InSunga

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 187-65 BCE ♥ "The date of ascension of Puṣyamitra is fixed at 187 BCE on the basis of various years which the Purāṇas ascribe to Aśoka and his successors. Puṣyamitra is said to have been succeeded by nine other kings, and the Śuṅga reigns as mentioned in the Purāṇas are: Puṣyamitra 36 years; Agnimitra 8 years; Vasujyeṣṭha (Sujyeṣṭha) 7 years—disagreement whether he was also called; Vasumitra (Sumitra) 10 years; Odraka (many variants such as Andhraka, etc.) 2 or 7 years; Pulindaka 3 years; Ghoṣa 3 years; Vajramitra 9 or 7 years; Bhāga (Bhagavata) 32 years; Devabhūti 10 years"[1] "They represent the most interesting case of reactions to internal developments and external influences. The Śuṅgas did away with the last Maurya king about 150 BCE."[2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥ "[I]t would be worthwhile to assess whether the evidence at our disposal really indicates that any such “Śuṅga” empire existed in this time. The only reason for this belief has been the puranic mentions of Puṣyamitra and his exploits, supported weakly by two inscriptional mentions, viz., the reckoning of one of the Pabhosa inscription in the tenth year of a so-called Śuṅga ruler Odraka/Udāka, and two words at the beginning of one of the Bhārhut inscriptions which roughly translate as “during the Śuṅga rule.” None of this evidence is critically attested—the first has been widely contested, especially for the meaning of the word “Udāka,” and the second is too scanty to prove any point even after the words are regarded as they are. Coins of one of the rulers mentioned in same Bharhut inscription, viz., Agarāju, are known, and they conform to the regiospecific series of one of the urban centers in Vatsa. Coins of two rulers in the Pabhosa inscription are known, viz., Vangapāla and Bahasatimita—one of them conforms to the Pāñchāla series and the other to the Kausambi/Vatsa realm. None of them suggest any “Śuṅga” connection. The name of a “Senāpati Puṣyamitra” does occur in the Ayodhya inscription of Dhana(deva) but here too, the inference that he was an imperial overlord of any sort is entirely conjectural. [...] In short, the puranic mentions are nothing but a series of details confused in time and space. “Śuṅgas,” if they ever existed, were probably as localized as the rest of the groups we know from coins in terms of their political prowess. Coins offer an entirely different picture of the post-Mauryan fragmentation, which links two singularly important phenomena of ancient Indian history—the fall of an empire and a concomitant spurt in urbanization with an increase in localized money economy. They also hint a probable non sequitur—the fall of historical jargon that makes random use of terms like “Śuṅga supremacy” and “Śuṅga art.”"[3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ {Vidisha; Pataliputra} ♥ "[T]he Purāṇas name the city of Vidisha as the capital of the Śuṅgas."[4] "The principal inheritors of the Mauryan power seem to be the Sungas who ruled from Pataliputra but do not appear to have retained the former Magadhan control of even the core of northern India. In Central India, their power did not extend beyond eastern Malwa which had Vidisa as its capital; southward their control ended on the Narmada. North-East from Pataliputra, Kosala with its principal centre of Ayodhya, was under the Sunga control, and so presumably was Ahichchhatra of north Panchala. The Sunga control also extended up to Panjab and the Indus."[5]


♠ Language ♣ Sanskrit; Prakrit ♥ [6]

General Description

This period begins with the ascension of Puṣyamitra Shunga in 187 BCE.

The Shunga Empire territory was about 4 million km2, encompassing central and eastern India. The polity population is considered to be anywhere between 18 and 100 million at varying times, while the population of the largest settlement, likely the imperial capital of Pataliputra, may have up to 270 thousand inhabitants.

There were four main settlement types during this period: the imperial capital of Pataliputra, large secondary centres such as Taxila, Mathura, Brita, smaller town-like settlements, and villages.

