range? I've changed curly brackets to square brackets on the assumption it's a range (only one source cited). [720 CE] {23,000,000-33,000,000} [33] The population of the Abbasid Caliphate would have been comparable to the preceding Umayyad Caliphate. The loss of Iberia and the Western half of North Africa in part accounted for by the ensuring population growth of the remaining territory.

900 CE - no Egypt, Afghanistan or Central Asia.

Western Iran 2m (estimating half of total 4.25m), Iraq 2.5m, The Interior (Saudi Arabia) 2m, Palestine and Jordan 0.5m, Syria 1.5m. [34] Also a bit of Turkey and the Caucasus which is too tough to estimate. Will use 9 million as base of a range.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 700,000: 800 CE; {300,000; 900,000}: 900 CE ♥ Baghdad. Founded in 762 CE, Baghdad eventually surpassed Constantinople as the largest urban centre in the Middle East.

[300,000-500,000]: 900 CE [35]

700,000: 800 CE [36] 900,000: 900 CE [37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥

These are based on the minimalist estimates put forth by J.C Russel in Medieval Regions and Their Cities. [38]His estimates are lower than others but have the largest amount of evidence to support them. The full arguments regarding urbanization and demographics for the later part of the Abbassid period can be found in Maya Shatzmiller's Labour in the Medievel Islamic World.[39]

The settlement hierarchy can be divided into seven subsets:

1. More than 150,000: Baghdad, Samarra [40]
2. Metropoles (50,000-150,000): Cairo [41]
3. Provincial Centres (20,000-50,000): Antioch, Alexandria [42]
4. Provincial cities (10,000-20,000): Jerusalem [43]
5. Small towns (500-10,000): Gaza, Hebron [44]
6. Villages (200-500)

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥

Longest chain was provincial government, probably in Iraq: 1. Caliph - 2. Governor - 3. kura (name of level) - 4. tassuj (name of level) - 5. rustaj (name of level) - 6. Village headman


1. Caliph

In Baghdad

_ Central government line _

2. wazir in Baghdad
Presided over The Three Bureaus (Diwans)
3. diwan-al-rasa'il (Chancery)
Three types of services were departmentalized. These were called Diwans in Arabic. These departments were divided into three main areas of responsibility: the Chancery (diwan-al-rasa’il), the department responsible for tax collection (diwan al-kharif), and the department overseeing the army (diwan al-jaysh).
3. diwan al-kharif (tax collection)
4. Sub-heads within diwan al-kharif
Lapidus comments on the elaborate subdivisions within each department throughout the period, beyond what the simple three tiers implies. [45]
5. Scribes
6. Tax collectors
3. diwan al-jaysh (army administration)
3. Pensions
Court expenses and pensions were handled by separate administrations.
3. Court expenses
Court expenses and pensions were handled by separate administrations.
2. Barid
Postal and information service. Also used to inspect/spy on governors and local administrations.
3.
4.


_ Provincial line _

Direct control took place in territories closest to the imperial centre. Iraq, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, Western Iran and Khuzistan were governed directly. Other areas were largely autonomous. In some territories military governors were appointed while in others local elites paid tribute and maintained autonomy. These tributes would have been paid to one of the departments associated above. [46] Beginning in 945 CE, the Caliphate lost substantial powers of authority and was reduced in its ability to control outlying territory. [47]

