InHoysa

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Katheriin Liibert ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Hoysala Kingdom ♥ [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Hoysala Empire; Hoysalas ♥ [2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1225 CE ♥ The glorious part of Hoysala empire ended in 1235, with Vira-Narasimha’s death [3].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1108-1346 CE ♥ While the first mentions of the Hoysala dynasty refer to even earlier times, the Hoysalas rose into eminence as strong feudatories of the Chalukyas during Vinayadithya's rule (r. 1047-1098)[4]. As Derrett notes, Vinayadithya was obliged to acknowledge Chalukya supremacy by 1078 [5]. But it was only during the rule of Vishnuvardhana (r. 1108-1152) that Hoysala rose to the dignity of a kingdom[6]. The Hoysala rule came to an end in 1346, as the last ruler Vira Virupaksha died [7].

It was under Ballala II that Bellary once again capitulated to Hoysala KIngdom (had been under VIsnuvardhana some 70 years before) in or around 1192 [8].

It seems that Vishnuvardhana entered the town of Bellare (the modern Bellary) in 1118, or some time between 1118-20 [9].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ Accordin to Derrett, there were feudatories of the Hoysala Kingdom in 1142, but the Hoysala kingdom itself was a subordinate of the Calukyas [10]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance; none ♥ nominal allegiance: 1078-1191CE; none: 1191-1310CE; allegiance: 1310-1346CE As Derrett notes, Vinayadithya was obliged to acknowledge Chalukya supremacy by 1078 and became a feudatory [11]. While Vishnuvardhana's (r. 1108-1152) incessant attempts to overthrow the yoke of Chalukya suzerainty proved a failure, he raised his territory to the dignity of a kingdom[12]. Ballala's time (r.1173-1120) saw the achievement of independence from Chalukyas[13] as their rule fell in 1191 [14]. In 1310, the Hoysala ruler submitted to the Delhi Sultan's army, and the following decades were a struggle of resistance against the Delhi Sultans and the allegiance they had forced on Hoysala [15][16].

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Chalukyas of Kalyani ♥ Western Chalukya Empire[17].
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ feudal subordinate The Hoysalas began their rule as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and when their power was on the wane, the Hoysalas asserted their independence and established their supremacy over Karnataka as it stands today[18].
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Vijayanagara Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Sosavur; Dvarasamudram; Kannanur ♥ Originally, the Hoysalas had their capital at Sosavur or the Sanskrit Shashakapura, and later it was transferred to Halebid or Dorasamudra [19]. Dvarasamudram (or Dorasamudra) was the capital until the late fourteenth century, established in the hill-bounded area of modern Halebid in Hassan district by an eleventh-century Hoysala chief. Dvarasamudram was over 35 miles from the major area of agricultural production and settlement of the kingdom, on the Hemavati River, and 42 miles north of the Kaveri, which formed the boundary with Gangavadi and its ancient Ganga kings to the south [20].

Ramanatha was expulsed from Kannanur - the loss of that capital city naturally increased Ramanatha’s interes in the plateau. From 1281 his administration on the plateau expanded, and almost certainly in the tear 1283-84, the seat of government was removed to a place called Kunadni. This was the new capital from which Ramanatha chose to survey the collapse of his riparian kingdom [21].

The later Hoysala capital Kannanur was established where the Kaveri delta began, between the centres of Chola and Pandya power in the south. Established in the uplands over the gateway to the Kaveri delta, the capital resembled the capitals of other masters of river valleys more than it did Dvarasamudram and thus reflected the now divided character of the Hoysala kingdom[22].

♠ Language ♣ Kannada; Sanskrit ♥

General Description

The Hoysala dynasty ruled over a territory roughly equivalent to the southern Indian state of Karnataka, plus the eastern and southeastern margins of Andhra Pradesh and the northwest corner of Tamil Nadu.[23] For much of the 12th century CE, the Hoysalas were mere provincial rulers within the wider Chalukya empire,[24] but they rebelled and wrested control over the region from the Chalukyas in 1191.[25] They lost their empire with the death of Emperor Vira Virupaksha in 1346.[26] Under Hoysala rule, literature and the arts flourished, particularly architecture, as testified by the Hoysala temples at Halebidu, Belur and Somanathapura.[27]

Population and political organization

As with most preceding South Indian polities, the Hoysala ruler held judiciary, executive and legislative powers[28] and was also the polity's supreme military leader.[29] He was assisted at court by several ministers[30] and in the provinces by governors.[31]
No population estimates for this period could be found in the literature.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Katheriin Liibert ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [100,000-200,000] ♥ in squared kilometers.

