InMaury

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Edward A L Turner ♥ Coders: Stephen Duane Dean Junior; previous coder unknown

♠ Original name ♣ Mauryan Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Maurya Empire ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 269-232 BCE ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 324-187 BCE ♥ The Mauryan Empire ruled over the Kachi plain from 324-187 BCE [1]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

This is contested between two main positions among scholars. The first assumes that empires and centralization happen together, and is based on an uncritical reading of the main source for the period, the Arthashastra. The source is from the perspective of elites in the imperial centre, and may be overstating the efficiency of the state. [2]. The work of Gerard Fussman instead presents an argument that the empire could not have been centralized based on both the size and the technology of communication avaliable at the time. This argument is further bolstered by the presence of non-literal translations of edicts in local administrative languages. [3] As with most questions of this nature, the empire was in parts centralized, and part autonomous. It was a large metropolitan state with an outward looking elite overseeing with varying degrees of success over a large and in no way homogeneous collection of functionaries at both the provincial, district and village level connected together through a central vision originating with the King.

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Nanda Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Shunga Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Hinduism ♥ Note on Asoka's Buddhism: "the distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism in India was purely sectarian and never more than the difference between saivism and vaishnavism. The exclusiveness of religious doctrines is a Semitic conception, which was unknown to India for a long time. Buddha himself was looked upon in his lifetime and afterwards as a Hindu saint and avatar and his followers were but another sect in the great Aryan tradition. Ashoka was a Buddhist in the same way as Harsha was a Budhist, or Kumarapala was a Jain. But in the view of the people of the day he was a Hindu monarch following one of the recognized sects. His own inscriptions bear ample withness to the fact. While his doctrines follow the middle path, his gifts are to the brahmibns, sramansa (Buddhist priests) and others equally. His own name of adoption is Devanam Priya, the beloved of the gods. Which gods? Surely the gods of the Aryan religion. Buddhism had no gods of its own. The idea that Ashoka was a kind of Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was a kind or Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was essentially a Hindu, as indeed was the founder of the sect to which he belonged."[4]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 1,700,000 ♥ km squared. A bit beyond the area of the Ganges valley.

♠ Capital ♣ Pataliputra ♥ [5] The city of Pataliputra was located at the confluence of the Ganges and the Sone. It covered an area of 15 KM long by 3 KM wide, and was surrounded with a moat, sewage systems, and a large wall with a reported 64 gates and 570 towers. [6] Also called Patna.[7]

♠ Language ♣ Prakrit; Sanskrit ♥ The administrative and most widely used language for governance was Prakrit. Following the conversion of King Ashoka to Buddhism, Sanskrit was of increasing importance. Greek and Aramaic translations of edicts also indicate a reliance on local languages. There was no common language to unify the entirety of India. This lack of a common language was somewhat mitigated by the use of two different written scripts, the Brahmi and the Kharoshthi. The regional dialects of prakrit and limited surviving examples makes estimates largely speculative.[8]

General Description

The Maurya Empire was one of the first geographically extensive empires in South Asia. The formation of the Mauryan Empire coincided with the invasion of India in the North-West of the armies of Alexander of Macedon in 327 BCE, most likely from territory in the Punjab.[9]

From circa 322 BCE until 187 BCE, the Mauryas extended their control over almost the entire subcontinent excluding Sri Lanka and the southernmost coast, as well as expanding northwest in Afghanistan.The exact origin of the empire is not clear.[10] The empire was built on the earlier model of the Nandas. The first three rulers, Chandragupta (324/321 BCE-297 BCE), Bindusara (297 BCE-273 BCE) and Ashoka (268 BCE-232 BCE) oversaw the main period of expansion and codification of the imperial state, with subsequent rulers attempting to preserve the gains made by the first three Kings until 187 BCE. Evidence of diplomacy between the Alexandrian successor state and the Mauryas Empire exist, though whether this was extensive is unclear. Exact details of when the conquests of territory took place are also murky, but evidence seems to indicate that the majority took place under the founder King Chandragupta.[11]

The reign of Ashoka was a period of stability and marked the peak of the empire, as well as religious reform. The Maurya Empire entered a period of decline and instability following his death, with weak rulers overseeing a quickly fragmenting state facing outward invasion by Bactrian Greeks. Brihadratha would be the last ruler of the Maurya dynasty, killed by his military commander Pushyamitra in 187 BCE. The commander would be the founder of the successor state of the Shunga Dynasty. [12]

Population and political organization

The King was the head of state, he controlled the military and the bureaucratic administration.[13]

The Empire was organized under a large bureaucracy and divided into four provinces named after the cardinal directions. Each province had a separate hierarchal administration, with the system duplicated at the capital to oversee the empire. [14]

A unique account of the Mauryan imperial administration is preserved in The Arthasastra. A handbook for governance which outlines a module of centralized government, although whether it is descriptive or an idealized version of the administration is disputed. [15]

Population estimates for this period vary widely ranging from 18,000,000 to 100,000,000. [16] The Imperial Capital, Pataliputa was the largest settlement with an estimate of 50,000 inhabitants provided by (Clark 2013, 159). [17][18]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 4,000,000 ♥ squared kilometers.