The main religion practiced in this polity was Hinduism. Shunga rulers in particular are said to have practiced an ‘aggressive’ Vedic Hinduism, which according to Buddhist sources, led to their monks being persecuted.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 4,000,000 ♥ km2. Estimated from known area of territory said to be controlled by Mauryan Empire, roughly equivalent to that of the Sunga Dynasty. The Sunga was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[7] "For the finer elements of historical detail, scholars of the textual school have turned to other texts, the chief of which are Harṣacharitam of Bana, the play Mālavikāgnimitra of Kālidāsa, and the Grammatik of Patañjali named Mahābhāṣya. These confine the Śuṅga realm to the “central part of Mauryan Empire,” i.e., the provinces of Kosala, Vidisha, and Magadha."[8] "The principal inheritors of the Mauryan power seem to be the Sungas who ruled from Pataliputra but do not appear to have retained the former Magadhan control of even the core of northern India. In Central India, their power did not extend beyond eastern Malwa which had Vidisa as its capital; southward their control ended on the Narmada. North-East from Pataliputra, Kosala with its principal centre of Ayodhya, was under the Sunga control, and so presumably was Ahichchhatra of north Panchala. The Sunga control also extended up to Panjab and the Indus."[9]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [18,000,000-100,000,000] ♥ People. Data from Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[10]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [50,000-270,000] ♥ Inhabitants. Data from Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[11]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. (1) Imperial Capital (Pataliputra); (2) Large secondary centres (Taxila, Mathura, Brita); (3) Smaller settlements; (4) Villages. Inferred from Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[12][13][14] ♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[15]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[16]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The Arthashastra, religious writings.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Bramhi and Kharoṣṭhī [17]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Brāhmī is a phonetic system. [18]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Brāhmī is an abugida language,as each letter represents a consonant, while vowels are written with obligatory diacritics called mātrās, excluding when a vowel begins a word.[19]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred for pe
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time."[20] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks".[21]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[22]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "More by good luck than by design and by prominence, a few other texts have come down from the period between the empires. There are, to be sure, such texts of the Śuṅga/Kāṇva and the early Kushana periods, including the older parts of Arthaśāstra (which has additions up to the first century CE), early medicine (Caraka, Suśruta), some early astronomical texts (Yavanajātaka of Sphujidhvaja, ed. Pingree 1978, Paulīṣa, Romaka, etc.), the Bhāratīya Nāṭyaṣāstra (in part, first century CE), and some early Sanskrit poetry such as Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita and Saundarānanda, Bhāsa’s dramas, etc."[23]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "More by good luck than by design and by prominence, a few other texts have come down from the period between the empires. There are, to be sure, such texts of the Śuṅga/Kāṇva and the early Kushana periods, including the older parts of Arthaśāstra (which has additions up to the first century CE), early medicine (Caraka, Suśruta), some early astronomical texts (Yavanajātaka of Sphujidhvaja, ed. Pingree 1978, Paulīṣa, Romaka, etc.), the Bhāratīya Nāṭyaṣāstra (in part, first century CE), and some early Sanskrit poetry such as Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita and Saundarānanda, Bhāsa’s dramas, etc."[24]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "The Sungas issued only copper coins. Their state economy was either independent of a safe currency, or was affected by a shortage of precious metals. None of the local contemporary dynasties issued a silver coinage. We get the impression that indirect commerce using a high-value currency as a means of exchange was less favored by indigenous rulers."[25]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Mauryans used iron for cuirasses or breastplates.[26] [27]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword (or a sword of Indian steel?) in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE).[28] At Naikund in Maharashtra: knowledge of steeling and hardening from 700 BCE.[29] Historical records show Indian steel was exported to Abyssinia in 200 BCE. (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123).[30]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the bronze leaf-point javelin.[31] [32] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Indian cavalry of the time did not (much?) use the bow and relied on lance and javelin.[33] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[34]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "The Indian bow was made of bamboo, was between five and six feet long, and fired a long cane arrow with metal or bone tips. ... The arrow fired from the bamboo bow could penetrate any armor."[35] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[36]
♠ Composite bow ♣ [present; absent] ♥ Introduced later by the Kushans and used for a brief period thereafter. According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army infantry also used a composite bow called the sarnga in small numbers.[37] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[38]
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryans used "catapults, ballistas, battering rams, and other siege engines."[39] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[40]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[41] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the club and mace.[42]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[43] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the dagger axe (which from the illustration looks like a battle axe, although it is probably not drawn to scale so it could be a polearm?), the battle axe and the crescent axe.[44] '
