InKanau

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 650-780 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Middle Ganga corresponds to the eastern portion of the Upper Ganga Plain, in the eastern part of the north-central modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the state of Bihar. Between c. 650 and 780 CE, it was under the control of the Kanauj polity.

Like many other Indian polities between the seventh and the eleventh centuries, Kanauj was ruled by a king, who received support from a number of key ministers, and who controlled provincial territories indirectly, through a hierarchy of princes and officials (higher tier, in charge of provinces) and visayapatis (lower tier, in charge of districts).[1]

While no information on the polity's total population could be found, the imperial capital of Kanauj is thought to have had a population of 120,000 people at its peak in 620 CE.[2]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 120,000 ♥ people. Kanauj in 620 CE.[3]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

Administration 'stereotyped' after c500 CE.[4] "The data from the latter half of the 7th century to the 11th century show that there could be some variations in the number, size and sphere of administrative departments, but there was no change of first-rate importance, or organic evolution in the period."[5] "Our sources refer to mahamatya, maha-mantri, amatya, mantri and saciva. The first two designations stood for the chief minister; the last three terms were generally used as synonyms; but sometimes they denoted different categories of ministers.[6] "In the Kuvalayamala we are told that the cabinet of king Drdhavarman of Ayodhya consisted of eight members ... However, the strength of the ministry largely depended on the size of the state."[7] Government ministers were not specialised in role and could hold more than one office.[8] "Big kingdoms were generally split into provinces where either a prince or some other important official was appointed."[9] Districts (visayas) governed by visayapatis.[10] Elders (nagaramahanta) lead the administration of a city.[11] "Bharuci explains samvida as the samiti of villagers whose functions included the protection of tanks and pasture-grounds, and renovation of temples. He adds that the king could exile from his kingdom that member of the samvida who resorted to transgression. Udyotana makes mention of the village elders (grama-mahattara) and their chief (jyestha-mahamahattara)".[12] [13] "In the Deo-Barnark inscription we get a reference to 'talavataka' which has been translated by Bhagwan Lal Indraji as 'village accountant'. But this interpretation is doubtful."[14]

1. King


_Central government_

2. Chief Minister[15]
3. Government ministers.[16]
4. Lesser officials.[17]
 ?. Mahapratihara (chief of the door-keepers).[18]
 ?. Pratiharas / Pratiharis (male/female door-keepers).[19]


_Provincial government_

2. Official or Prince of a province[20]
3. Visayapatis of a district[21]


_Municipal government_

 ?. Elders (nagaramahanta)[22]
 ?. City police[23]
? City-guards[24]


_Village government_

 ?. Village chief (jyestha-mahamahattara)[25]
 ?. Village elder (grama-mahattara)[26]
 ?. Samvida[27]
 ?. talavataka[28]


♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

"Purohita occupied a pre-eminent position in the Vedic and post-Vedic periods. But from c. A.D., he ceased to be a member of the cabinet, and in later times he only exercised moral influence on the king".[29]

♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

1. King

2. Chief of the army
3. Head of cavalry
3. Head of elephantry
3. Head of infantry inferred
4. Other officers inferred
5. Other officers inferred
6. Individual soldier

Chief of the army: camupati, senapati, mahadandanayaka.[30] Head of cavalry: mahasvapati. Head of elephantry: mahapilupati.[31] "Other military officers are not referred to in our records."[32]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Chief of the army.[33]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Royal Purohita.[34] "Purohita occupied a pre-eminent position in the Vedic and post-Vedic periods. But from c. A.D., he ceased to be a member of the cabinet, and in later times he only exercised moral influence on the king".[35]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Government ministers.[36] Court physician.[37] Foreigners were also appointed as government ministers and officials.[38]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[39]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "The king was the original court and an appellate tribunal. Occupying the judgement-seat (dharmasana), he dispensed justice with the help and guidance of judicial officials."[40]

