InDelh*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams ♥ old wiki page Delhi Sultanate: 1206 CE - 1526 CE

♠ Original name ♣ Delhi Sultanate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Mamalik-i Dihli ♥ Mamalik-i Dihli [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1296-1316 CE ♥ During the reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji (1296 CE-1316 CE), the sultanate reached its peak of centralized power and acquired imperial dimensions. To maintain a full treasury, the sultan raised the land tax to 50 percent of each crop and strictly enforced its collection from all Hindu subjects in his realm. He also introduced two new taxes, one on milk cattle, the other on houses. His network of spies and loyal courtiers was efficient enough to make him more feared than hated. He introduced a successful system of wage and price control in Delhi. Private holding of gold and silver, common throughout much of Indian history, was temporarily ended during his reign. The prices of food, grains, and cloth were kept low enough to permit soldiers and average workers to survive without high salaries. Merchants were licensed, and their profits were kept under strict state control; peasants were obliged to sell their grains only to registered food merchants at fixed prices. Hoarding was forbidden and, if discovered, severely punished. [2]

The Sultanate was at its height during the early fourteenth century CE, when it was the largest polity in South Asia.[3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1206-1526 CE ♥

Start date 1206 CE : Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji was murdered in 1206 CE and his vast empire seemed on the verge of disintegration. After the death of his master Muhammad, Qutb-ud-din took the decisive stage of declaring his independence from the Ghurids. Iltutmish, Qutb-ud-din's son-in-low, succeeded him in 1210 CE, and in 1229 CE he was solemnly consecrated as Sultan of Delhi by a representative of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. [4]

End Date 1526 CE: Daulat Khan Lodi, the governer of Punjab and a member of the Sultan’s own tribe, rebelled and sought the assistance of Babur, the ruler of Kabul. Babur who was a direct descendant of both Temür and Genghis Khan, had already invaded India three times in an effort to reestablish his family’s supremacy there. He welcomed Daulat Khan’s invitation, captured Lahore in 1524 CE, and two years later advanced on Delhi. The armies of Babur and Sultan Ibrahim (1517 CE-1526 CE) met at Panipat north of Delhi on April 20, 1526 CE. Ibrahim was killed in battle. Babur and his successors became the most powerful dynasty in Indian history, the Mughal emperors. [5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥

Centralisation only lasted for a few decades before the polity become much more loosely organised.[6]

"the Delhi Sultanate was more like a conglomeration of nearly-independent principalities, jagirs and provinces, each ruled by a hereditary chief or zamindar, with their subjects looking more to their immediate governors who had absolute power in the provinces than the sovereign who was far away."[7]

Only the area around the capital and a few major fortresses elsewhere, were under the direct rule of the sultan. Outlying areas were administered either by Muslim governors appointed from Delhi or by Hindu kings who recognized the sultan’s supremacy. Across most of the sultanate, local power remained in the hands of petty Hindu chieftains. In return for paying the land revenue to muqtas, subject kings, provincial governors, or sultans, the chieftains were allowed to rule their tiny kingdoms more or less as they pleased. Governers and kings alike assumed independence whenever the sultanate was too weak to keep them in check. [8]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance ♥ Independent polity. [9] "owed only nominal allegiance to the Abbasid Caliphs"."[10]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Principality of Gur ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Its heartland lay in the north and west of South Asia.[11]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Persian; Turkish; Islamic ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Delhi; Devagiri; Agra ♥ In order to rule his vast empire from a more central capital, Muhammad Tughluq built a new one at Daulatabad, the old Yadava capital at Devairi. After shifting to Daulatabad Muhammad Tughluq lost his control over North India without being able to consolidate his hold on the South. When he finally returned to Delhi this was taken as a sign of weakness and independent states arose in the South. [12]. Sikander, the Lodi Sultan, built a new capital at Agra. [13]

Sikandar (1489 CE -1517 CE) moved the capital down the Yamuna river, from Delhi to Agra, so that he could better watch his outlying dependencies. [14]