1184: Ruling over the area bounded by Konkana, Alvakheda, Bayalnad, Talakad and Savimale , area between Kaveri and Kabbani rivers [32]

up to and about the year 1098: 95 miles long at the longest and 70 miles broad at its widest part, represents the entire known area within which the Hoysala enjoyed the revenues[33] -- this reference refers to period before 1108-1346 CE kingdom

By the end of Vishnuvardhana’s rule: he had broken the bones of Malava, Cera, Kerala, Nolamba, Kadamba, Kalinga, Anga, Bangala, Varala, Cola, Khasa, Barbara, Oddaha and others [34]

1192: Sevuna, it is true, had many Kannada-speaking subjects, but south of the Krishna most of the subjects looked either to the Hoysala or to the rulers in the Konkana as their natural lead. The government at Devagiri, a great distance north of the Krishna, had a distinct Maratha bias, and although it was careful to use Kannada subordinates in the actual process of government in the south, its outlook was necessarily different from that which prevailed at Kalyana [35].

1196 Ballala II took - besides the places already conventionally associated with his name- Banavase, Hanugal, Halasige, Huligere, Nolambavadi, Belvola, Bagadage, Erambarage, Kisukad, Balla, Kuderi and Lokkigundi, Tattavadi. Without epigraphical evidence we cannot establish that effective Hoysala rule (revenue) was exercised to any distance beyond the Malprabha river [36]

1233: Tungabhadr served as the frontier in the north-west of the empire [37].

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels. It is very difficult to identify the administrative divisions under the Hoysalas, though inscriptions speak of nadus and vishayas. We do not know which unit was bigger of the two[38].

1. Capital city [39]

2. Town [40]
3. Village [41]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-5] ♥ levels.

1. King - the overall ruler [42], who concentrated in his hands the executive, legislative and judicial functions of the state[43].

_Central government or court?_

2. Sandhivigrahi (foreign minister)
The king was assisted in administration by his ministers: Sandhivigrahi was the foreign minister, Sarvadhikari was an official with powers to supervise all departments, Bahataaraniyogadhipati was an official who headed 72 departments, Mahabhandari was the senior treasurer, and Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. Paramavishvasi or personal secretary of the king and Mahapasayita or chief master of the robes were other senior officials. At times, these officials held their office hereditarily. The ministers also held military office[44]
2. Sarvadhikari (supervised all departments)
2. Mahabhandari (senior treasurer)
2. Dharmadhikari (minister of justice)
2. Paramavishvasi (personal secretary of king)
2. Mahapasayita (chief master of the robes)
2. Bahataaraniyogadhipati (headed 72 departments)
3. Department head inferred
4.
5.

_Provincial government_

2. Governors - heads of provinces.
The administration of the provinces was just the replica of the central administration. The governors charged both civil and military functions. They were made responsible not only for the peace, tranquility, law and order, but also for efficient administration[45].
3. Dandanayaka - heads of a nadu.
it has been argued that the nadu was looked after by a dandanayaka (who was an army commander), assisted by other officials - a mahapradhana, a bhandari (treasurer), a senabova (clerk) and several junior officials called heggades[46]
4. mahapradhana
4. bhandari (treasurer)
5. senabova (clerk)
4. Heggades - junior officials who perhaps looked after the smaller units of a nadu [47] [48].

♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

Estimate based on Buddhist and Jain hierarchies known from other polities

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

Professional military[49] was present and would likely have taken at least this form (minimum)

1. King

2. General
3. Officer/s
4. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ {present; absent} ♥ It is clear that during Ballala II’s time the soldiers were professional [50] Ministers in the government also held military office,[51] which might suggest the officers - or at least some of them - were non-specialist.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ It is clear that during Ballala II’s time the soldiers were professional [52].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Temples were built.[53]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The king was assisted in administration by his ministers: Sandhivigrahi was the foreign minister, Sarvadhikari was an official with powers to supervise all departments, Bahataaraniyogadhipati was an official who headed 72 departments, Mahabhandari was the senior treasurer, and Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice. Paramavishvasi or personal secretary of the king and Mahapasayita or chief master of the robes were other senior officials. At times, these officials held their office hereditarily. The ministers also held military office.[54]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ At times, officials held their office hereditarily.[55] - does this imply that at other times there was appointment on merit?

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Is there any reason to have a minister of justice is there is no formal legal code?

Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice.[56]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice.[57]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice.[58]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown. Dharmadhikari was the minister of justice.[59]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation facilities were provided by constructing new tanks, wells and canals or repairing the old ones.[60]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ unknown. did the polity have a coastline?

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Hindu scriptures.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ [61]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Keshiraja's work on grammar [62]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ [63]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Works on mathematics[64]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ [65]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ Cowrie shells? " 10 Precious Metals, Debasements and Cowrie Shells in the Medieval Indian Monetary Systems, c.1200-1575 - John S Deyell" [66] Need to check.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The Hoysalas issued gold coins called gadyana or honnu. There were also coins called bele and kani[67].
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ unknown

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Katheriin Liibert; Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles if not for bladed weapons.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [68]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [69]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Images of Skanda abound in the outer walls sculpture of many Hoysala temples." Skanda, the 'war general of gods', "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear."[70]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon used only in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference was for the Satavahana period.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[71] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[72]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[73] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[74]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[75]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown: temple reliefs, the main source for information on Hoysala warfare, "provide no information, however, on how forts were attacked." [76]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown: temple reliefs, the main source for information on Hoysala warfare, "provide no information, however, on how forts were attacked." [77]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown: temple reliefs, the main source for information on Hoysala warfare, "provide no information, however, on how forts were attacked." [78]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [79]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "The weapons carried by soldiers can also be discerned in [Hoysala temple] reliefs, including lances, swords, maces and shields." [80] Skanda, the 'war general of gods', "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear."[81] Hoysala infantry had maces.[82]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[83]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[84] Skanda, the 'war general of gods', "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear."[85]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[86] Skanda, the 'war general of gods', "is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear."[87]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ "The cavalrymen carried one-handed as well as heavy two-handed lances." [88] "Hoysala cavalrymen were lancers."[89] Hoysala infantry units had "pikes, lances, swords, maces and bows and arrows."[90]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[91][92] in different regions according to local conditions.[93]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [94] "Hoysala cavalrymen were lancers."[95] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[96]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[97][98] in different regions according to local conditions.[99] At its maximum extent the Western Chalukya Empire stretches quite north, close to camel habitat.
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ [100] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[101] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times."[102]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor.[103]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "The Hoysala Army could be taken as a microcosm of the force structure of the Hindu polities in Deccan and South India. The infantry carried bamboo bows, swords, spears and shields."[104]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet.[105]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.[106]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[107]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[108]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[109]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[110]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate.[111]


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ "Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[112] Hoysalas are not mentioned and since the polity was landlocked it is extremely likely they had no naval forces.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution".[113]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche's monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable."[114] Deloche's studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Reference for Vijayanagara that may have more general relevance: "Walls made out of earth, which are common in the south of India, appear to have been used at settlements of inferior status, while stone walls were constructed around settlements which exercised some level of authority over the surrounding area."[115]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says " certain types of multiple ditches on the exterior of medieval forts were likely to have been placed to 'impede the approach of elephants.'”[116]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats[117] and the moat was still used during the Rashtrakuta period.[118]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Forts were built. [119] Reference for Vijayanagara (successor polity) that may have more general relevance: "Walls made out of earth, which are common in the south of India, appear to have been used at settlements of inferior status, while stone walls were constructed around settlements which exercised some level of authority over the surrounding area."[120] The walls of Vijayanagara were non-mortared.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Forts were built. [121]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Katheriin Liibert ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [122]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [123]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [124]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [125]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [126]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [127] [128] [129]

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Sardar, M. 2007. Golconda Through Time. New York University. Unpublished PhD dissertation.