"Asahaya enumerates noble lineage, ripe wisdom, truthfulness, proficiency in the sacred law and close acquaintance with worldly ways, as the qualifications of a judge."[41]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ "Bharuci explains samvida as the samiti of villagers whose functions included the protection of tanks and pasture-grounds, and renovation of temples."[42]
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Court astrologers present.[43] Also, Kautilya's Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time."[44] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks".[45] Moreover, in the preceding Gupta period, "The length of the solar year was calculated with a precision which even the Greeks had not yet achieved".[46]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Buddhist, Jain and Hindu texts.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Buddhist, Jain and Hindu texts, including commentaries.
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[47]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of court physician.[48]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poetry.[49]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Armour.[50]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "javelin (tomara), sakti and bhalla (varieties of missile)".[51]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "sling (bhindipala)".[52]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Quivers: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..."[53]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ The composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but"After the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[54]
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ "Yantra was loosely used to denote a contrivance of any kind and that it was like catapults and ballistics used by the ancient Hebrews, Greeks and Romans in their warfare."[55]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Staves: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..."[56] Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE) show male and female infantry armed with a club.[57]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Axe (kuthara).[58]
♠ Daggers ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE)show male and female infantry armed with a sword or dagger".[59]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Swords: "The Malatimadhava makes mention of a troop of seasoned soldiers equipped with flashing swords and various other weapons not specified."[60] "In the Sisupalavadha, we find soldiers armed with swords and shields".[61] One and multi-edged swords (asi, karvala and khadga).[62]
♠ Spears ♣ ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Chariotry "seems to have practically fallen into desuetude in the Gupta and later periods."[63] "Cavalry had become an important division of ancient Indian army in the early centuries of the Christian era, and the later periods witnessed a gradual increase in its importance. The knowledge of horses was systematised into a science called asvasatra or asvavidya and it was included in the princely curriculum."[64] "But this swift and agile animal was never given the first rank in ancient Indian army."[65]
♠ Camels ♣ ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ Elephants "occupied the most important place in ancient Indian military organisation; and the study of the science of elephants like that of horses formed part of princely education."[66] Eastern India was the homeland of elephant breeding, west and north-west for horses.[67]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Inferred from shields.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "thickly knitted" armour on elephants.[68]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Shields: "In the Sisupalavadha, we find soldiers armed with swords and shields".[69] Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE) show male and female infantry with a shield".[70]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Inferred from Gupta period. Might not be of metal.
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Corslet: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..."[71]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Clay plaques from Paharpur (c8th CE) show male and female infantry clad in a coat of mail.[72]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Corslet: "In the Uttararama-carita a great contingent of soldiers armed with corslets, staves and quivers..."[73]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ "In north India, Bengal and the Indus valley played important role in naval affairs. We are informed that Jivitagupta II of Magadha and Dahir and Jaismha of Sind had also powerful naval forces. Jaisimha was defeated and killed by the Arabs after a hard fought naval battle."[74]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "In north India, Bengal and the Indus valley played important role in naval affairs. We are informed that Jivitagupta II of Magadha and Dahir and Jaismha of Sind had also powerful naval forces. Jaisimha was defeated and killed by the Arabs after a hard fought naval battle."[75]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "In north India, Bengal and the Indus valley played important role in naval affairs. We are informed that Jivitagupta II of Magadha and Dahir and Jaismha of Sind had also powerful naval forces. Jaisimha was defeated and killed by the Arabs after a hard fought naval battle."[76]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ In the 14th century Ibn Battuta who visited the city of Kanauj wrote: "The city is surrounded with a huge rampart".[77] The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanauj in the mid-7th century CE and reported a moat.[78] It is logical to presume the moat was located outside of a circumvallating wall or rampart? When the city of Kanauj was conquered at the end of the Gurjara-Pratisharas (815-1019 CE) the inhabitants took refuge in sturdily-built temples on high ground. This suggests the external fortifications may not have been that substantial: "When the Muslim army approached, most of the inhabitants had taken refuge 'with the gods', i.e. in the temples. The city was taken possession of in one day, and emptied of its treasure."[79]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ When a Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanauj in the mid-7th century CE he "gives a vivid description of the city and its king Harsha. The town was over three miles in length, one mile in breadth, and surrounded by a moat and fortified by a strong lofty tower."[80]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanauj in the mid-7th century CE and reported a moat and tower fortifications.[81] It is logical to presume the moat was located outside of a circumvallating wall or rampart and that the tower was made from stone or brick.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Referring to a period of time that appears to begin with the Mauryan era and include the first millennium CE:"The royal residence is designated with an old name the “interior city” (antaḥpura) and is described as being just as fortified as the city itself. There are even expressions where the palace wall is confused with the city wall and the castle gate with the city gate. Nonetheless, it would be a false conclusion were one to consider the royal residence, on the strength of this description, to be a citadel. We know from the narrative literature that it was easy to negotiate the moat and wall of the king’s palace by means of a pole or rope. The palace wall formed a police and not a military protection. Once besiegers had breached the city wall, the city lay at their feet. There was no last stand for the palace."".[82]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Note: this source text "Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman" also has information (not recorded) useful for Phase II coding.[83]

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ kingship

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [84]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [85]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [86]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [87]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [88]
♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [89] [90] [91]

References

  1. (Mishra 1977, 137-144) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.
  2. (Chase-Dunn: pers. comm. 2011)
  3. (Chase-Dunn: pers. comm. 2011)
  4. (Mishra 1977, 137) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.
  5. (Mishra 1977, 137-138) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.
  6. (Mishra 1977, 139) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.
  7. (Mishra 1977, 139-140) Shyam Manohar Mishra. 1977. Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman. Abhinav Publications.
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