InMugl*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Mughal Empire ♥ The Mughal Empire ruled over the Kachi plain from 1605CE-1858CE[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Mogul Empire ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1630-1707 CE ♥ Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in Agra between 1632 CE-1648 CE and his reign saw the golden age of Mughal architecture. Aurangzeb reigned from 1658 CE to 1707 CE, during which time the territory, wealth and population of the empire grew. His reign also saw the zenith of Mughal cannon production. [2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1526-1858 CE ♥ The Mughal Empire began with Babur's victory over Ibrahim Lodi in the first Battle of Panipat, and ended when it was supplanted by the British Raj. [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ The Mughal empire had a centralized and imperialistic government; the emperor had unlimited freedom in making laws. Although he had a council of ministers he was not bound to consult them. The third Emperor, Abu Akbar, established a form of delegated government in which the provincial governors were personally responsible to him for the quality of government in their territory. Taxes were imposed by, and transmitted to, the center (the emperor). [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ Independent polity. [5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Timurid Empire ♥ Core region was Afghanistan
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Durrani Empire ♥ Core region was lost to Durrani? Empire but Mughal state still existed in the upper Ganges valley.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Agra; Fatehpur Sikri; Lahore; Agra; Shahjahanabad; Delhi ♥ Agra: 1526-1571 CE; Fatehpur Sikri: 1571-1585 CE; Lahore: 1585 CE-1598 CE; Agra: 1598-1648 CE; [Shahjahanabad; Delhi]: 1648-1857 CE dates cannot yet be machine read.

Akbar changed the royal capital of his empire four times during his rule (Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore, Agra) reflecting his "changing strategic foci." [6] Shah Jahan built a new capital in Delhi "Shahjahanabad". This remained the Mughals' capital for the rest of the dynasty. [7]

♠ Language ♣ Urdu; Persian ♥ Persian was the official language of the empire, but Urdu became the language of the elite. Urdu uses an Arabic script derived from Persian. [8]

General Description

The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern world history. By the late 1600s, it covered most of the Indian subcontinent. The empire was founded by Babur (reigned 1526-1530 CE), who had invaded northern India from central Asia. He defeated the Delhi sultan at Panipat and occupied Delhi and Agra before moving on to Bengal. His grandson, Abu Akbar ('the Great') consolidated Mughal rule in the north through a series of military campaigns, notable for their use of field artillery. Akbar was also a great administrator, establishing a system of salaried civil and military office holding, combined with efficient taxation. Revenue was collected on the basis of land assessments, administered by local tax farmers, and the system served to integrate both Hindu and Muslim elites into the state. This period saw a flourishing of Indo-Muslim culture, particularly in the fields of painting and architecture. Economically, India was the centre of mercantile activity within the Indian Ocean; its manufactured goods, especially cotton textiles, were in huge demand. The reign of Shah Jahan (1628-1658 CE) is seen as the high point of Mughal culture, represented above all by the construction of the Taj Mahal. His son Aurangzeb (reigned 1658-1707) was more aggressive military and eventually incorporated most of India into the empire, at least formally. The state was run on increasingly military lines and was more assertively Muslim. After Aurangzeb's death the empire began to disintegrate, encouraged by infighting and corruption among elites. The Mughals had lost much of their territory and power by the mid-18th century. The Marathas, a dynasty of Hindu warriors, became the dominant force in India during the 1700s, followed by the British in the early 19th century. Delhi was taken by the armies of the East India Company in 1803, but the Mughals carried on as rulers of Delhi until 1857. Following the Indian Rebellion, the British exiled the last king, Bahadur Shah II, who had given the rebels his support.[9]

Population and political organization

The two main branches of the Mughal empire were dedicated to revenue and military affairs. The emperor, seen as a divinely inspired patriarch, supervised his revenue and military officials through frequent travelling, and curbed their political ambitions by transferring them frequently, requiring them to attend court regularly, and assigning them responsibilities that cross-cut those of other officials.[10]
At its peak, in the late 1600s, the Mughal Empire comprised between 100 and 150 million inhabitants.[11]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams; Enrico Cioni ♥ Enrico Cioni contributed information on lawyers.

