InRasht

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Rashtrakuta Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 814-878 CE ♥ The reign of Amoghavarsa I (also known as Nrpatunga) was long and relatively peaceful. Literature and the arts flourished, and the capital of Malkhed was built. Of the three main religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism), the Emperor favoured Jainism particularly, but, like all other Rashtrakuta rulers, Amoghavarsa I was tolerant and financially generous towards all faiths [1].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 753-973 CE ♥ The Rashtrakuta Empire begins with the first territorial annexations of the dynasty's founder, Dantidurga's, as well as his military success against his feudal overlords, the Chalukyas. The Empire fell when the Chalukya dynasty managed to re-establish their supremacy in the region [2].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ The Emperor was "the source of all power and the head of the civil, military as well as judicial administration"[3]. However, he did not rule directly over annexed territories: rather, he subdivided his empire among his subordinates (feudatories), who in turn subdivided their own territories among their own subordinates (sub-feudatories), and "feudatories and sub-feudatories enjoyed almost complete autonomy"[4].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ Independent polity.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Chalukyas of Badami ♥ In the first half of the eighth century, the Chalukyas ruled over Western and Central India. However, in the '40s and early '50s of that century, they found themselves in a position of weakness, due to the death of their leader, Vikramaditya II, as well as prolonged conflict with Arabs and the Pallavas to the North. One of their feudatories to the South, Dantidurga, exploited this moment of weakness to annex several territories to his own rule. By the time he had secured dominion over Madhya Pradesh and Central and Southern Gujarat, the Chalukyas declared war against him, but were defeated in battle in 753 CE. This is the year when the Rashtrakuta Empire is said to have started, with Dantidurga as its first ruler. Once the Chalukyas were definitively overthrown by Dantidurga's successor, Krishna I, the Rashtrakutas' military and diplomatic endeavours focused mostly on two objectives: securing control over Southern India, particularly the Deccan Plateau, and organising military expeditions to the North. [5]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ In the first half of the eighth century, the Chalukyas ruled over Western and Central India. However, in the '40s and early '50s of that century, they found themselves in a position of weakness, due to the death of their leader, Vikramaditya II, as well as prolonged conflict with Arabs and the Pallavas to the North. One of their feudatories to the South, Dantidurga, exploited this moment of weakness to annex several territories to his own rule. By the time he had secured dominion over Madhya Pradesh and Central and Southern Gujarat, the Chalukyas declared war against him, but were defeated in battle in 753 CE. This is the year when the Rashtrakuta Empire is said to have started, with Dantidurga as its first ruler. Once the Chalukyas were definitively overthrown by Dantidurga's successor, Krishna I, the Rashtrakutas' military and diplomatic endeavours focused mostly on two objectives: securing control over Southern India, particularly the Deccan Plateau, and organising military expeditions to the North. [6]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Chalukyas of Kalyani ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Malkhed ♥ Also known as Manyakheta, probably established as capital during the reign of Amoghavarsha Nrupathunga I (800-878 CE). There is much scholarly debate regarding which city or cities served as capitals to the Empire before Malkhed: candidates include Latur, Mayurakhindi, Ellora, and Manpur [7].


♠ Language ♣ Sanskrit; Kannada ♥ [8]

General Description

The Rashtrakuta Empire extended over an area roughly corresponding to the modern-day Indian states of Karnataka, Goa, and Telangana, the state of Maharashtra minus its eastern region (Nagpur), the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, and South Gujarat.[9] It could be said to have started in 753 CE, when Dantidurga, a rebellious provincial ruler, defeated his imperial overlords, the Chalukyas of Badami, in battle; however, Dantidurga had already begun to annex territories some time before this date.[10] The empire collapsed around 973, when, weakened by a Pallava raid and an inept king, it was unable to quash the rebellion of one of its feudatories, Tailapa II, who took the capital. Subsequently, a number of other feudatories declared independence from Rashtrakuta rule. Eventually, most of them were brought under control by the newly re-established Chalukyas.[11]
The Rashtrakutas rapidly became undisputed rulers of the Deccan Plateau, and organized several successful expeditions in Northern India, even securing, for a time, the long-contested region of Kanauj (under Indra III). However, none of the territorial gains made during these expeditions could be held for more than a short period, and it appears that the main aim of the expeditions was not so much to extend Rashtrakuta rule as to advertise its military might and increase its prestige.[12] Under the long and relatively peaceful reign of Amoghavarsa I or Nrpatunga (814-878 CE), literature and the arts flourished, and the capital of Malkhed was built.[13]