2. Governor of governors (839 CE-)
al-Mu'tasim appointed Ashnas overal governor of the vast region of al-Jazirah, Syria, and Egypt (in practice, gubernatorial powers in these provinces were exercised by deputies while Ashnas himself remained in Iraq).[48]
3. Governor
4. Deputy Governor
4. Ruler of a district
5. Kura (Iraq and Egypt) chain of command or spatial division?
6. Tassuj (Iraq and Egypt) chain of command or spatial division?
7. Rustaq (Iraq and Egypt) chain of command or spatial division?
8. Village headmen
ra'is in Iran, shaykh al-balad in Egypt
4. Saheb al-sorta (city)
5. Amir al-suq (city)
2. Governor (centrally governed provinces) [49]
Iraq, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria, western Iran, Khuzistan. Officials on short term contracts, and rotated. Role often split between two officials: military commander and finance official. A third official was head of judiciary. All were inspected by the barid (information service).
Egypt had a governor [50]
"Under the caliphate ... provincial governments incorporating cities and towns were gradually established in Persia; the governors were nominated by the caliph."[51]
3. Deputy Governor
Deputy governors existed, e.g. in Tabaristan.[52]
3. Ruler of a district
"In every district of your governorship, you should appoint a trusted observer [amin] who will keep you informed of the activities of your local officials and will write to you regularly about their way of life and doings, in such a way that you will be, as it were, an eyewitness of every official's complete activities within his sphere of responsibility." Bosworth notes of 'amin': "Here obviously the equivalent of the sahib al-barid, postmaster and intelligence officer, of the Abbasid caliphate and of the later mushrif al-mamlakah of eastern Iranian states". [53]
3. Saheb al-sorta in major cities.
"In each major city there was an official known as ṣāḥeb al-šorṭa, who was in charge of public order; his subordinate, the amīr al-sūq, regulated the bāzār (cf. Spuler, Iran, pp. 315-32)."[54]
4. Amir al-suq
3. kura
Local government: divided into a hierarchy of districts in Iraq and Egypt. These subdivisions were for assessing taxation. In Iraq settlements were divided into three categories: the Kura, the Tassuj, and the rustaq. In other areas the system varied. These payments would have passed to the provincial authorities.[55]
Hierarchy of districts - kura; tassuj and rustaj - in Iraq, parts of Khurasan and western Iran. Similar hierarchy used for Egypt. Crown lands and some iqta's were not included in governed area.[56]
3. or 4. tassuj
3. or 5. rustaj
this was the lowest unit. A market and administrative town surrounded by a number of villages.
4. or 6. Village headman[57]
ra'is in Iran, shaykh al-balad in Egypt


_Affiliated provinces_

2. Sometimes local dynastic rulers became "governors of the caliphs." Khurasan was directly appointed until 820 CE after which it was controlled by the Tahirids (820-873 CE). Autonomous, government that was not inspected. Same true for Transoxania under the Samanids. Caliph al-Ma'mun (813-833 CE) named Samanids hereditary governors of Samarqand, Farghana, and Herat.
2. Affiliated provinces (provinces that were not-centrally governed) [58]
Caspian highlands (Jilan, Tabaristan, Daylam, Jurjan), Inner Asian provinces (Transoxania, Farghana, Ushrusana, Kabul), most of North Africa.
2. Often supervising military governor appointed, whilst the garrison received the taxes and tribute.
3. Actual collection of taxes done by local administration.
4. ... ? ...

♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥

1. Caliph as head of the Sunni Muslim umma.
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the muslim world.

In theory the Caliphate and governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) and aesthetics (Sufis) increasingly attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths were not clearly hierarchical and all were equal before Allah. [59]

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥

1. Amir al-mu' minin (official title of the Caliph)
2. Amir (commander or governor of a province or army)
3. Qa-id (military officer)
4. Arif (leader of a militay unit of ten to fifteen soldiers)
5. Muquatila(Muslim soldiers paid a salary); Malwa(rank and file Turkish soldier)
6. Arrarun (irregular volunteers) [60]

The above estimate is an oversimplification. The Shurta (police) and the Haras (guards) were responsible for the securing the capital and the security of the Caliph. [61] In the earlier period the Caliphate relied on the service of Arab tribes from Arabia. As the empire expanded this system changed to a professional standing army paid for in cash. Given the fractured nature of the military structure this ranking system is not fully representative. By 833 CE, two totally separate military establishments existed under the caliphs. Shakiriya were entire tribal groups serving under their chiefs, and the second were Ghilman, slave soldiers serving in regiments. Each of these had separate hierarchies. Each of these also their own internal structures with soldiers recruited from Syria using older Byzantine ranks, whereas mercenary tribes recruited from North Africa or Central Asia served under their clan leaders. There were also differences depending of where the individuals were serving. Permanent garrisons differed from temporary soldiers used for a campaign. From 833 CE, Turkic tribesmen became increasingly integral to the military of the Caliphate. By 936 CE, the Caliph lost even the pretext of military authority. [62]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [63]