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [3,200,000-4,500,000]: 1700 CE ♥ squared kilometres. [3,200,000-4,500,000][12]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [110,000,000-150,000,000]: 1700 CE ♥ [110,000,000-150,000,000][13] The reference refers to the year range 1650-1750 CE, which is turned into 1700 CE, so that it can be matched up with the population range.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 400,000 ♥ Dehli. The Mughal rulers of India constantly toured the realm and maintained no fixed capital. Mid-seventeenth century Delhi is reputed to have had a population of about 400,000 but one European observer claimed most of it moved with the royal court, reducing its population to as little as 65,000. Another compared Mughal Delhi to a ‘camp’ rather than a city like Paris, and apparently there were so many trees that from a distance it looked like a wood. [14] [15]

[16] -- we have a reference but no number.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ Administration of parganas adjacent to cities inhabited by peasants lacking strong lineage organizations could be managed on a village by village basis.(81) Villagers carried agricultural products to sell at the nearest market or pargana town. (91) By the 1680s hundreds of prosperous market towns (qasbas) had proliferated in northern India. In each pargana the central town served as a principal market. Gradually, the networks of these trading towns and larger villages grew more dense. (194) Each provincial capital had a governor, responsible directly to the emperor. (59, 67) [17]

1. The capital

2. Provincial capitals
3. Towns
4. Villages

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥

Delhi Sultanate which "had a powerful impact on small states and principalities that were formed after its disintegration as well as on the Mughal administration that would come into existence in the sixteenth century."[18]


needs more work on central government

1. Emperor

Furthermore, the Zamindars belonged to the nobility and formed the ruling class. [19]

_Central government_

2. Wakil
Highest administrative officer
3. Departments? inferred
4.
5.


_Provincial government_

3. Subahdar of several Sarkars
A group of one or more villages constitutes a paragana, a few paragana a sarkar, and several sarkar's (or 'shiqqs') a subahdar. A wakil was the highest administrative officer.[20]
4. Sarkar of a few Paragana
5. Paragana of one or more villages
6. Muqqaddam (Village headman)
Also of note are the Muqaddam and Patwari. The village head was a muqaddam - the sole link between government and village. Although not a government servant, he was responsible for maintaining law and order. Similarly a patwari, a record keeper, was not employed by the state but by the village community.[21] -- not a paid official but still took orders i.e. maintain law and order
7. Patwari (record keeper)
7. Employed by muqaddam to help maintain law and order inferred


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥

Would be at least one level.

Din-e Ilahi, religion of the empire from 1582 CE to 1605 CE, had no priestly hierarchy or sacred scriptures. [22]

Islam (which both proceeded and succeeded Din-e Ilahi) similarly has no hierarchy, although there are Shaikh, Olama or Imam's who are seen as spiritual teachers and leaders. [23]

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥

"Noteworthy was the decimal chain of command, the grouping of soldiers in tens, hundreds, and thousands, up to an army division of 10,000 men (Mongolian tümän, Pers. tūmān), which was to have an enduring impact on the military organization of succeeding eastern Islamic powers, being adopted by, e.g., the Mughals in India."[24]

Decimal: 1, 10s, 100s, 1000s, 10000s, Emperor = 6

1. Emperor

2. Bakhshi (Adjutant-General). Bakhshi-titles were given to those with administrative duties, the Adjutant-General commanded the army in the Emperor's absence.
3. Mir Bakhshi
4. Other Bakhshi (such as Bakhshi-i-tan)
5. Officer.
Mansabdars were also chiefs and leaders, ranked based on the number of men they recruited, the mansab rank was further divided into zat and suwar, where zat referred to foot-soldiers and suwar to horsemen. [25]
6. Soldier.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Mansabdar was the generic term for the military-type grading of all imperial officials who governed the empire and commanded it's armies in the emperor's name. [26]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ The Mughal Empire relied largely on the military force employed from the 'Indian military labor market', which included the 'highly talented, movable warlords and their mounted following' in India. [27] The skills of these soldiers ranged from the part-time peasant to the professional warlord or jamadar.[28]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The army and revenue service to support it were run on bureaucratic lines. [29]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ Persian was needed to enter the administrative service. Hindus learned Persian in school in order to qualify. [30]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ Persian was needed to enter the administrative service. Hindus learned Persian in school in order to qualify. [31] -- Hindus could gain employment within the Islamic administration