Population and political organization

The Rashtrakuta emperor was the head of the civil, military and judicial administration.[14] However, he did not rule directly over annexed territories: rather, he subdivided his empire among his subordinates (feudatories), who in turn subdivided their own territories among their own subordinates (sub-feudatories), and feudatories and sub-feudatories enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy.[15]
No overall population estimates could be found in the literature. The capital, Malkhed or Manyakheta, may have had around 100,000 inhabitants,[16] However, estimates are made difficult by the fact that the capital was destroyed by Chola armies in the 10th century CE, and what was left was subsequently destroyed by the armies of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Today, the Rashtrakuta capital is little more than a village. Not only that, but what little information exists about the city's heyday appears to be strongly influenced by Jain tradition, which may be biased, considering that Malkhed used to be a major centre for the religion.[17]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 600,000 ♥ in squared kilometers. [18]. The area is the sum of the modern-day Indian states of Karnataka, Goa, and Telangana, the state of Maharashtra minus its eastern region (Nagpur), the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, and South Gujarat. This estimate is approximate.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [5,000,000-6,000,000] ♥ People. By 200 BC 30 million on the Indian Subcontinent, 20 million (40%) in Ganges basin. "The next fifteen hundred years consolidated without significantly altering this pattern."[19] McEvedy and Jones estimated for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh 62m for 800 CE, 69.5m for 900 CE. Estimate made using territory estimate, assuming roughly even distribution of people

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 100,000 ♥ Inhabitants[20]. Capital of Malkhed or Manyakheta. However, estimates are made difficult by the fact that the capital was destroyed by Chola armies in the tenth century CE, and what was left was subsequently destroyed by the armies of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals. Today, the Rashtrakuta capital is little more than a village. Not only that, but what little information exists on the city's heyday appears to be strongly influenced by Jain tradition, which may be biased, considering that Malkhed used to be a major centre for the religion [21].

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

Nowhere is a settlement hierarchy explicitly described, but it was probably roughly something like the following:

1. Capital
The Emperor's place of residence and the place from which he administered the empire, as inferred from [22].
2. Provincial centres
Inferred from the fact that the Empire was divided into provincial administrative units, each with its own ruling administrators [23].
3. Villages
The smallest administrative unit mentioned by sources, e.g. [24].


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor

_Court_

2. Yuvaraja (Crown Prince)

"The Yuvaraja usually stayed at the capital, helping the king in the discharge of administrative duties and occasionally accompanying the king in military expeditions" [25].

2. Council of Ministers

"[T]o judge from the contemporary evidence, it is clear that the ministry must have consisted of the prime minister, the foreign minister, the revenue minister, the treasurer, the chief justice, the commander-in-chief, and the Purohita or royal chaplain" [26]


_Provincial Government_

2. Rashtrapatis
In charge of the military, fiscal and civil administration of rashtras, made up of the equivalent of four or five modern-day Indian districts [27].
3. Vishayapatis
In charge of the military, fiscal and civil administration of vishayas, the equivalent of modern-day Indian districts [28].
3. Nadgavundas or Desagramakutas
Hereditary revenue officers in charge of aiding the Vishayapatis and Bhogapatis with the fiscal administration of their territories [29].
4. Bohgapatis
In charge of the military, fiscal and civil administration of "tashils" [30], presumably the equivalent of modern Indian tehsils or sub-districts.
5. Village headmen
Responsible for maintaining law and order in villages and for the "collection of the village revenues and their payment into the royal treasury and granaries [31].
6. Village accountants
Aids to the village headmen [32].
7. Sub-accountants [33].
6. Village assemblies
20-30 elected persons divided into sub-committees, each sub-committee dedicated "to a specific department like the village tank, the village temple, roads. The village assembly also received deposits on trust endowments from private individuals to be utilised for specific public works. Civil suits were decided by the village councils which had also jurisdiction over petty criminal cases" [34].


♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

_Hinduism_

There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [35]. However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [36]), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.

_Jainism_

NOTE: I have found two equally authoritative sources on Jain hierarchy:

(1) [37]

1. Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)
2. Siddhas (Liberated Ones)
3. Acharyas (who head the Order)
4. Upadhyays (who teach the message)
5. Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)

(2) [38]

1. Guru (teacher)
2. Monks
2. Male figure (not specified by author whether a monk) in charge of nuns
3. Pravartini or ganini (aides to the male figure in charge of nuns)
4. Nuns

_Buddhism_

"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to 'pure' teachings and exemption from 'impure' duties." [39].

♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Emperor

NOTE: Could not find source that explicitly stated that the Emperor was head of the army, but it seems likely, based on analogy with preceding and succeeding polities, e.g. the Chalukyas [40].
2. Dandanayaka or Mahadandanayaka [41]
3. Subordinate officers to the Dandanayaka or Mahadandanayaka [42]
4. Subordinate officers to the subordinates to the Dandanayaka or Mahadandanayaka [43] - presumably more than one level
5. Soldiers
The bulk of the Rashtrakuta army was made up infantry, cavalry, and elephants [44].


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ "The imperial army was commanded by a dandanayaka or mahadandanayaka. Their subordinates must have also had similar dandanayakas under them, as their administration was more or less akin to that of their superiors" [45]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ There was a standing army, and soldiers were paid regularly [46].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [47], Jainism and Buddhism in monks [48] [49].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ e.g. Nadgavundas or Desagramakutas [50].

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Administrative posts seem to have often been hereditary, as in the case of Nadgavundas or Desagramakutas [51].

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Though no source explicitly says this, based on analogy with the Chalukyas [52], it seems likely that the Rashtrakutas used Smirtis and dharmashastras as legal codes. The Smriti, or Manu-smriti, is a collection of texts prescribing correct behaviour, including a section explicitly devoted to "the law of kings" [53], while the dharmashastras are a collection of more explicitly legal texts [54]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "A thief accused of robbing and murdering a barber was condemned by the judges and put in such a condition so that he might lose his life in ten or twelve days" [55]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ At the village level, "[c]ivil suits were decided by the village councils which had also jurisdiction over petty criminal cases" [56].

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Written evidence, such as an inscription from Tondaimandalam, dating to its occupation by the Rashtrakutas, which mentions "the construction of irrigation tanks and canals on a large scale" [57].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown. An inscription at Kandahar describes centres for the free distribution of water in the summer [58] -- where did the centres get the water? infrastructure like channels or pipes (= present) or wells (= absent)?
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Written evidence, such as description in Suri's Yasastilaka, written in 959 CE [59].
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ An inscription at Kandahar describes feeding houses for Brahmanas [60].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Certain village council sub-committees were specifically in charge of roads [61].
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ NOTE: not mentioned explicitly by any source, but seems extremely likely, since the Rashtrakutas possessed most of India's West coast.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Copper mines have been found, as well as mines for precious stones [62].

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Manuscripts and inscriptions in Sanskrit, Kannada, Apabhramsa, Telugu, and Marathi [63].
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Nagari became the ruling script relative to Sanskrit [64].
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e.g. used by government
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the existence of annual festivals [65]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Sacred Hindu texts studied at the time included the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavad-Gita [66]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. Shankaracharya's commentaries on the major Upanishads, Brahmasutras and the Bhagavad-Gita [67]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. treaties written on grammar, statecraft and the treatment and maintenance of elephants[68]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Numerous copper plates and inscriptions, authored by poets and discovered in the twentieth century, provide sufficient information to write a "dependable history of the dynasty" [69]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ e.g. Amoghavarsa I's philosophical lyric "The Jewel-Garland of Questions and Answers", and the numerous treatises on logic [70]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics, medicine [71]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that fiction is not mentioned by sources among the many, many literary achievements of Rashtrakuta intellectuals.