"Men were appointed to command armies for different reasons: they were loyal to the regime, they could recruit followers and attract men to their service, they could organise the collection and payment of revenues and they were effective and knowledgeable commanders in battle. ... In the main, however, it is unhelpful to think of a hierarchy, of generals, or of an officer class."[64]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [65]

"The armies of the Umayyad and early 'Abbasid period were paid stipends in minted coin. At the beginning of this period, these stipends could be thought of as the hereditary right of those whose names appeared in the diwan registers. During the course of the second/eighth century, the Caliphs and their representatives forced a transformation so that the stipend became a true salary, a payment for work done. Unlike their contemporaries in the West, the soldiers of the Caliphs were never given land grants in lieu of salaries. Sometimes they might be given houses or plots of land on which to build, but not to provide an alternative income. One the rare occasions when larger land grants were given to soldiers it was as a reward for past services, rather than payment for continuing and future ones. Both Umayyads and 'Abbasids normally maintained the separation of the military from tax-collecting: apart from dire emergencies, soldiers were never given the right to collect taxes with which to pay themselves. This was always done by the government diwans."[66]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥ [67] absent as Islam did not have a professional priesthood.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [68]

The bureaucrats ran the various Diwans. These departments were divided into three main areas of responsibility. Officials could be found in the Chancery (diwan-al-rasa’il), the department responsible for tax collection (diwan al-kharif), and the department overseeing the army (diwan al-jaysh). Court expenses and pensions were handled by separate administrations who were also long term employees.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ [69]

There was no formal system to test a scribe's suitability for the civil service.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ {present; absent} ♥ Expert disagreement.

According to Van Berkel, El Cheikh, Kennedy and Osti the two most important factors for promotion were kinship and patronage.[70]

However, according to Lapidus the Abbasids "returned to the principles of Umar II, The Abbasids swept away Arab caste supremacy and accepted the universal equality of Muslims." Persians and Nestorian Christians were heavily represented in the bureaucracy. "Jews were active in administrative and commercial activities. Shi'i families were also prominent." [71]

Furthermore the "Abbasid policy of recruiting notables regardless of ethnic background not only soothed the conflicts that racked the Umayyad dynasty but was essential if a centralized government was to be built at all."[72]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ e.g. The administrative offices for the court at Baghdad. [73]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ [74]

In the Abbasid Caliphate formal the law was promulgated by a body known as the Fuqaha. The law code was heavily influenced by Sharia law. Sharia was based on the Sunna, which were teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, and the Quran, the holy book of Islam. Legal thought was also influenced by Ijma’, which were a body of rulings on legal issues based on the consensus of scholars who had met to discuss specific cases. Despite the Caliphate’s claims to religious authority based on their links to the Prophet Muhammed, it was rare for direct rulings on legal matters to originate from the caliphal authorities. Alongside a developing legal code was the development of the Qudis, who were full time judiciary officials.[75]

♠ Judges ♣ {absent; present} ♥ We code present for specialist judges. If judges were "multicompetent state officials" it does not appear they are specialists who only judge law. For similar case e.g. the Roman Principate. On the other hand, another source says Qadis were "full time judiciary officials" so maybe there were some specialists.

In the Abbasid Caliphate formal the law was promulgated by a body known as the Fuqaha. The law code was heavily influenced by Sharia law. Sharia was based on the Sunna, which were teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, and the Quran, the holy book of Islam. Legal thought was also influenced by Ijma’, which were a body of rulings on legal issues based on the consensus of scholars who had met to discuss specific cases. Despite the Caliphate’s claims to religious authority based on their links to the Prophet Muhammed, it was rare for direct rulings on legal matters to originate from the caliphal authorities. Alongside a developing legal code was the development of the Qudis, who were full time judiciary officials.[76]

At least in the Umayyad period judges were "multicompetent state officials dealing with justice, police, tax, and finance issues." [77] Judges were appointed and were called Qadi.[78]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ Court proceedings took place either in a Judge's own residence, the main mosque of the city or in the palace.[79]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ no specialist court or judge so lawyer unlikely to be a specialist?