♠ Language ♣ Persian; Urdu ♥ Persian (official language). Sanskrit was used by Hindus and local dialects were spoken by the general population The process of Hindus learning the Persian language for employment in state service caused an upsurge from below. [15] Urdu "a mixture of Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Hindu" was developing as a common language.[16]

General Description

The Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 CE) was created when Muhammad Qutb-ud-din declared his independence from the Ghurids, which in turn followed the defeat of the last Hindu ruler of Delhi in 1192 CE.[17] Qutb-ud-din's successor, his son, had his rule as Sultan of Delhi legitimized by a representative of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad.[18] The Sultanate lasted 320 years which spanned five successive Turko-Afghan dynasties (Mamluk Dynasty, Khalji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty and Lodi Dynasty) that spread Islam and the Persian language of administration in northern India.[19][20]

The Delhi Sultanate had a highly-complex central administration but was not a centralized state. In the provinces, much of its power was devolved to local Hindu rulers and landholders.[21] Only the area around Delhi was ruled directly by the Sultan, and here units of land given to military commanders, in return for the right to collect revenue.[22] According to Habib (2005) any centralisation that existed only lasted for a few decades before the polity become much more loosely organised.[23]

Ala al-Din (r.1296-1316 CE) reorganized the revenue and administrative systems in order to support a large standing army. A successful army was crucial for maintaining the personal authority of the Delhi Sultan in India and for expanding, or defending, territory. [24] By the fourteenth century, the vizier of the Sultan became more powerful. Whilst earlier his duties were confined only to the military, they were extended to revenue affairs. The vizier was responsible for fiscal administration, income and expenditure, appointment of officials, and the collection of taxes.[25]

Hindus joined the ranks of the administrative class[26] and "many elements of the Rajput political system, with or without changes, were incorporated into the Turkish administration in India."[27] Under the later dynasties, revenue collection began to be less efficient, and conflicts between elite power-holders emerged. The Sultanate ended when Ibrahim was defeated by Babur, the Mongol ruler, in 1526 CE.[28]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2,800,000-3,200,000] ♥ squared kilometers, calculated using Google area calculator and map of Sultanate at its height c.1320-1350 CE

The Sultans began to cede territory for the rest of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, losing control of Bengal, the Deccan and the south.[29]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ [30]

"Hindus formed the dominant rural aristocracy, whilst Muslims residing in urban centres had better chances of working in the state's administration."[31]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [200,000-400,000] ♥ persons.

"Delhi in the thirteenth century had grown to be one of the largest cities of the Muslim world. A number of other cities had emerged as major urban centres during this period - Multan, Lahore, Anhilwara, Kara, Kambath, Sonargaon and Lakhnauti, to name a few".[32]

Delhi became probably the largest city in South Asia.[33]

The population of Gaur, the principal city of Bengal, was estimated at 200,000 persons. Delhi would have a much bigger population than Gaur. [34]. It received large numbers of immigrants from Central Asia and Persia, who were driven there by the Mongol invasions. [35]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥

"Delhi in the thirteenth century had grown to be one of the largest cities of the Muslim world. A number of other cities had emerged as major urban centres during this period - Multan, Lahore, Anhilwara, Kara, Kambath, Sonargaon and Lakhnauti, to name a few".[36]

(6) Delhi - described in contemporary sources as the the largest city in the sub-continent. [37]

(5) Large cities/regional capitals - Lahore, Multan, Patan, Cambay, Kara. [38]

(4) Wilayat (larger provinces) [39]

(3) Shiqq/Sarkar (sub province) [40]

(2) Parganah (aggregate of villages)/Sadi [41]

(1) Village [42]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 9 ♥

"many elements of the Rajput political system, with or without changes, were incorporated into the Turkish administration in India."[43]


1. Sultan

"The insecurity that accompanied the throne resulted in frequent civil wars, military revolutions and large-scale massacres of royal families. In some cases, the sultan nominated his heir, or else the claimants to the throne were left to fight a war of succession."[44]
Sultan "was in charge of the state's administration and of the army."[45]
2. Advisory Council
Sultans "took the opinion of an advisory council on all important matters dealing with the administration of the state. The advisory council was not a legally constituted body and the numbers of advisers varied according to the importance of the matters discussed and also according to the personal preferences of the monarch."[46]