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ According to some scholars, the Rashtrakutas used gold and silver bullion for trade [72]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ A cache of Gadhiya coins, widely used by the Rashtrakutas' contemporaries to the North, has been unearthed in the Posna district [73]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ {present; absent} ♥ No Rashtrakuta coins have been found, but many contemporary documents describe or mention the Empire's currency. Arab traveller Sulaiman, for example writes that the Rashtrakutas had "silver coins called Tatriya coins which were one and a half times heavier than the Arab coins" [74]. However, some experts take the absence of tangible coins in the archaeological record to mean that the Rashtrakutas never did issue their own currency [75]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that contemporary sources describe silver coins, but not paper currency [76]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals. Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles if not for bladed weapons.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [77]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [78]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [79]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon found only in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference currently found for slings was for the Satavahanas.[80]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition."[81] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[82] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[83]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[84] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[85]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[86]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that 'liquid fires' containing naphtha were in use in ancient India."[87]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First used by the Byzantines or perhaps the Chinese.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ "The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [88]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [89]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ The Agni-purana (composed perhaps 600-1000 CE?) mentions weapons training with the sword, club and lasso.[90] Potent force by the fourth century BCE.[91] "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[92]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [93]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [94]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [95]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Absent could be inferred from the fact that only the use of horses and elephants is mentioned in Ramachandra Murthy's overview of Rashtrakuta military organisation [96].
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[97][98] in different regions according to local conditions.[99]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "Next to the infantry, cavalry and elephants occupy the place of pride in the military organization". [100] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[101] However, cavalry was a less significant force for the Rashtrakuta army which "consisted mainly of infantry, for, as Al Masudi noted, 'the seat of this government was among the mountains,' and it was impossible to deploy cavalry, elephants or chariots there.'[102]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Inferred from the fact that only the use of horses and elephants is mentioned in Ramachandra Murthy's overview of Rashtrakuta military organisation. [103]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ "Next to the infantry, cavalry and elephants occupy the place of pride in the military organization". [104] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[105] However, elephants were a less significant force for the Rashtrakuta army which "consisted mainly of infantry, for, as Al Masudi noted, 'the seat of this government was among the mountains,' and it was impossible to deploy cavalry, elephants or chariots there.'[106] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times."[107]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor.[108]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a leather shield.[109] "The popular weapons of warfare seem to be the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc." [110]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet.[111]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.[112]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[113]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Gupta period soldiers who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[114] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions s metal coat of mail.[115]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[116]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[117]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate.[118]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ 'Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[119] It can be inferred that no other state had a significant naval force although some of them may have had a smaller navy. The Rashtrakuta kingdom had a lengthy coastline and may have had a small navy.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution".[120] The capital of Malkhed was protected on three sides by rivers, and on the fourth side by a moat [121].
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche's monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable."[122] Deloche's studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats.[123]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "(a) The Fort is said to have been originally built by Soma- deva, the Raja of Qandhar, and subsequently added to by Krishna III, the Rashtrakuta Raja of Malkhed, who is styled " Lord of Qandharpura ". It is surrounded by a ditch and a ..."[124]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ A moat was created to protect one side of Malkhed.[125]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ "The first part Manya would be written Manne in Kanarese and could be Mannai in Tamil. This is described as of unapproachable strength and that is the strength of the fortress that was built by the Rashtrakutas and in building the walls of which the Eastern Chalukyas were compelled to assist after defeat."[126] "Amoghavarsha developed the city of Manyakheta (modern Malkhed in Gulbarga district) and its fortifications and made it the famous capital."[127]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule. Additionally, administrative posts seem to have often been hereditary, as in the case of Nadgavundas or Desagramakutas[128]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [129]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [130]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [131]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [132]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [133]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [134] [135] [136]

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