InKampi

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kampili Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1280-1327 CE ♥

Initially fuedatory under Hoysalas which under Mummadi Singeya Nayaka declared independence in 1280 CE. During his rule Kampili was attacked by the Yadavas/Sevunas (in context of Yadavas-Hoysala war?). Singeya Nayaka was succeeded by his son Kampiladeva who was attacked by the Hoysalas (who perhaps wanted to reclaim territory after the ruler that declared independence had died?). This may have caused a Kampili alliance with Yadavas. The kingdom was attacked by the Sultanate of Delhi and was conquered in three invasions c1327-1328 CE, at which time they may have been a fuedatory of the Yadavas (although an authoritative source says Kampili was an independent Hindu kingdom[1]). Another source says annexed by Muhammad Tughluq in 1326 CE.[2]

Founder: Mummadi Singeya Nayaka ... CE ? - 1313 CE

"The governors of Hoysala, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280-1300) declared independance to the kingdom of Kampili around 1280 AD. Soon the kingdom faced attack by the Yadava king Ramachandra but the latter was replused. His son Kampiladeva (Khandeyaraya) ascended the throne in the year 1300 AD, but soon entered into conflict with the Hoysalas. The kingdom faced constant threat for the powerful kingdom from Hoysalas and Yadavas. But in 1327, the Muslim expedition too toll of Ramachandra Yadava and his kingdom as well as Kampiladeva's and opened up for the Muslim rulers."[3]
"The founder of the kingdom Mummadi Singa died in A.D. 1313 and was succeeded by his son Kampilideva."[4] -- questionable source?
"Kampili was a small but powerful kingdom founded by Mummadi Singeya from the fragments of the disintegrating Devagiri kingdom. Kampilideva succeeded Mummadi Singeya in 1313 CE. ... It took three well equipped invasions before Kampili faded into the night." [5] -- source is a blog
"Mummadi Singeya Nayaka, the governor of Kummata (Bellary District) was an important feudatory chief under Narashima."[6] Narashima was a king of the Hoysala Kingdom.[7]
Singeya Nayaka-III. "Mummadi Singeya Nayaka of Kummata was carrying on a continuous Guerilla fight against the Sevunas, thus distracting the latter from the operation of the Hoysala territory. He had a good alliance with the Hoysalas and when Sevuna Ramachandra's subordinates Mahamandalesvara Kannaradeva, Mahapradhana Vanadevarasa, Vira Chavundarasa and Hanuman marched to Doravdi and Kurugod, he gave strong resistence to them."[8]


Kampilideva Nayaka[9] or Kampili Raya ... CE ? - ... CE ?

"This photograph of an old Kannada inscription (1309 AD) was taken by me on the Hemakuta hill temple complex at Hampi, a UNESCO world heritage site in the Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. The inscription is ascribed to King Kampili Raya of the tiny Kingdom of Kampili (modern Bellary district)"
"For approximately fifteen years, the forces of Kampili-Raya successfully resisted Sultanate attacks. In 1327, after two failed attempts, the Sultanate army killed Kampili-Raya, and his kingdom collapsed." [10]
"the history of the Kampili as an independent kingdom, must have commenced in AD 1312. We learn from Muhammadan historians that the kingdom was destroyed in AD 1327-28. It flourished only for 15 years, i.e., from AD 1312 to 1327, during which it was governed by two kings Mummadi Singa and Kampili Raya."[11]
Record of gold coins says: "Kingdom, c. 1280-1327" "Kampiladeva, 1300-1327"[12]


Kumara Rama ... CE ? - ... CE ?

"Singhana II (1199-1247 C.E.), the greatest of the Sevunas, extended the Sevuna kingdom upto the Tungabhadra. But the Sevunas were defeated by the army of Delhi Sultan in 1296 C.E, again in 1307 C.E and finally in 1318 C.E, and thus the kingdom was wiped out. Their feudatory, Kumara Rama and his father Kampilaraya of Kampili also died fighting against the Muslims in C. 1327 C.E."[13] -- questionable source?


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state; nominal allegiance ♥

Inferred from the following: "With the exception of Kampili, which never controlled large territories, each of these states incorporated local elites into their administrative structures in various ways, adding additional levels of complexity to this shifting political mosaic." [14]

"The Hoysala state remained a significant southern power until the sultanate invasions in AD 1310."[15]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Probably alliance with Yadavas/Hoysalas at times and with other Hindu kingdoms versus Sultanate of Delhi.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hoysala Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ "The rulers of Kampili began their careers as tributaries of the Yadava kings of Devagiri, the first Deccani polity defeated by the Delhi Sultanate. Following Sultanate occupation of Devagiri, the Yadava general Muhammad Singa fled with his son Kampili to the northern shores of the Tungabhadra River, where he established a base from which to resist Sultanate forces (Stein 1989a: 18)." [16]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Vijayanagara Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

♠ Language ♣ Kannada; Sanskrit ♥ Coded as Hoysalas.