Mauryas in Deccan

"The recent archaeological survey by Allchin has also pointed out that while there existed a few possible 'Mauryan' cities in the Deccan and coast Andhra (such as Dharanikota and Sannati in Karnataka), they were distinctly small in scale compared with the cities of the Gangetic valley."[19]
"... such insignificant Mauryan presence in the Deccan may represent the non-unified nature of the Mauryan empire. Although the dynasty succeeded in holding vast territory through its military power and refined ruling structure, it was probably almost impossible to constitute a united empire controlled by central government due to the absence of an efficient communicate network and the great diversity of regional traditions. It is more likely that Mauryan rule in the provincial areas was primarily a supervisory role which remained at the upper level. The main concern in the provincial areas was extracting revenue from existing resources to enrich the core region (i.e. the lower Gangetic Valley) rather than changing local societies to establish unified rule in the empire. Although the Mauryas could possibly have had direct control over a few key locales such as Amaravati/Dhamnakataka, the remaining areas, which most probably retained their megalithic culture, may have been beyond their concern, may have been beyond their concern. In short, the Mauryan imperial expansion did not cause immediate and fundamental social changes in the lower Krishna valley."[20]
Mauryan Empire: "more recent scholarship has emphasized the discontinous geography of the empire and the internal variability in its administration ... In particular, Mauryan territories in the Deccan and south India appear to have been quite limited, restricted to areas near important mineral resources, especially gold sources along the Tungabhadra River and in the Kolar region of south India. Asokan inscriptions are rare in the western and eastern Deccan areas where the Satavahana polity emerged (... though Satavahana and Mauryan inscriptions co-occur at Sanchi, Amaravati, and Sannathi). Other than Asokan inscriptions and some rare trade wares, these areas contain little direct evidence of the Mauryan presence, and no evidence of the form that presence may have taken. ... claims for its universal status and highly centralized political structure appear to have been overstated."[21]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [18,000,000; 100,000,000] ♥ Expert dispute. Order of magnitude difference between high and low estimates. The high figure is partly supported by ancient accounts of large army sizes. If the ancient accounts of army sizes are all wild exaggerations then the lower figure could be realistic.

"The population of India during this period was somewhere between 120,000,000 to 180,000,000 people."[22] - note this figure is for the whole of India. Ganges basin perhaps 60% of total.

In Ganges basin 15 million in 500 BC, 20 million in 200 BCE.[23]

[15.5-181] Million. [24] the vast difference in estimates is based on the lack of evidence outside of archaeological evidence in excavated urban territories.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [50,000; 270,000] ♥ persons. Pataliputra was the largest urban agglomeration of the Indian subcontinent, encompassing 2,200 hectares. Other specialists argue for a lower estimate based on the theory that most of the population lived within the inner moat in a territory of 340 hectares, providing an estimate of 50,000 inhabitants. [25]

As an indication of population density within the city of Pataliputra were two and three story houses.[26]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ based on size and complexity

The archaeological and literary profile of cities from this period are less well developed than during the proto-historic Happaran period. The primary evidence is in the Ganga valley, and less information outside of this area. [27]

(4) Imperial Capital: Pataliputa. 2500 hectares (12 square miles.) Largest Asian city at the time. [28]

(3) Large secondary centres: Taxila, Mathura, Brita. All secondary cities 240 hectares to 16 hectares in size. [29]

(2) Smaller settlements. 14-4 hectares in size. [30]

(1) Villages and semi-permanent encampments. No firm data. "The archaeology of village settlements of the Mauryan period has scarcely begun." [31]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥


1. King

"all the officials owed their loyalty to the king and not to the State. This meant that a change of king could result in change of officials leading to the demoralization of the officers. Mauryas had no system of ensuring the continuation of well-planned bureaucracy."[32]
"The existence of an elaborate network of royal spies bolstered the autocratic nature of Mauryan government."[33]


_Central government_

2. mantrin or Mahamatra (Great Councilor) in the Mantriparisad[34][35]
Amatyas, Sachivas etc. were top officers and public servants.[36] Are these titles for jobs or terms for a collective?
2. purohita (Chief Priest) in the Mantriparisad[37]
2. sannidhatr or samnidhartru (Treasurer) in the Mantriparisad[38][39]
3? Samaharti (chief collector of the revenue)[40]
3. Superintendent of Tolls[41]
Kautilya in the Arthashastra: "Superintendent of Tolls shall erect near the large gate of the city both the toll-house and its flag facing either the north or the south. When merchants with their merchandise arrive at the toll-gate, four or five collectors shall take down who the merchants are, whence they come, what amount of merchandise they have brought and where for the first time the sealmark (abhijnánamudrá) has been made (on the merchandise)."[42]
4. Collector of Tolls
2. sandhivigrahika (Minister for Military Affairs) in the Mantriparisad[43]
3. Superintendents of the Military Administration (e.g. Superintendent for Armories)
"The military system was controlled by high-ranking civilian superintendents who oversaw the operation of state armories where all military equipment and weapons were manufactured, as well as supply depots, cavalry, elephants, chariot corps, and infantry, including provisions, training, and general combat readiness."[44]
4. Manager of one of the state armories (or Stables, Supply Depot etc.)
5. Artisan in state armory
2. senapata (Chief General) in the Mantriparisad[45]
2. mahaksapatalika (Chief Secretary) in the Mantriparisad[46]
3. Superintendent of a department[47] / Adhyakshah (large number of individual department heads)[48] including State Goldsmith, Itthijhakkamahatas (minister of women’s welfare)[49] and Dhamma-mahamatas (ministers in charge of spreading dhamma)[50]
4. Goldsmith of the Mint[51]
5. Artisan
Kautilya in the Arthashastra wrote: "The State Goldsmith shall employ artisans to manufacture gold and silver coins (rúpyasuvarna) from the bullion of citizens and country people."[52]