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ The mint in Delhi. [32]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ In 1605 CE Jahangir issued 12 ordinances. It was not a comprehensive legal code but a well-meaning if also somewhat idiosyncratic set of rulings. These included the setting up of hospitals, a ban on the sale of alcohol, the release of prisoners, and a proclamation that Sunday was an auspicious day. Sharia law codes and the rulings of the ulemas were of fundamental importance to the Islamic dynasty but most of the native Indian customary law was respected. [33] [34]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ e.g. the Quazi-ul-Quazat [chief justice] [35]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ At local and informal level. [36]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ "These men, who sometimes acted as lawyers, were known as wakils, but the term did not have the precise legal definition that it acquired during the British period. H. H. Wilson defined a wakil as, "A person invested with authority to act for another, an ambassador, a representative, an agent, an attorney." It is in this very general sense that the word was current in pre-British times; only on rare occasions do we find the term wakil used to describe someone who pleaded a case in a court of law.

"A wakil was, then, a representative, although not necessarily a legal representative. In general, his job was to negotiate with equals or superiors of his employer, in order to obtain a desired goal, such as trading privileges, a reduction of the revenue demand, a military alliance, or a favorable decision in a civil or criminal court of law. In many cases a wakil was also a gatherer of information. Thus, most important nobles, landholders, and foreign trading companies employed wakils whose job was to attend the court of the governor of the province in which they were situated (or perhaps even the emperor's court) in order to collect information that might be useful, as well as to represent the interests of their employers when disputes between nobles arose, or when a favor from the governor was needed. [...] Most of the wakils described in historical accounts, then, were specialists in the arts of bargaining, negotiation, and pleading cases; but usually they did not work in law courts, and often they were not even concerned with legal matters. However, there were some wakils who were courtroom lawyers, although not as many as there were in contemporary Europe." [37]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ used for gardens. [38]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ [39] Canals, dighi (cisterns), nahar (small channels), qanat (underground channels), dams, ponds, neighbourhood wells, and impressive baoli were built to capture and transport river and monsoon rains. Drinking water within a princely household was managed by the darogha-i abdar, the superintendent of drinking water. Aristocrats often took water from the Ganges river, which was thought to be especially pure and also ice. [40] [41] [42] [43]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ The Palace and city built by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri had shops. [44]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥ unknown. Food storage sites were used, but not for public benefit. Instead, mostly noble or upper caste people kept granaries for their personal use and political gains. [45]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ e.g. the highway that ran from east to west India, restored by Sher Shah. [46]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridges were constructed to allow faster transportation across land.[47]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Canals and water works were present, although irrigation systems were not common.[48]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "With the conquest of Gujarāt, Bengāl, Orissa and Golkonda a number of ports lying in those provinces came into possession of the Mughals." [49]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Manuscripts in Persian, Sanskrit. [50]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Persian, Sanskrit. [51]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Persian, Sanskrit. [52]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Measurements and data collection used in land revenue system. [53]