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the trident dagger.[45] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[46]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[47] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the sickle-sword and sword. Heavy infantry used the two-handed nistrimsa, slashing sword.[48]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[49] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the iron-tipped spear. Elephant riders carried a very long lance called the tomara.[50] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan infantry used the lance, javelin and bow.[51]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[52] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the dagger axe (which from the illustration looks like a battle axe, although it is probably not drawn to scale so it could be a polearm? and there is another weapon called the 'battle-axe').[53]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "Indian armies of this period had within them a basic unit called the patti, a mixed platoon comprised of one elephant carrying three archers, or spearman and a mahout, three horse cavalymen armed with javelins, round buckler, and spear, and five infantry soldiers armed with shield and broad sword or bow."[54] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[55]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "Indian armies of this period had within them a basic unit called the patti, a mixed platoon comprised of one elephant carrying three archers, or spearman and a mahout, three horse cavalymen armed with javelins, round buckler, and spear, and five infantry soldiers armed with shield and broad sword or bow."[56] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[57]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): Mauryan infantry used a long narrow shield of raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame.[58] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[59]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): Mauryan infantry used a long narrow shield of raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame.[60] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[61]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[62] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): Mauryan infantry used a long narrow shield of raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame.[63]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[64] According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "The helmet did not come into wide use until well after the Common Era, and for most of the ancient period the soldier relied mostly upon the thick folds of his turban to protect his head."[65] While the quotation does not rule out the earlier use of metal helmets the turban is enough to code present for helmets.
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[66]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in Mauryan Empire. The Sunga Dynasty was in effect the continuation of the Mauryan Empire as it was established in a coup by the Mauryan general Pushyamitra Sunga (Roy 2015, 19).[67]
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): scale plate armour for horses and elephants became more widespread after the Macedonian invasion of India.[68] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[69]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): lamellar armour "became more widespread" after the Macedonian invasion of India.[70] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[71]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): "What evidence we have suggests that from Vedic times until the coming of the Greeks, only slight use was made of body armor, and most of that was of the leather or textile variety."[72] Inferred from continuity with Mauryan polity .[73] This quotation does not rule out use of body armour or metal armour, and the Sunga Empire post-dates the Greek invasion.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist): at this time in India fortifications were mostly made of wood. According to Megasthenes the Mauryan capital was protected by a wooden wall.[74] Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. Abingdon.</ref> Kautilya's Arthashastra discourages use of timber for walls, although timber was used at Pataliputra (period not stated).[75]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: Kautilya's Arthashastra discusses "earth ramparts faced with burnt brick or stone." One known at Kausambi (period not stated).[76]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions ditches (Book X, Relating to War).
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: "In The Arthashastra, Kautilya (Art. II, 3 (21)) recommends surrounding a fortress with three ditches (parikha) filled with water. ... This was an ideal scheme but it was rarely put into practice."[77]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the preceding Mauryans: Kautilya's Arthashastra recommended walls made of stone. Depended on resources available at location. Some are known at Rajgir (period not stated).[78]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Referring to a period of time that appears to begin with the Mauryan era and include the first millennium CE:"The royal residence is designated with an old name the “interior city” (antaḥpura) and is described as being just as fortified as the city itself. There are even expressions where the palace wall is confused with the city wall and the castle gate with the city gate. Nonetheless, it would be a false conclusion were one to consider the royal residence, on the strength of this description, to be a citadel. We know from the narrative literature that it was easy to negotiate the moat and wall of the king’s palace by means of a pole or rope. The palace wall formed a police and not a military protection. Once besiegers had breached the city wall, the city lay at their feet. There was no last stand for the palace."".[79]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Sunga dynasty

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [80] [81] [82]

References

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  2. (Witzel 2006, 465) Michael Witzel. 2006. 'Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change' in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. (Bhandare 2006, 97) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. 'Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain' in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. (Bhandare 2006, 70) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. 'Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain' in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. (Chakrabarti 2010, 38) Dilip Chakrabarti. 2010. 'The Shift of the Focus to Orissa, the Deccan, and Malwa' in The Geopolitical Orbits of Ancient India: The Geographical Frames of the Ancient Indian Dynasties, edited by Dilip Chakrabarti. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. (Witzel 2006, 472) Michael Witzel. 2006. 'Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change' in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  8. (Bhandare 2006, 70) Shailendra Bhandare. 2006. 'Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain' in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  9. (Chakrabarti 2010, 38) Dilip Chakrabarti. 2010. 'The Shift of the Focus to Orissa, the Deccan, and Malwa' in The Geopolitical Orbits of Ancient India: The Geographical Frames of the Ancient Indian Dynasties, edited by Dilip Chakrabarti. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  13. (Allchin 1995: 209)
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  18. Salomon, Richard. "On the origin of the early Indian scripts." Journal of the American Oriental Society (1995): 271-279.
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