"In legal matters, Patricia Crone points out, "there is no trace of the Prophetic tradition until about 770" and it was the lawyers in particular who created the stories about Mohammed simply to back up their own arguments in law. "Numerous Prophetic traditions can be shown to have originated as statements made by the lawyers themselves ... it was the lawyers who determined what the Prophet said, not the other way around." Bukhari is said to have accumulated as many as 600,000 traditions, of which he only accepted as authentic 7,000, or just over one per cent!" [80] -- these are religious scholars not lawyers as this variable codes? lawyers do "red tape", defend, prosecute, submit claims etc.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ The foundation of new cities like Samarra led to an expansion of irrigation networks. Further evidence is provided by the large number of manuals on irrigation and land management that survive from the period. Iraq's new cities were supported by a vast network of new water works. [81]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Water provision was an important aspect of Abbasid city building. In the city of Fusat, water provision was provided by the cutting of large cisterns, pack animals carrying bags of water, and in richer homes water supplies for drinking and cooking/bathing. The Abbasid Caliphate also adopted the use of qanats, a persian tecnology. There is also evidence of the use of augmented Byzantine infrastructure, with the use of lifting devices to redirect supplies. The output of a large amount of drainpipes and other containers in potter workshops indicates sanitation and water as important concerns. [82] Water was crucial in Mosques because of the cleansing rituals. Drinking fountains were called Sabil.[83]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ The Markets of Alexandria and Baghdad saw goods from China to Andalusia traded in purpose built areas. The Islamic Suq was built next to the central mosque of the Islamic city and represented the commercial heart of urban spaces. Mosques were integral to the commercial activities and shared the space of the market place in cities conquered by the Abassids.[84]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present♥ During a grain crisis involving soldiers in 920 CE, the Caliph had to open the granaries [85]. There is also archaeological evidence of depressions in the walls of residences and palaces for the purpose of food storage.[86]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The vast network of routes to facilitate the religious journey of the Hajj best exemplify the types of road networks maintained by the Abbasid Caliphate. Whereas the previous Hajj route had originated in Damascus, the rising importance of Baghdad saw a development of guard post, paved roads and watering stations across the deserts between that city and Mecca.[87] [88]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The bridges of Samarra are an example of Bridge making during the Abassid Caliphate. Its inscriptions and brickwork stand out. [89][90]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Canals were a vital component to the core cities constructed during the Abasid Caliphate. [91][92]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Baghdad was near large rivers that connected it to wider trade networks. Ports along the Persian gulf also provided outlets to trade.[93][94]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ [95]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ [96]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [97] See kinds of Written records for further details.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ [98]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Classical Arabic. [99]