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ present: 1526-1582 CE; absent: 1582-1605 CE; present: 1605-1857 CE Quran for Islam, Din-e Ilahi has no sacred scriptures.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Commentaries used in teaching.
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ e.g. the chronology of Akbar's reign by Abu- al-Fazl [54]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Philosophical thought at this time was based on the deep philosophical tradition in India,[55] which was discussed and written down by the mentor of Mughal emperor Prince Dara Shikoh, Kavindracarya. [56]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences. [57]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ The Dastan-i Amir Hamza [58]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Shell money in use. [59]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ In use, although foreign coins were often remelted as Mughal coins, [60]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Silver based money, the rupiya introduced by Sher Shah. [61] Sher Shah (c.1540) issued a pure silver coin called a rupya (rupee) with a weight of 178.25 grains. He issued gold coins, which were rare, as well as a copper coin called paisa and extended the issuing of this coinage on a uniform basis from all his 15 mints. This trimetallic system became permanent when it was adopted by Akbar with minor modifications. The Mughal rupee soon became the standard for which commodity prices, rates for exchange and for loans were quoted in. [62] Akbar sanctioned the following daily rates of wages: ordinary labourers 2 dams, superior labourers 2-4 dams, carpenters 3-7 dams and builders 5-7 dams. The dam was a copper coin a litter over 1 tola and 8 Masas in weight and 1/40 of the value of the silver rupiya in value. The purchasing power of an Akbari Rupiya was nearly 6 Indian Rupees in 1912. (82) The lowest servants were entitled to less than two rupees monthly (e.g. 65 dams for a sweeper, 60 for a camel-driver, etc.) while the bulk of the menials and the ordinary foot-soldiers began at less than three Rupees. Even slaves were entitled to one dam daily, equivalent to three-quarters of a rupee monthly in the currency of the time. (82) [63]
Cost of wheat equals 0.30 rupees per maund of 25.11kgs c.1595 CE in Lahore. (21, Table 3) In 1611, price of wheat in Surat (Gujarat) was 1.03 rupees per maund, rising to 6.37 in 1630 during famine. In 1631 at Broach (Gujarat) the price rose to 6.66 rupees per maund (25, Table 4). The prices of wheat in Agra were higher than Lahore by almost 20 percent. (31) Ordinary Labourer receives 1.50 rupees per month c.1595 (64) Lowest wage of a worker in the Imperial Establishment (domestic servant, peon, porter, etc) c.1613-89 in Agra was 3.00 rupee per month on average. The daily wages of an unskilled labourer more than doubled between c.1595 and 1637 from 2 dams to 6.5 paisas. In 1637 the monthly wages of unskilled labourers was 3.5 rupees. (69-70, Table 24) [64]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Runners and mounted couriers were used to transport information across the empire quickly, for military and economic purposes. [65]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Stations were positioned at regular intervals along roads to keep horses for the next leg of the journey. [66]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent: 1526-1799 CE; inferred present: 1800-1858 CE ♥ The postal system was used mainly for military and economic purposes, but was expanded towards the end of the empire through British colonial influences. [67]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams; Enrico Cioni ♥ ET: Usernames Farrell and Williams contributed to the data sheet (history under old page title Mughal Empire: 1526 CE - 1858 CE) but the name of Williams is not written anywhere on the data sheet. Enrico Cioni added information on projectiles, handheld weapons and armour.

