InKadam

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kadamba Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 435-455 CE ♥ [1] The reign of Kakushtavarma is widely regarded as the greatest era of the Kadamba Empire. The Emperor concluded matrimonial alliances with other prominent families, thus extending the Kadambas' influence over the rest of peninsular India [2]. Moreover, he created an internal "protective force" to ensure safe movement of people from one part of the empire to another[3].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 345-550 CE ♥ The Kadamba Empire was founded more or less around the time of their rebellion in the face of their feudal overlords (possibly the Pallavas), and it ended with their defeat at the hands of the Chalukyas [4].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ feudal empire; tripartite empire Inferred from the fact that the empire's provinces were not directly ruled by the Emperor, but by "viceroys" [5]. After Mrigashavarma's succession to the throne in 450, his brothers declared themselves independent rulers of their own territories, and the empire was therefore split into three smaller polities [6]. In the literature, this appears to be considered more a "phase" in the empire's history than the beginning of three new polities, which is why I have elected not to create a separate page for whichever polity included the NGA we are interested in. Indeed, the polities would eventually reunite [7].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ Independent polity.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Pallava Empire ♥ Though it is not entirely clear, it seems that the Kadambas started out as feudal subordinates to the Pallavas [8].
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ feudal subordinates[9]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Chalukyas of Badami ♥ Chalukya Empire[10]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Banavasi; Halsi; Triparvata; Uchchangi ♥ 345-455 CE: Banavasi; 455?-? CE: Halsi; 460-? CE: Triparvata; 460?-? CE: Uchchangi. The Kadambas' first capital was Banavasi [11]. Once the Empire is split in three, each division had its own capital: Halsi for the North and West, Triparvata for the South, and Uchchangi for the East [12]. However, none of the sources is clear regarding the dates in which these capitals were founded, and when they ceased to be capitals (as they must have done, considering that the empire was eventually reunited).


♠ Language ♣ Sanskrit; Prakrit; Kannada ♥ Prakrit and Sanskrit were official, court languages, while Kannada was probably the "colloquial" language [13] [1]

General Description

The Kadamba dynasty ruled over a region that largely falls within the boundaries of the modern-day Indian states of Karnataka and Maharashtra.[14] An absolute start date could not be found in the specialist literature. However, much is known about this polity's monarchs. Most notably, Kakushtavarma, widely regarded as the greatest Kadamba king, concluded marriage alliances with prominent ruling families (thus extending Kadamba influence over much of the subcontinent) and created an internal police force to ensure the safe movement of people from one part of the empire to another.[15] After Kakushtavarma, the empire was temporarily split among his heirs, each division with its own capital: Halsi for the north and west, Triparvata for the south, and Uchchangi for the east.[16] The empire was partly reunited a generation later under Ravivarma.[17] However, the polity disintegrated rapidly under Harivarma, and much of its territory was seized by the Chalukyas of Badami in the 540s CE.[18]

Population and political organization

In imitation of the Satavahanas, the Kadambas referred to their leader as dharmamaharaja[19] The dharmamaharaja was assisted at court by a royal council and the crown prince, and in the provinces he was represented by viceroys and governors.[20]
No population estimates for this period could be found in the specialist literature.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [50,000-100,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. "The epigraphical records of the dynasty suggest that the area comprising Belgaum, North Canara, Shimoga, Chitradurga and Bellary districts formed the Kadamba kingdom during its heydays" [21]. This would suggest an area of 49,088 squared kilometers. However, these districts are not all adjacent to one another, which suggests that this polity was somewhat larger, probably including a few more neighbouring districts.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [650,000-750,000]: 400 BCE; [700,000-800,000]: 500 BCE ♥ People. [22]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Capital(s) [23] [24]

2. Seat of a mandala's viceroy
Inferred from the fact that the empire was divided in mandalas, each governed by a viceroy [25].
3. Seat of a vishaya governor (manneya)
Inferred from the fact that mandalas were divided into vishayas [26], which were probably governed by manneyas [27].
4. Village [28]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ levels.

1. Dharmamaharaja

In imitation of the Satavahanas, the Kadambas referred to their leader as Dharmamaharaja [29].

_Court_

2. Royal Council
Made up of the pradhyana (head minister), the manevergade (steward of the household), the kramukapala (betel-carrier), the tantrapala, and the sabhakaya (secretary of the council) [30].
3. Other ministers
Including the Chief Justice, the dharmadhyaksha [31].
. The Crown Prince [32].