_Provincial government_

3. Viceroy or Kumaras of four large regions or provinces[53]
"The central administrative structure was generally replicated in the regions or provinces governed by viceroys. These were subdivided into divisions and districts."[54]
4. Council of Ministers
5. Top officers and public servants
4. Divisions of regions / provinces[55]
5. District officer Pradeshtri or Sthanika[56]
6. Technical or clerical officials (Yuktas)[57]
6. Sthaniya (800 villages) - sub-district official[58] - refers to fortress/forts (Arthasastra)
6. Dronamukhaa (400 villages) - sub-district official[59] - refers to fortress/forts (Arthasastra)
6. Karvatika (200 villages) - sub-district official[60] - refers to fortress/forts (Arthasastra)
6. Sthaniya (10 villages) - sub-district official[61] - refers to fortress/forts (Arthasastra)
6. Village government under Gopa[62]
Gramika (village headman), Grama-vriddhas (village elders)[63]
7.
"Village government"[64]

Loyalty and efficiency was achieved through "an elaborate system of internal spying and inspection, the hard work and vigilance of the emperor and his cohorts, and thirdly through a skeletal monetary economy was cash payments."[65]


_Notes_

"more recent scholarship has emphasized the discontinous geography of the empire and the internal variability in its administration ... In particular, Mauryan territories in the Deccan and south India appear to have been quite limited, restricted to areas near important mineral resources, especially gold sources along the Tungabhadra River and in the Kolar region of south India. Asokan inscriptions are rare in the western and eastern Deccan areas where the Satavahana polity emerged (... though Satavahana and Mauryan inscriptions co-occur at Sanchi, Amaravati, and Sannathi). Other than Asokan inscriptions and some rare trade wares, these areas contain little direct evidence of the Mauryan presence, and no evidence of the form that presence may have taken. ... claims for its universal status and highly centralized political structure appear to have been overstated."[66]

"We have a very detailed account of the structure and functions of Mauryan imperial bureaucracy in both Kautilya's Arthasastra and from the inscriptions of emperor Asoka. ... Arthasastra's first six "books" form probably the most detailed manual of monarchical administration in the ancient or medieval world, though more scholarly attention has been devoted to the last nine books, on war, diplomacy and international relations." [67]

The Mauryan empire was not a homogeneous whole. It was made up of three concentric areas. The administration consisted of a metropolitan centre, core territories undergoing state formation, and peripheral areas with a number of pre-state societies. It is therefore the case that the administrative levels and level of delegation most likely varied greatly, but in all cases was essentially exploitative. [68]

Kautilya's Arthasastra and the Asoka inscriptions agree on "about two or three top levels in central administration; a minister or ministers called Mantrin (Kautilya) or Mahamatra (Asoka); a council of ministers at the next level (Mantri parishad), and many top officers and public servants variously called Amatyas or Sachivas, in a clear hierarchy. These three levels were retained with slightly changed names in the later Gupta Empire in the fifth century A.D. and under Harsha in the seventh century. The general of the army was also a Mantri of equal status, as were the viceroys or Kumaras of the four large regions or provinces of the Mauryan Empire. ... The central administrative structure was generally replicated in the regions or provinces governed by viceroys. These were subdivided into divisions and districts. The district has continued to be the nerve center of field administration today. The district officer then called Pradeshtri or Sthanika seems to have been much the same as his present day counterpart. He combined revenue collecting and magisterial duties and supervised the work of other technical or clerical officials (Yuktas) as well as village government under the Gopa."[69]


_Notes for other polity sheets_

"This bureaucratic system founded by Kautilya, Chandragupta, and Asoka was adopted by the successor empires of the Guptas, and Harsha with minor changes of name and substance."[70]

"The Guptas in the North and the Cholas in the South made a sophisticated system of village self-government an integral part of the administrative system. But the overall structures of central and provincial administration were essentially modifications of the Arthasastra-Asoka model."[71]

"Successive generations of scholars writing on statecraft replicated his ideas in a redefined adaptive manner keeping alive the same ideas of proper administration. Secondly, the general imperial administrative structure of Kautilya was adaptable for smaller empires after the 7th century, of the Vakatakas, Pratiharas, and Palas and they were also borrowed by the Mughal Empire later. But they could not be sustained in their fullness in a gemeinshaft society, without the total commitment of the intellectual elite."[72]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-5] ♥

The Purohita was the royal priest. However, the sanctioned religions of the empire changed with the monarchs, and the multitude of faiths in such a diverse empire is staggering. King Chandragupta followed Jainism, Bindusara followed the ascetic tradition known as Ajivikas, and Ashoka implemented and heavily supported Buddhism. Individual faiths were undergoing reform throughout the period as well. It is therefore likely that the royal priest was not necessarily resident at court, and rather largely ceremonial. [73]

"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to 'pure' teachings and exemption from 'impure' duties." [74].