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Armor included iron and copper mail (mighfar), and elephant armor could be made of high iron or brass plates. In addition, guns were made of bronze and brass. [68] [69]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Armor included iron and copper mail (mighfar), and elephant armor could be made of high iron or brass plates. In addition, guns were made of bronze and brass. [70] [71]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ e.g Iron leg pieces. [72]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Joshan steel breast plate. [73]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "Heavy infantry often carried simple missile weapons like javelins, slings and the chakram, a razor-edged steel disc that resembled an oversized shuriken." [74]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Heavy infantry often carried simple missile weapons like javelins, slings and the chakram, a razor-edged steel disc that resembled an oversized shuriken." [75]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Used by cavalry. [76]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite Bows and Crossbows. [77] [78] [79]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "Babur makes many references to individual foot soldiers armed with bows. He also discusses a weapon particularly suited to the infantryman—the crossbow. Crossbows were especially valuable during sieges because they were ideal for sniping. Unlike a conventional archer, a crossbowman could fire his weapon while lying prone and behind cover. He could also keep it cocked and at full draw while carefully lining up a shot or waiting for a target to emerge. Babur describes his own experience as a sniper, firing a crossbow from the ramparts of Samarqand while that city was under siege. Before muskets became commonplace, the Ottomans used janissary infantrymen as missile troops, arming them with crossbows or heavier, more powerful versions of the cavalry bow. Babur may have employed similar large formations of foot archers. Once firearms were adopted they became the ranged weapon of choice for his infantry, but the musketeers were still supported by large numbers of foot archers." [80]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ "Aside from the massive cannon and mortars, a number of more old-fashioned weapons were also present at sieges. Catapults and trebuchets remained in Indian siege trains for decades after Babur’s invasion. A few distinct advantages saved them from immediate obsolescence. They were inexpensive and could be easily broken down for transport and assembled in the field. Like mortars they sent missiles on a high trajectory, ideal for indirect fire. They could also be loaded with ammunition too fragile to be fired from a cannon—gunpowder bombs and canisters of incendiary or caustic chemicals." [81]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ "Aside from the massive cannon and mortars, a number of more old-fashioned weapons were also present at sieges. Catapults and trebuchets remained in Indian siege trains for decades after Babur’s invasion. A few distinct advantages saved them from immediate obsolescence. They were inexpensive and could be easily broken down for transport and assembled in the field. Like mortars they sent missiles on a high trajectory, ideal for indirect fire. They could also be loaded with ammunition too fragile to be fired from a cannon—gunpowder bombs and canisters of incendiary or caustic chemicals." [82] (KB: Added present code as trebuchet is sling siege engine according to codebook)
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ e.g. used by Akbar during siege of Chittor. [83]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Mughal armies used muskets. [84]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "More specialized troops like the shamsherbaz, or “gladiators,” however, wielded a variety of exotic weapons like two-handed swords, halberds and massive war clubs." [85]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Says Tavernier about the weapons of the Golconda soldier: '[...] Their cavalry carries bows and arrows, a buckler and a battle axe" [86]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The handpike was the favorite weapon of the Rajputs; 'mounted or on foot, they have no weapon other than a short spear, with shield, sword, and dagger', write Peleart." [87]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The common weapons in Mughal India were the sword, the bow and arrow, and the spear." [88]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "The common weapons in Mughal India were the sword, the bow and arrow, and the spear." [89]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ "The handpike was the favorite weapon of the Rajputs; 'mounted or on foot, they have no weapon other than a short spear, with shield, sword, and dagger', write Peleart." [90]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry used in Mughal armies. [91]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ As well as horse-cavalry, camels also used. [92]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ As well as horse-cavalry, elephants also used. [93] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times."[94]
♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Leather straps used to hold amour together.[95]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "The handpike was the favorite weapon of the Rajputs; 'mounted or on foot, they have no weapon other than a short spear, with shield, sword, and dagger', write Peleart." [96]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Steel headpieces with nose guards, or mail worn under them. [97]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Joshan steel breast plate. [98]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Dastwdnah - gauntlet or arm piece. [99]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Jihlam coat of chain-mail. [100]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Chahar-a,inah - breastplate, backplate, connecting side pieces.[101]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Used in the river systems of Bengal. [102]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Galleys were the main fighting vessel for Indian navies. [103]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Castles on hills inherited from previous polities.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ In the form of bound hedges. [104]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Used in fortification of town or city. [105]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Ed: seems to be references to something called a khandaq - which could be either moat or a ditch or both.
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Port of Surat: the inner citadel was protected by a moat. [106] Ed: seems to be references to something called a khandaq - which could be either moat or a ditch or both.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Typical fortification of town or city e.g. Delhi. [107]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Used on campaign. [108]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Forts were present throughout the Mughal Empire, but mainly in new territories as 'safe points' to extend from. An example of a complex fort is at the port of Surat. Here, Aurangezeb ordered for strong bulwarks to protect the outer part of the city, while the inner citadel was protected by a moat and 30-40 pieces of heavy artillery.[109]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Eli Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [110] In the late 16th century Akbar attempted to create a universal religion acceptable to all faiths. The reversal of this project under Aurangzeb suggests that only Islam would satisfy the Mughal elites. Of more lasting impact was Akbar's initiation of a cult of emperor, as the insan-e kamil (perfect man) and murshid (spiritual director). The 'shadow of God’ had a divine mandate to determine the future of society. Rajput literature even came to portray the Mughal ruler as an actual incarnation of a Hindu god with the abilities of Rama and Krishna. Inscriptions show that Mughal rulers also sometimes sought to emphasise their link to the first Mughal, Timur (1336-1406 CE) who established the Timurid Empire. [111] [112] [113] [114] [115]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [116]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[117]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[118]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[119]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [120] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [121]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [122]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [123] [124] [125]

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