General Description

The Kampili Kingdom was a small, short-lived polity founded along the northern shore of the Tunghabadra river.[17] An absolute date for its founding could not be found in the specialist literature, but, in 1327 CE, the region was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate.[18]

Population and political organization

Little is known about the sociopolitical structures of this polity,[19] and no population estimates could be found in the specialist literature.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [10,000-30,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. Range estimate based on drawing points from the middle of Raichur district to Anantapur city (thus encompassing Bellary between them) then drawing a point to Shivamogga city (which takes in Chitaldurg district). This forms a triangle shape with an area of 20,000. Will express estimate of polity size (maximum extent?) with range of 10,000-30,000.

kingdom of Kampili (Anantpur, Shimoga, and Chitaldurg districts).[20]

Anantapur district 19,130 km2
Shimoga district 8,495 km2
Chitradurga district 8,440 km2

While Bellary (not mentioned by source), Anantpur and Chiltradurga districts are contiguous, Shimoga district is not. If the described area shown below outlines the areas under control the kingdom was larger than maps that present it as the region of Bellary only.


"The Kingdom of Kampili on the Raichur Doab between the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was protected by the strong forts of Kunmata and Anegondi."[21] -- If we include Raichur (on the above map) the kingdom would be even larger.

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hosdurg in the region of 50,000?

"The Muslims stormed the fort in an all out assault forcing Kampilideva to abandon Kummata and seek shelter in his capital Hosdurg. Kampilideva relocated the fifty thousand citizens of Hosdurg to other places in Kampila, only keeping five thousand soldiers for the defence of Hosdurg." [22] -- we do not know where this information comes from, but this unreferenced reference suggests there might be a basis for an estimate somewhere.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. City

2. Town
3. Village


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-4] ♥ levels. Inferred from previous polity.


1. Governor >>> King

"Mummadi Singeya Nayaka, the governor of Kummata (Bellary District) was an important feudatory chief under Narashima."[23] Narashima was a king of the Hoysala Kingdom.[24]
Under the Hoysalas, the administration of the provinces was just the replica of the central administration. The governors charged both civil and military functions. They were made responsible not only for the peace, tranquility, law and order, but also for efficient administration[25]

_Central administration_

2.
Under the Hoysalas, the king was assisted in administration by his ministers: Sandhivigrahi was the foreign minister, Sarvadhikari was an official with powers to supervise all departments, Bahataaraniyogadhipati was an official who headed 72 departments, Mahabhandari was the senior treasurer, and Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. Paramavishvasi or personal secretary of the king and Mahapasayita or chief master of the robes were other senior officials. At times, these officials held their office hereditarily. The ministers also held military office[26]
Under the Hoysalas, "The Governors had a number of officers under their control. They were Pergades or heggades, Sunkaverggade, Manikya Bhandri Manneya Nadagavunda, Gaunda, Senabaova, etc. The Pergades were officers entrusted with the task of managing the revenues of the state and also of general administration."[27]
3.
4.

_Regional administration_

2. Town leader? Town had a Nagara assembly.
Within the Hoysala Kingdom "Like the village, town also maintained an assembly know as Nagara"[28]
3. Village leader? Village had a Nagara assembly
4. Senabova
Within the Hoysala Kingdom "The senabova also drafted the text of epigraphical records. We have many instances where senabova was the author of epigraphs. In short the presence of the senabova was essential in important activities of the village."[29]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels.

Hindu temple structure


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. Inferred continuity with previous polity.

Hoysalas had a professional military.[30] and likely the there would have been at least four levels thus:

1. King

2. General
3. Officer/s
"several scholars have suggested that the reputed founders of Vijayanagara, the Sangama brothers, had been officers in the Kampili military."[31]
4. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ {present; absent} ♥ During the Hoysala Kingdom, of which this polity was initially a fuedatory, the soldiers were professional under Ballala II[32] however ministers of the government could also be military officers which would imply at least some of them were non-specialist.[33] "several scholars have suggested that the reputed founders of Vijayanagara, the Sangama brothers, had been officers in the Kampili military."[34]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ During the Hoysala Kingdom, of which this polity was initially a fuedatory, the soldiers were professional under Ballala II.[35]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There were Hindu temples.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Under the Hoysalas "The Governors had a number of officers under their control. They were Pergades or heggades, Sunkaverggade, Manikya Bhandri Manneya Nadagavunda, Gaunda, Senabaova, etc. The Pergades were officers entrusted with the task of managing the revenues of the state and also of general administration."[36]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Mint for gold coins that have been discovered.[37]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ The Hoysala Kingdom had a Dharmadhikari minister of justice.[38] Is there any reason to have a minister of justice is there is no formal legal code?