Jainism: [75]

(5) Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)

(4) Siddhas (Liberated Ones)

(3) Acharyas (who head the Order)

(2) Upadhyays (who teach the message)

(1) Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)


♠ Military levels ♣ 7 ♥

1. King

2. Mantrin or Mahamatra[76]
3. Council of Ministers (Mantri parishad)[77]
4. Infantry board of the War Office with 5 chiefs
4. Commissariat board of the War Office with 5 chiefs
4. Transport board of the War Office with 5 chiefs
4. Elephant board of the War Office with 5 chiefs
War Office: comprised of 6 boards (each with 5 members or chiefs), heading elephants, chariots, cavalry and infantry and commissariat and transport.[78]
4. Chariot board of the War Office with 5 chiefs
4. Cavalry board of the War Office with 5 chiefs
3? Antaravamshika (chief of the palace guard)[79]
3. Committee of 30
"According to Megasthenes, the Seleucid Ambassador to Ashoka's court, the imperial army itself was run by a committee of thirty of these superintendents while each branch or department - infantry, cavalry, elephants, chariots, navy, commissariat, etc. - was run by a committee of five men."[80]
3. Senapati (Chief of the army)[81] - aksauhini (army)
"The general of the army was also a Mantri of equal status..."[82]
4. gulma (three senamukha)
5. senamukha (three patti)
6. patti (15 man mixed unit)
"Indian armies of this period had within them a basic unit called the patti, a mixed platoon comprised of one elephant carrying three archers or spearman and a mahout, three horse cavalrymen armed with javelins, round buckler and a spear, and five infantry soldiers armed with shield, broadsword or bow. This fifteen-man unit when assembled in three units formed a senamukha or company. Three of these formed together comprised a gulma or battalion. Units were added in multiples of three, forming an aksauhini or army comprised of 21,870 patti."[83]
7. Individual soldier


"Sources also speak of military units formed around multiples of ten""[84]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

Military officers were present as a caste of individuals also used in civil governance, supported by a much larger group of individuals working the land under a developing caste system. The political treatise Arthasastra provided circumstantial evidence of the presence of military officers tasked with training the common soliders, referred to as Dhanurveda. [85]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [86]

The Ksatriya were a hereditary warrior class that formed the backbone of the army. They were supported by auxiliary forces made up of mercenaries, freelance soldiers, subordinate allies, deserters and forest and hill tribesmen.

"a complex war office with six subsidiary departments administered and provisioned a paid standing army of nearly 700,000 men and thousands of elephants."[87]

"The army was to be recruited from 'robbers, mountain men, gangs, forest people, and warrior clans'. Soldiers were to receive a regular salary and their equipment".[88]

"By the time of the Mauryas, whatever sort of conscription had once existed earlier had disappeared, and the imperial armies were armies of professional warrior aristocrats and other professionals fed, equipped, trained, paid, and otherwise maintained at great cost to the state."[89]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The Arthashastra mentions a purohita (royal priest) in the King's household. [90] There were ascetics or renunciants in society: the Ajivika, a Buddhist/Janist sect had places where regular ceremonies were held, "suggest they had a corporate organizations." [91] There was also Brahamans and the Buddhist monastic order the sangha. [92]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

Large "tentacular" bureaucracy.[93]

The King ruled with the help of a small permanent staff of elder statesmen called the Mantriparisad. Each of the individuals oversaw an individual aspect, with an officer or adviser overseeing different aspects of statecraft. These included but were not limited to the Great Councillor called the mantrin, the chief priest called the Purohita or the head of the treasury, the sannidhatr, and the chief tax collector called the samahartr. One of the most important was the position of the minister of the head of military affairs, the sandhivigrahika. These were supported by the chief secretary called the mahaksapatalika. Beneath these top level officials were superintendents who oversaw day to day governance. These positions eventually became hereditary instead of being based on merit. [94]

According to Conningham, there were state-level bureaucrats, professional bureaucrats during this time period[95]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ Initially, office holders were appointed directly by the king, but hereditary office holding become common, in some areas attached to the land grants awarded with the office. [96]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Society was based on a Caste system. [97]

"Although every effort was made by Chandragupta and his successors to select competent people to fill government positions, in a very short time these offices became virtually hereditary and, over time, the quality of government officials declined. The Indian Imperial state never developed a permanent bureaucratic system staffed by officials selected for merit and competence."[98]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Buildings of the government bureaucracy, such as the Office of Accountants.[99]

