InGangN

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Neolithic Middle Ganga ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 7000-3001 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Middle Ganga corresponds to the eastern portion of the Upper Ganga Plain, in the eastern part of the north-central modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the state of Bihar. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Neolithic (c. 7000-3001 BCE). Larger sites found in the wider Gangetic region dating from this time have yielded evidence for agricultural activities, including animal husbandry; moreover, one site (Chirand) has also yielded evidence for large-scale production of tools made of bone and antler, as well as of items of likely domestic use, indicating some degree of craft specialisation. The political organisation of such sites remain overall unclear, though one site in a neighbouring valley, Magahara, seems to have housed a relatively egalitarian community, judging from the similarity between houses and their arrangement around a likely cattle pen, suggesting communal ownership of livestock. No population estimates could be found for the Middle Ganga specifically, but the typical community in the nearby Vindhya region would likely have numbered around 200 people, and the region as a whole likely had a population of about 1,000.[1]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [0-1] ♥ levels. "Sizable settlements do not figure in the purely plain areas until the coming of the Iron Age."[2]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

'Polity-owned' includes owned by the community, or the state

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

built and/or maintained by the polity (that is, code 'present' even if the polity did not build a road, but devotes resources to maintaining it).

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Note for the next Codebook version: we will separate "Fiction" into two separate codes: "Poetry" and "Fictional Prose Narrative"


Money

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown (we are mainly interested to know which is the most sophisticated form of money)

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military Technologies A military technology should be coded 'present' if there is concrete evidence that it was used in warfare (e.g. metal in armor or weapons, spears used in warfare and not only in hunting, etc) and 'inferred present' if there is evidence that the polity used the technology (e.g. for hunting, as an ornamental or ceremonial item, in jewelry), but no concrete evidence that the metal was specifically used in warfare (explain in comment).

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Of 138 sites, only fourteen sites in UP and Bihar have been excavated so far and these show little use of copper."[3]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Sources only mention copper.
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Sources only mention copper.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Sources only mention copper.

Projectiles

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ New World Weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Materials is not important for coding (but mention materials in notes). For example, daggers and swords can be wooden. Nonmilitary implements used in warfare (e.g., pitchforks, scythes) should be coded in the “other” category.

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.

Animals used in warfare

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown If an animal is used as a supply animal for war then it should be coded as present (but clearly state in notes that it is used as a pack animal).

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sources do not mention elephant remains in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sources do not mention elephant remains in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sources do not mention elephant remains in descriptions of relevant archaeological contexts.

Armor

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown Materials for shields, helmets, breastplate, and limb protection can be made of any material, as long as they provide protection. For example, a soft cloth cap would not be a helmet, but a tough leather cap would be a helmet.

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources in lists of artefacts found at sites in the region dating to this time.
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown With defensive fortifications, what matters is not what is inherited but what techniques are used for building in the current period, so be careful not to use fortifications from earlier periods - focus on new fortifications (but mention that old fortifications in notes if you're coding absent because there aren't any new fortifications).

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [4] [5] [6]

References