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ The Hoysala Kingdom had a Dharmadhikari minister of justice.[39] Is there any reason to have a minister of justice is there is no formal legal code?

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ The Hoysala Kingdom had a Dharmadhikari minister of justice.[40] Is there any reason to have a minister of justice is there is no formal legal code?

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Under the Hoysalas, irrigation facilities were provided by constructing new tanks, wells and canals or repairing the old ones.[41]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely maintained roads.
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely had the ability to construct bridges.
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥ "Several inscriptions also document the history of Muhammad Singa, Kampili-Raya, and Kumara Ramanatha, Kampili’s son (Patil 1991a)."[42]
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ "Several inscriptions also document the history of Muhammad Singa, Kampili-Raya, and Kumara Ramanatha, Kampili’s son (Patil 1991a)."[43]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Sanskrit is an Indo-European language[44]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit is an Indo-European language[45]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Under Hoysalas.[46]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Under Hoysalas Keshiraja's work on grammar.[47]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Under Hoysalas[48]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Under Hoysalas works on mathematics[49]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Under Hoysalas [50]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Present for Kampili Kingdom.[51]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ unknown

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles if not for bladed weapons.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [52]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [53]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ A weapon used only in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference was for the Satavahanas.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[54] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[55]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[56] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[57]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[58]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[59] Present during the preceding Hoysala period: "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[60]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[61]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[62] Present during the preceding Hoysala period: "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[63]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[64] Present during the preceding Hoysala period: "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[65]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[66] Present during the preceding Hoysala period: "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[67] In the preceding period "Hoysala cavalrymen were lancers."[68]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[69][70] in different regions according to local conditions.[71]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ In the preceding period the Hoysala had cavalrymen.[72] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[73]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Kampi Kingdom was covered a small area away from the principal regions of camel habitat in south Asia.
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[74] Possible but Kampi Kingdom was a small state so question is whether they had the resources to maintain war elephants.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor.[75]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[76]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet.[77]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.[78]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[79]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[80]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[81]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[82]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate.[83]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[84], though Kampi kingdom was too small and landlocked and likely had no vessels

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution".[85]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche's monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable."[86] Deloche's studies on Indian fortifications are in French. "The Kingdom of Kampili on the Raichur Doab between the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was protected by the strong forts of Kunmata and Anegondi. The Muslim armies repeatedly attacked Kampili and captured Kunmata on their third attempt."[87] -- what were the nature of the obviously fairly effective fortifications at Kunamata and Anegondi?
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Kingdom of Kampili on the Raichur Doab between the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was protected by the strong forts of Kunmata and Anegondi. The Muslim armies repeatedly attacked Kampili and captured Kunmata on their third attempt."[88] -- what were the nature of the obviously fairly effective fortifications at Kunamata and Anegondi? Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says " certain types of multiple ditches on the exterior of medieval forts were likely to have been placed to 'impede the approach of elephants.'”[89]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Kingdom of Kampili on the Raichur Doab between the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was protected by the strong forts of Kunmata and Anegondi. The Muslim armies repeatedly attacked Kampili and captured Kunmata on their third attempt."[90] -- what were the nature of the obviously fairly effective fortifications at Kunamata and Anegondi?
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Kingdom of Kampili on the Raichur Doab between the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was protected by the strong forts of Kunmata and Anegondi. The Muslim armies repeatedly attacked Kampili and captured Kunmata on their third attempt."[91] -- how were the effective fortifications at Kunamata and Anegondi built?
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Kingdom of Kampili on the Raichur Doab between the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was protected by the strong forts of Kunmata and Anegondi. The Muslim armies repeatedly attacked Kampili and captured Kunmata on their third attempt."[92] -- how were the effective fortifications at Kunamata and Anegondi built?
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says " certain types of multiple ditches on the exterior of medieval forts were likely to have been placed to 'impede the approach of elephants.'”[93]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Singeya Nayaka was succeeded by his son Kampiladeva.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [94]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [95]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [96]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [97]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [98]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [99] [100] [101]

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