State controlled economy with buildings of "such state industries as weaving, salt provision, mining, and iron-making."[100]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ [101] However the "king was no law-maker. His function was to administer the law already established." This meant the people were able to "check and curb the arbitrary powers of the king."[102] Conningham validated this code in saying thatparts of the dharma are written down in edicts[103]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Mentioned in the civil list in Kautilya, paid 12, 000 panas. [104]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ "The Arthasastra mentions two kinds of law-courts; the drarmasthiya or courts where civil law was administered and the kantakasodhana the criminal court of law." [105]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ One of the best surviving examples of water infrastructure is an unnamed dam constructed from the period.[106] Kautilya in the Arthashastra makes reference to irrigation tanks.[107]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ According to Conningham, Ashoka had wells dug for travellers. At Tilaco, there is a brick-lined water tank inside the city from this period which was for civic use[108] Regulations for "a place for keeping big jars for water". Layout of fortified settlement shows water storage area.[109]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ The government bureaucracy had a "Superintendent of Commerce".[110]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Layout of fortified settlement shows storehouses for grain, forest produce, flowers, liqour. [111] The bureaucracy had a Superintendent of Agriculture and another one for Forest Produce.[112]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The great Royal road laid down during the period forms the basis of an road network linking Bangladesh to the Punjab and Kabul. [113] For a comparative perspective on transport infrastructure, see Monica Smith's work. [114]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ The Royal road must have crossed some streams or rivers and required bridge-building.
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ the conquest of the former Achaemenid Satrapy of Sindh resulted in the acquisition of areas that had pre-existing irrigation canals and a large network of wells and other infrastructure. [115]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Ports had existed on the coastline and in the estuaries of the major river arteries previous to the Mauryan period. Some were small settlements whereas others become large vibrant cities. These were primarily on the eastern and western coastal strips. The two most important was the city of Bharukaccha at the mouth of the Narmada river. [116]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Mining operations and manufacture.[117] There was a state goldsmith.[118]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The pillar Edicts of Ashoka, the Arthashastra. [119] The primary evidence of the writing in use during the period are the inscriptions of Asoka. The two major writing systems seem to have been Brahmi and Kharosthi. [120]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Bramhi and Kharoṣṭhī [121]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Brāhmī is a phonetic system. [122]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Brāhmī is an abugida language,as each letter represents a consonant, while vowels are written with obligatory diacritics called mātrās, excluding when a vowel begins a word.[123]