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ The Ilm al-Miqat astrological literature led to the creation of vast tables, ranging from simple tables compiled in Baghdad in the ninth century CE to measure solar or stellar altitudes effect on prayer time to more sophisticated tables dictating what tens of thousands of entries for finding the time of day or night by the sun or any star on multiple latitudes. [100]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic prayer times are astronomically defined, as is determining the direction of Mecca. As such, astrological timekeeping, the body of literature called 'ilm-al-miquat' replaced folk astronomy with mathematical precision.[101]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Quran
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The closest proximity to theology is the Arabic Kalam. The complexities of this are beyond a single entry, but Islamic writers wrote synopses of Islamic theological thought in volumes called Aqidat. Abu Hanifah's testiment is one of the best known, being the work of Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Tawawi dating from 933 CE. [102] Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870 CE): "Bukhara-born compiler and editor of An Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadiths with Connected Chains [of Transmission] Regarding Matters Pertaining to the Prophet, His Practices, and His Times, the most revered book in Islam after the Quran."[103]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Examples include Descriptive and practical manuals, didactic treaties for the training and guidance of secretaries. Furthermore, biographical materials and collections of anecdotes on viziers and secretaries were also produced. [104]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Abu-Ja'far Muhammed (c. 923 CE) wrote the definitive historical work of the period, the Ta'risk al-rusul wa-l-muluk, which was held in the highest esteem for the next three centuries. He and other writers had access to vast records and correspondences of the state, allowing for a large degree of evidence and checking of sources.[105] "this was the greatest period of growth for the Arabic language and literature, as well as for the development of Islamic histories based on the romance of Bedouin lore."[106]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Examples abound, one such being Al-Farabi's Al-jam' bayna ra'yay al-hakimayn aflatun al-ilahi-wa arostitalis, translated as 'Harmonizations of the Opinions of Plato and Aristotle'. Another tradition was on the relationship of the philosopher and the city, such as Ibn Sina's visionary recitals, the Hayy b. Yaqzan. [107] (Governor?) Tahir wrote an advice for rulers for his son, an epistle, which became famous and is copied out in full by al-Tabari in Volume XXXII pages 110-128.[108]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Works on Physics, Mathematics and Applied Science, such as Mechanical Technology survive from the period. One of the outstanding examples is the Kitab al-Hiyal (Book of ingenious devices), detailing over 100 devices ranging from self filling lamps and fountains to a primitive gas mask. [109] "The brothers Jafar, Ahmad, and Hasan ibn Musa from Merv, known as the “Sons of Musa” (Banu Musa). In ninth-century Baghdad they dominated the scientific scene under Caliph Mamun and his successors. Besides their work in geometry and astronomy, Ahmad wrote a pioneering work in practical mechanics, Book of Ingenious Devices."[110] Ahmad al-Farghani (c.797-860 CE). "An astronomer who hailed from the Ferghana Valley in present-day Uzbekistan. Farghani’s The Elements was among the earliest works on astronomy to be written in Arabic."[111]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Abbasid writers produced a large number of Belles-Lettres during the period. Topics ranged from fables and legends to poetry on topics as wide ranging as hunting poems called the tardiyyat to politics. Also, they Abbasids oversaw the translation of fiction works from earlier Greek and Persian sources. [112] "this was the greatest period of growth for the Arabic language and literature, as well as for the development of Islamic histories based on the romance of Bedouin lore."[113]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ [114]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The gold Dinar, the silver dirham, copper daniq. [115] There were two principle coins in circulation, the gold Dinar and the silver dirham. This was in part a legacy of the conquest of Byzantine and Sassanian territories where the two coins were the major form of currency. The ratio of exchange was twenty dirhams to the dinar. From approximately 800 CE-950 CE a copper coin called the daniqs seems to have been in circulation. [116] By 819 CE the coinage was increasingly being debased. [117]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ [118] Royal couriers carried messages and directives of the court. a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [119]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Simple postal stations in use as stopping point for couriers. [120] The Abbasid had a department of state running the post office, called the Barim. [121] "The Muslim conquerors adop­ted many ancient institutions, including the postal system, which they called barīd (ultimately derived from Lat. veredus, Gk. beredos “[courier’s] horse”). Although there is some controversy over whether it was primarily the Byzantine or Sasanian model that was followed (see, e.g. EI2, s.v. Barīd; Camb. Hist. Iran III/1, p. 564), it is probable that elements of both were taken over (Mez, p. 466). In the eastern part of the empire at least, ancient Persian practices and terminology seem to have prevailed."[122]
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred present ♥ "Only rarely were private individuals allowed to make use of the post (Bayhaqī, ed. Schwally, p. 429)."[123] a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [124]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [125]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ [126]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "In attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added."[127]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Poem about a siege mentions "the evil man that loads the sling". [128] This could also refer to a siege engine.
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [129]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ present: 820 CE Inferred, compound bows being used in this period in the region.[130] [131] 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [132]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Abbasid refered to the crossbow as the qaws al-rijl, first mentioned in 881 CE. [133] Unlike Medieval Europe, archery was seen as a noble pursuit. Compound bows and Crossbows were present, as well as more esoteric weaponry such as fire arrows, were used on some occasions. Volunteers and informal levies were reported to have used slings, makeshift spears and other unconventional weapons. [134]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Torsion engines in use in Arabic warfare in this period. [135] "A fragment of a wall painting depicting the use of a traction trebuchet at the siege of Penjikent (700-725) in modern Tajikistan. This unique painting is contemporary with Tang China, displaying how the traction trebuchet was used along the Silk Road."[136]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ Abbasids had the manjaniq, a swing beam engine similiar to the Western Trebuchet. [137] Manjaniq was man-powered not gravity powered? [138] First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[139]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 14th century. [140]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 15th century. [141]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Period from 862 CE: Maces. [142] "In attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added."[143]
♠ Battle axes ♣ ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers."[144]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Broadswords and short-swords.[145]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ were there handheld spears in addition to thrown?
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ "In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers."[146]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Donkeys were used in a logistical capacity. [147]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Used for cavalry. Horses and Camels were used extensively. Donkeys were used in a logistical capacity. The use of elephants is reported, but it seems to be in a purely ceremonial capacity. [148]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Used extensively in caliphate armies. [149]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Imported from the Kachi plains region and used in processions and ceremony.[150] - but were elephants used in fighting?
♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Used for shields. [151]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Used for shields. [152]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Widely available for soldiers. [153]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Widely available for soldiers. [154]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Some evidence of breastplates in the sources. [155]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [156]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Coats of mail for elite soldiers. "The early Islamic sources treat the coast of mail as a standard piece of military equipment."[157]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ [158]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [159] Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[160]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ [161]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ [162]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ [163]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ The Abbasid Caliphate was not a naval power in the Mediterranean. The Umayyad Caliphate had faced substantial losses at sea with Greek crewed ships, and the Abbasid never attempted to blockade Constantinople from the sea. Furthermore, while the Caliphs controlled the coastlines and had freedom of movement along this territory, it lacked both the facilities to build military ships and the raw materials to facilitate this endeavor. The situation in the Persian gulf was different, as large trade fleets plied the waters between Iraq and India, and down the Horn of Africa. [164] Territorial losses outside of the core territories in Egypt and Syria further weakened the capacity of the Abassid Caliphs capacity to wage naval warfare. [165]


Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ e.g. use of spiked wooden barriers. [166]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Earth ramparts were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Ditches were used in this region in the Middle Ages. No specific reference.
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Abbasid siege of Al-Wasit, last Umayyad stronghold in Iraq: "In the first such encounter Umayyad forces were defeated, and they retreated to the moat that surrounded the western section of the city."[167]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ As used around Baghdad. [168] The technology to create fortifications was present, but in the case of large cities not implemented as the Caliphs preferred battles over sieges, and because of concerns that citizens would use them for protection during revolts. The Arabic word for castle or fortress was Hisn, with the Qasr more often used for a fortress. The use of fortifications depended on local tradition. In Syria, pre-existing walls were maintained. In other areas of conquest or after rebellions fortifications were torn down. Baghdad stands out as an exception in terms of a fortified urban centre. Baghdad was surrounded by large walls, and fortified gates were secured with two sets of iron covered doors and large numbers of guards. [169]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ As with the walls and gates around Baghdad. [170] -- more than one ring of walls?
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ KM. [171]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Kharijites who were in opposition to the Umayyads and Abbasids believed that "Should an elected caliph commit an impious act ... he was to be impeached and dismissed."[172] Wazirs, the de facto ruler, could be impeached by the de jure ruler who appointed him. "To aid him in his daily business al-Saffah instituted the office of wazir, a post which was the distinguishing feature of the Abbasid system of government. The position was not an enviable one. While in office the wazir was second only to the caliph. But he was liable to dismissal at any moment, and impeachment usually followed dismissal."[173]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Abbasid caliphs were a dynastic line.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Deification of Rulers

"The Abbasid Caliphate was a long-lived Sunni dynasty that ruled the Islamicate empire for five centuries and set the standard for Muslim rulers who came later." [174]

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [175]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [176]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[177]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[178]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[179]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [180] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [181]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [182]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [183] [184] [185]

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