_Provincial government_

4. Viceroys/Princes
Governed over mandalas, or provinces [33].
5. Governors of vishayas (Manneyas?)
The Vishaya was the administrative division of Kadamba territory immediately beneath the mandala [34]: it is presumed that someone was in charge of governing it. It may have been the manneyas, who some sources say were in charge of "districts" [35].
6. Governors of mahagramas and dashagramas
Mahagramas were groups of ten villages, dashagramas, groups of twenty-four [36]: it is presumed that someone was in charge of governing them.
7. Gramikas/Grama-mukhtas
In charge of villages [37].


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

_Hinduism_

There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [38]. However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [39]), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.

_Buddhism_

"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to 'pure' teachings and exemption from 'impure' duties." [40].


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels.

1. Emperor
Based on analogy with preceding and subsequent polities in the region (e.g. [41]).
2. Minister of war
Based on analogy with preceding and subsequent polities in the region (e.g. [42]).
3. Officers
Contemporary texts refer to several different kinds of officers, such as jagadala, dandanayka, and sendhipati, but without providing any clear description of the military hierarchy [43] -- coding a range to express uncertainty here
4. Soldiers
Like preceding and subsequent polities, the Kadamba army was made up of infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots [44].

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Contemporary texts refer to several different kinds of officers, such as jagadala, dandanayka, and sendhipati, but without providing any clear description of the military hierarchy [45].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [46], Buddhism in monks [47].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Royal council was made up of the pradhyana (head minister), the manevergade (steward of the household), the kramukapala (betel-carrier), the tantrapala, and the sabhakaya (secretary of the council). [48]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Judges ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Courts ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ already established structure in the region
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ already established practice in the region

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Goa and Chaul were important port towns [49].

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Prakrit and Sanskrit were official, court languages, while Kannada was probably the "colloquial" language [50]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Prakrit and Sanskrit were official, court languages, while Kannada was probably the "colloquial" language [51]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Prakrit and Sanskrit were official, court languages, while Kannada was probably the "colloquial" language [52]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time."[53] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks".[54]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ "People spent their leisure usefully listening usefully listening to the discourses on Purana, Bharata and Bhagavata conducted regularly in the mathas and agraharas" [55].
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Buddhist, Jain and Hindu texts, including commentaries.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time."[56] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks".[57]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "Literary talents were not lacking in the period becomes evident from the inscriptions [sic]. But we have no reference to the poets who flourished in the Kadamba kingdom" [58].

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ [59]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Probably more often used for ornamental features or for handles.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Probably more often used for ornamental features or for handles.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [60]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [61]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Vakataka - Gupta Age weapons included the javelin.[62] Soldiers were still using javelins under the later Rashtrakuta monarchs.[63]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon found only in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference currently found for slings was for the Satavahanas.[64]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition."[65] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[66] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[67]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[68] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[69] 'From the Kushans, the Indians learnt the use of composite bows. The Sanchi sculptures which can be dated to the first century BC show many soldiers carrying strung and unstrung composite bows. Murray B. Emeneau writes that the Guptas used Sassanian types of composite bows.'[70]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Known to Chinese in the first millennium BCE but Vedic literature does not describe anything like a crossbow although Pant suggests "the weapon mentioned as the nalika in ancient Sanskrit literature was a crossbow."[71] "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[72]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ According to Jaina texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[73] Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that 'liquid fires' containing naphtha were in use in ancient India."[74]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Byzantines or perhaps Chinese first used gravity-powered sling machines.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[75]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[76]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[77]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[78]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[79][80] in different regions according to local conditions.[81]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ The Kadamba army included cavalry.[82] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[83]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[84][85] in different regions according to local conditions.[86]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ [87] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[88]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor.[89]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a leather shield.[90]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet.[91]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.[92]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[93]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Gupta period soldiers who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[94] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions s metal coat of mail.[95]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[96]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[97]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate.[98]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[99] It can be inferred that no other state had a significant naval force although some of them may have had a smaller navy. The Kadamba kingdom appears to have been landlocked so very likely to be one of the kingdoms that did not have a navy.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution".[100] The Banavasi fort was partly protected by the river Varada [101].
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche's monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable."[102] Deloche's studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats.[103]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ The Banavasi fort was partly protected by a moat.[104]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ The Banavasi fort was surrounded by a stone wall. It is not indicated whether or not it was mortared [105]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Banavasi fort was surrounded by a stone wall. It is not indicated whether or not it was mortared [106]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule. The reign of Kakushtavarma is widely regarded as the greatest era of the Kadamba Empire. The Emperor concluded matrimonial alliances with other prominent families, thus extending the Kadambas' influence over the rest of peninsular India. [107]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [108]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [109]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [110]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [111]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [112]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [113] [114] [115]

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