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ The primary evidence of the writing in use during the period are the inscriptions of Asoka. The two major writing systems seem to have been Brahmi and Kharosthi, but as these are stone pillars coding the presence of other types of writing is problematic. The survival of the Arthashartra, a political manual of statecraft for a king would seem to indicate a larger literary tradition. [124]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time."[125]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The statecraft manual known as the 'Arthashastra' [126]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ The official in charge of agriculture "compiled meteorological statistics and used a rain gauge."[127] Astronomers were present.[128]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Ramayana and Mahabarata epics.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Kautilya in the Arthashastra wrote "The king who finds himself in a great financial trouble and needs money, may collect (revenue by demand). In such parts of his country as depend solely upon rain for water and are rich in grain, he may demand of his subjects one-third or one-fourth of their grain according to their capacity."[129]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Kautilya in the Arthashastra wrote "rich in gold and silver, filled with an abundance of big gems of various colours and of gold coins, and capable to withstand calamities of long duration is the best treasury."[130]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Greek and Persian coinage.[131]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The Masakas was a tiny silver coin of the Mauryan period. Coins from the Mauryan period have a lower content of precious metals, and seem to have been alloyed with copper. The Masaka has been found throughout the Mauryan empire. The 'Arthasatra' provides an account of four denominations of silver coinage also in circulation, with a values divided from 1 pana, the 1/2 valued ardha pada, the the pada, worth 1/4, the asha bhaga worth 1/8. Finally, there was the masaka, which was seemingly worth 1/16 of a Pada.[132] The Maskaka silver coins. "The shape, form and weight of these punch-marked coins suggests that they are indigenous, with no foreign influence." [133]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Only coins being issued by the state mints. [134]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "Couriers (Dutas) are to be paid ten panans for carrying messages up to ten yojanas." [135] Kautilya in the Arthashastra wrote "A messenger of middle quality shall receive 10 panas for each yojana he travels; and twice as much when he travels from 10 to 100 yojanas."[136]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ a communication system linking the empire with tree-lined roads, public wells, rest houses, and a mail service."[137]
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred present ♥ "a communication system linking the empire with tree-lined roads, public wells, rest houses, and a mail service."[138]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Used for cuirasses or breastplates. [139]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword (or a sword of Indian steel?) in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE).[140] At Naikund in Maharashtra: knowledge of steeling and hardening from 700 BCE.[141] Historical records show Indian steel was exported to Abyssinia in 200 BCE. (Biggs et al. 2013 citing Tripathi and Upadhyay 2009, p. 123).[142]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) javelins were used by light Calvary in conjunction with a lance.[143]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Known as a New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) slings were present.[144] Soldiers from the hills also seemed to be armed with stones as a missile weapon.[145]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): The Indian bow was between five or six feet long and made of bamboo, and was used to fire cane arrows. The bow was fired by resting the base on the ground, making it less effective when muddy.[146] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions bows made from palmyra (karmuka), bamboo (kodanda), wood (druna), bone or horn (dhanus) that could fire iron, bone or wooden arrowheads (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) a composite bow called the sarnga was in use in small numbers. [147]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Mauryan soldiers only known to use self-bows & compound bows. [148] Known to Chinese in the first millennium BCE but Vedic literature does not describe anything like a crossbow although Pant suggests "the weapon mentioned as the nalika in ancient Sanskrit literature was a crossbow."[149] "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[150]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): "By the Mauryan period the Indians possessed most of the ancient world's siege and artillery equipment including catapults, ballistas, battering rams, and other siege engines."[151] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions machines (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents") both immoveable machines (sthirayantram): Sarvatobhadra, jamadagnya, bahumukha, visvasaghati, samghati, yanaka, parjanyaka, ardhabahu and urdhvabahu; and moveable machines: Panchalika, devadanda, sukarika, musala, yashti, hastivaraka, talavrinta, mudgara, gada, spriktala, kuddala, asphatima, audhghatima, sataghni, trisula and chakra.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First historically known sling siege engines used by the Byzantine Empire.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as came later in history. [152]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as came later in history. [153]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): iron maces and clubs.[154]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): battle axes.[155]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specialist) the Mauryan army used the trident dagger.[156]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Swords.[157] According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): heavy infantry used the nistrimsa, long two-handed slashing sword.[158] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions swords (nistrimsa, mandalagra, asiyashti) (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lances.[159] Spears used as close-combat weapons are found depicted in art from the period. There were also thrown-spears.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): dagger-axes.[160] in ancient China these were halberds, or Polearms. According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): "A special long lance, the tomara, was carried by infantry mounted on the backs of elephants" and used against enemy infantry who got too close.[161]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions "hunters and keepers of dogs with their trumpets and with fire" (Book X, Relating to War).
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ (From the 'Historical Dictionary of Ancient India') Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey."[162]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): horses were used by cavalry.[163] "By now the chariot, though still a royal status symbol, was obsolete."[164] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions cavalry and also a battle array of chariots, and suggested 15 men and 5 horses were needed to counter one (Book X, Relating to War). According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): "By the sixth century BCE, Indian armies had large cavalry contingents."[165]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) elephants were used as shock troops. [166] Kautilya in the Arthashastra wrote: "The victory of kings (in battles) depends mainly upon elephants; for elephants, being of large bodily frame, are capable not only to destroy the arrayed army of an enemy, his fortifications, and encampments, but also to undertake works that are dangerous to life."[167]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) infantry carried long narrow shield made from raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame.[168]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) infantry carried long narrow shield made from raw oxhide over a wooden or wicker frame.[169] Ox-hide rather than cow leather for religious reasons. [170] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions armour made from iron, skins, hoofs and horns.(Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents"). Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions a head covering called sirastrana but not the material it was made from (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents"). Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions coats extending to the knees, one which reached the floor, and another without arm covering (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) shields were carried by cavalry and footsoldiers. [171]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Helmets not known in this period. [172] According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) the helmet did not come into wide use until well after the Common Era, and for most of the ancient period the soldier relied mostly upon the thick folds of his turban to protect his head."[173] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions a head covering called sirastrana but not the material it was made from (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Cuirasses or breastplates of copper, iron, silver and gold are referenced in the epics preceding the period. [174]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Arm protection worn by elite warriors. [175] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions gloves (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Worn by soldiers and animals.[176] Coat of mail worn by warrior on elephant.[177] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions mail armour for horses (Book X, Relating to War).
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): present.[178]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): present.[179]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist) "scale plate armor for horses and elephants."[180]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ The government bureaucracy had a Superintendent of Ships.[181] Naval board.[182]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (this needs confirmation from a Mauryan specialist): "military fortifications and buildings were mostly made of wood" [183] Fortified sites were present in India from the earliest times. Pre-Indus sites have been identified through the presence of stone towers and mud-bricks from 2400 BCE. There are other finds of low walls, and a second larger wall beyond the first. [184] The best example of fortifications in the Mauryan Empire are those of the capital city Pataliputra. The defensive perimeter was a palisade with 570 towers, 64 gates, and a moat six plethra wide and 30 ells deep. The walls would have encompassed 33.8 km by 25.5 km. [185]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ e.g. earthen ramparts around cities. [186]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Had a moat around Pataliputra so the concept of a defensive ditch as a cheap form of defensive measure would have been known to the Mauryans. Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions ditches (Book X, Relating to War).
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ around Pataliputra [187]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ e.g around the village of Rajagriha. [188]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions fortified camps (Book X, Relating to War). Royal camps were constructed on the model of a fort.[189] Site chosen by team of commander, astrologer and engineer. King's quarters "surrounded by trenches, parapets, and a wall with gates."[190]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Referring to a period of time that appears to begin with the Mauryan era and include the first millennium CE:"The royal residence is designated with an old name the “interior city” (antaḥpura) and is described as being just as fortified as the city itself. There are even expressions where the palace wall is confused with the city wall and the castle gate with the city gate. Nonetheless, it would be a false conclusion were one to consider the royal residence, on the strength of this description, to be a citadel. We know from the narrative literature that it was easy to negotiate the moat and wall of the king’s palace by means of a pole or rope. The palace wall formed a police and not a military protection. Once besiegers had breached the city wall, the city lay at their feet. There was no last stand for the palace."".[191] Moat, ramparts, towers, gates around Pataliputra. [192] Were there concentric walls/ramparts here?
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. "The Chinese ruler Shih Huang Ti (247-10 BC) constructed the Great Wall of China in about 220 BCE to shield his empire against the attacks of the Scythians, but Ashoka took no such measures."[193]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ [194]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Greine Jordan ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Council of advisors offered advice, but was bound to the will of the King [195] Although not always effective ‘The king employed Sachivas or Amatyas who assisted the former in deliberating on public affairs. Numerically they were inferior, but in wisdom and justice excelled all others. The most important amongst the Amatyas were the Mantrins or High Ministers corresponding to Mahamatras of Asoka’s time... The king consulted these High Ministers in formulating any kind of administrative measure. They were also summoned along with the Mantriparishad in emergency. They exercised a certain amount of control over the imperial princes, assisted the king in selecting Amatyas and sometimes accompanied the king in battlefield. In addition to the Mantrins there was the Mantriparishad or Council of Ministers which the king was bound to consult along with the Mantrins in times of emergency. The king was guided by the decision of the majority. ’ [196] ‘The Council of Ministers or mantra-parishad existed in the administrative machinery of Asoka, but remained in sufferance as the final decision depended on the king and the latter regarded it as nothing more than an advisory body. A council whose members were personally selected by the king could do nothing but to remain as an ornamental facade in the administrative machinery. “The position of the ministry was not so much stabilised then as to curb his personal authority in the matter of administration and administrative changes. He lionised the entire field. If the ministry played any part, it was a minor one - the second fiddle”.’ [197] The following is from the Arthashastra and is advice directed to ministers dealing with kings who die unexpectedly: ‘The minister shall thus avert the calamities in which the king is involved; long before the apprehended death of the king, he shall, in concert with his friends and followers allow visitors to the king once in a month or two (and avoid their visits on other occasions) under the plea that the king is engaged in performing such rites as are calculated to avert national calamities, or are destructive of enemies, or capable of prolonging life or of procuring a son. On appropriate occasions, he may show a pseudo-king not only to the people, but also to messengers coming from friends or enemies; and this (false) king shall make the minister his mouth-piece in conversing with them as deserved. And through the medium of the gate-keeper and the officer in charge of the harem, the minister shall (pretend to) receive the orders of the king. Displeasure or mercy to wrong-doers shall be shown only indirectly. .. Or having gradually placed the burden of administration on the shoulders of the heir-apparent, the minister may announce the death of the king to the public.’ [198]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Given the ‘absolute’ nature of Mauryan monarchy and the fact that no mention is made in the Arthashastra of any non-governmental non-religious constraints, however, it is possible that the Brahman’s seemingly privileged status meant that kings were somewhat constrained in dealing with them. ‘Whatever may be the nature of the crime, no Bráhman offender shall be tortured. The face of a Bráhman convict shall be branded so as to leave a mark indicating his crime:--the sign of a dog in theft, that of a headless body in murder; that of the female part (bhaga) in rape with the wife of a teacher, and that of the flag of vintners for drinking liquor. After having thus branded to a wound and proclaimed his crime in public, the king shall either banish a Bráhman offender or send him to the mines for life.’ [199] GJ
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ Due to lack of evidence and given the absolute nature of Mauryan monarchy. GJ

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ dynastic rule and caste system. ‘The first documentary evidence of caste was contained in the Rigveda hymn collections, and hence dates from about 1000 bce . As we saw earlier, one of the hymns described the sacrifice of a primal man, from whose bodily parts came the appropriately associated four varnas. Nothing more is heard about these varnas for a millennium; then they appear once more in Manu’s dharmashastra, where the proliferating lower occupational groups are explained as birth groups (jatis) consisting of the descendants of illicit marriages of various kinds among the original varnas: In all castes [varna] those [children] only which are begotten in the direct order [i.e. where the husband is older than his wife] on wedded wives, equal [in caste and married as] virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste [as their fathers]. [200]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Greine Jordan, Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ ‘The divinity that kings had about them was different from the divine right claimed by absolutist kings of a later Europe. For Buddhist and Jaina rulers, sacredness meant ruling through moral example. Expressions in the edicts of Ashoka, the Buddhist emperor, reflect this: the king was beloved of the gods and the turner of the wheel of righteousness (chakravartin).’ [201] Ashoka and others adhered to Buddhist principles, but rule was based on military power and birthright, not divine authority, even though rulers could profess to be 'beloved by the gods' [202] Note: I changed this code from 'absent' to 'present' because this variable does not stipulate the the legitimation of rulers occurred predominately or exclusively through their support by supernatural agents. The quotes above make explicit references to the ruler being 'beloved of the gods'. The legitimation of rulers appears to have emerged as a combination of military might, birthright, and favour garnered from supernatural agents, with each of these sources of power functioning to legitimate rulers. (DM)

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ ‘The divinity that kings had about them was different from the divine right claimed by absolutist kings of a later Europe. For Buddhist and Jaina rulers, sacredness meant ruling through moral example. Expressions in the edicts of Ashoka, the Buddhist emperor, reflect this: the king was beloved of the gods and the turner of the wheel of righteousness (chakravartin).’ [203]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [204].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “The king’s religious status was generally seen as that of the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity. Under Mahāyāna influence - though by no means only in Mahāyāna-Buddhist countries - he was accorded the status of a Bodhisattva, that is, one who is on his way to becoming a Buddha and acts only for the welfare of all others (see Chapter 10).” [205]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [206].

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism: “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [207] “Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.” [208] Jainism: “The ethos of storing up merit leads to all manner of positive charitable activities, for which the Jain community is justifiably famous. But all such activities are ultimately in the service of spiritual liberation. To give, for a Jain layperson, is actually a mentally purifying act - a mini-renunciation - in preparation for the ultimate renunciation for which the layperson hopes eventually to be ready - if not in this life, then in a future rebirth.” [209] Asoka’s edicts: “There is no higher duty then the welfare of the whole world. And what little effort I make is in order that I may be free from debt to the creatures, that I may render them happy here and they may gain heaven in the next world.”’... The new ideas of social and moral ethics which Asoka infused into Buddhism were in keeping with his idea of adapting a new religion to contemporary needs during a period of political and economic transition. Instead of appealing to the narrow sectarian religious interests, he stressed the conscious aplication of pristine virtues of humanitarianism in social behaviour. In the complex cultural milieu of the third century B.C., Asoka inculcated the true meaning of Dhamma - man’s responsibility to his fellow human beings.’ [210]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ Buddhism generally: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [211] Kautilya’s Arthashastra: ‘The king shall provide the orphans, (bala), the aged, the infirm, the afflicted, and the helpless with maintenance. He shall also provide subsistence to helpless women when they are carrying and also to the children they give birth to. Elders among the villagers shall improve the property of bereaved minors till the latter attain their age; so also the property of Gods.’ [212] Asoka’s edicts: ‘The 2nd Rock Edict mentions certain measures for the welfare of men and animals. These consisted of provision of medical treatment, gardens containing medicinal herbs beneficial to both men and animals and the construction of roads studded with wells and lined with shady groves.’ [213]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [214] [215] [216]

References

  1. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th century. Pearson Education India, 2008. pp. 324-358
  2. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th century. Pearson Education India, 2008, p. 340
  3. Singh, A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, p. 340
  4. http://uhami.com/maurya_empire30802.htm
  5. Sinha, Bindeshwaxì Prasad, and Lala Aditya Narain. "Pataliputra Excavations 1955-56." The Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Bihar, Patna (1970).
  6. Sinha, Bindeshwaxì Prasad, and Lala Aditya Narain. "Pataliputra Excavations 1955-56." The Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Bihar, Patna (1970).
  7. (Bradford and Bradford 2001, 125) Bradford, Alfred S. Bradford, Pamela, M. 2001. With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  8. Toynbee, Arnold Joseph, and David Churchill Somervell. A study of history: abridgement of volumes i-; by DC Somervell. Oxford University Press, 1948. p. 49
  9. (Singh 2008, 324-358) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 324-358. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VUIEUHVK
  10. (Singh 2008, 324-358) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 324-358. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VUIEUHVK
  11. (Singh 2008, 324-358) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 324-358. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VUIEUHVK
  12. (Singh 2008, 324-358) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 324-358. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VUIEUHVK
  13. (Sen 1999, 137) Sen, Sailendra Nath. 1999. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p.137 https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/5Q53QHG7
  14. (Singh 2008, 324-358) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 324-358. https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VUIEUHVK
  15. (Subramaniam 2001, 80) Subramaniam, V. 2001. ‘Indian Legacy of Administration’. In: Farazmand, Ali. ed. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.p.80 https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/5T7BBX36
  16. (Gabriel 2002, 218) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group. p.218 https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VAWK3Z9E
  17. (Clark 2013, 159) Clark, Peter, ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 159 https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/37G4SSGG
  18. (Singh 2008, 118) Singh, Upinder. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p.118 https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/HJR7J7RC/itemKey/VUIEUHVK
  19. (Shimada 2012, 116) Shimada, Akira. 2012. Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The Great Stupa at Amaravati (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE). BRILL.
  20. (Shimada 2012, 116) Shimada, Akira. 2012. Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The Great Stupa at Amaravati (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE). BRILL.
  21. (Alcock 2001, 159) Alcock, Susan E. 2001. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press.
  22. (Gabriel 2002, 218) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  23. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 182) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.
  24. Estimate for the whole period 342-187 BCE. Clark, Peter, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford University Press, 2013. p. 159
  25. Clark, Peter, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford University Press, 2013. p. 159
  26. (McClellan III and Dorn 2015, 164) McClellan III, James E. Dorn, Harold. 2015. Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. JHU Press.
  27. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp. 334-344
  28. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, p.118.
  29. Allchin, F. Raymond. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.p.209.
  30. Allchin, F. Raymond. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. p.209.
  31. Allchin, F. Raymond. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. p.209.
  32. http://uhami.com/maurya_empire30802.htm
  33. (McClellan III and Dorn 2015, 164) McClellan III, James E. Dorn, Harold. 2015. Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. JHU Press.
  34. (Gabriel 2002, 216) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  35. (Subramaniam 2001, 80) Subramaniam, V. in Farazmand, Ali. ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.
  36. (Subramaniam 2001, 80) Subramaniam, V. in Farazmand, Ali. ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.
  37. (Gabriel 2002, 216) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  38. (Gabriel 2002, 216) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  39. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp. 345-348
  40. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp. 345-348
  41. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arthashastra/Book_II
  42. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arthashastra/Book_II
  43. (Gabriel 2002, 216) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  44. (Gabriel 2002, 217) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  45. (Gabriel 2002, 216) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  46. (Gabriel 2002, 217) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  47. (Gabriel 2002, 217) Gabriel, Richard A. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  48. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp. 345-348
  49. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp. 345-348
  50. Singh, Upinder. A History of Ancient and Early medieval India, pp. 345-348
  51. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arthashastra/Book_II
  52. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arthashastra/Book_II
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