_Central government_

2. Wazir of the diwan-i-wizarat
"The wazir or prime minister was the most important officer, next only to the sultan. By the fourteenth century, the wazir, whose earlier duties were confined only to the military, had now become an expert on revenue affairs too, and was made responsible for the entire fiscal administration of the realm and all matters relating to income and expenditure. He was entrusted with powers to appoint revenue officials, organize and collect taxes, and largely control the state's expenditure."[47]
Next to Sultan, the chief executive office belonged to the wazir. Primarily he was one of the four departmental heads, the "four pillars of state" but his rank was a little above the others for he was the chief minister. As the Sultan's chief counselor, he had access to him at all times. [48]
3. mustauf-i-mumalik (Auditor general)
3. Musharraf-I-mumalik (Accountant general)
"A separate auditor general was appointed for supervising expenditure and there was also an accountant general for inspecting the income. Both officers assisted the wazir in discharging his duties."[49]
3. sadr-us-sadar or qazi-i-mumalik of ?? diwan-i-risalat (department for religion) what did the sadr-us-sadar lead if not the diwan-i-risalat?
"religious affairs and provide scholarships to academics and men of piety."[50]
4. Khatib - u'l - khutaba of ?? diwan-i-risalat (department for religion) what did the sadr-us-sadar lead if not the diwan-i-risalat?
"junior qazis appointed to assist him"[51]
"A preacher of exceptional eloquence .. as leader of the diwan - i - risalat, he appointed the religion preachers and imans to lead prayers and manage the mosques the realm." [52] He was officially presided over the ahl-i-qalam (men of pen). [53]
3. munshi-i-mumalik of diwan-i-insha (department for post)
"dealt with the entire state's postal correspondence. Groups of horsemen or runners were used to carry the correspondence across the kingdom. Sultans planted spies, called barids, in different parts of the kingdom to obtain information on people, events and occurrences."[54]
3. Department for Revenue
"the sultan was assisted by a team of ministers who were individually responsible for various departments, such as revenue, public works, war, local and provincial governments, etc. The number, power and function of the ministers varied from time to time."[55]
3. Minister for Public Works
"There were a number of other departments like the public works department, the agricultural department, the audit department and the department of slaves - each under the charge of a minister."[56]
4. sub-official by type of public work inferred
5. On-site manager of a public work inferred
6. On-site worker on a public work inferred
3. Minister for Audit
3. Minister for Agriculture
3. Minister for War
3. Minister for the Royal Household
"looked after the personal comforts of the sultan and the requirements of the harem."[57]
3. Wakil-i-dar of the department for slaves
"Firuz Shah Tughlaq had set up a separate department of slaves, many of whom were employed in royal workshops. The officer in charge of this was known as the wakil-i-dar, who other than being responsible for maintaining court decorum, also oversaw the seating arrangement of nobles at court."[58]
4. sub-administrators for different types of workshop? inferred
5. Manager of royal workshop
3. Minister for Markets
"and another who controlled the markets."[59]
3. Minister for Provincial Government
"a minister appointed as a link between the provincial and central governments"[60]


_Provincial government_

"the Delhi Sultanate was more like a conglomeration of nearly-independent principalities, jagirs and provinces, each ruled by a hereditary chief or zamindar, with their subjects looking more to their immediate governors who had absolute power in the provinces than the sovereign who was far away."[61]

3. Iqtadar (or muqti or wali)
"The kingdoms of the various dynasties were categorized into a number of divisions called iqtas, each under an iqtadar, muqti or wali. Therefore, iqtas were territorial units allotted to nobles, performing civil and military duties, in lieu of salary."[62]
Main functions of an Iqtadar: "collection of land revenue, which was payable to the central treasury, and the maintenance of law and order. Out of the total land revenue collected, a fixed share was given to the state, while the rest went towards the expenditure of governing the iqtas and the personal expenses of the iqtadars."[63]
"In principle, the Iqtadars could be transferred within the kingdom."[64]
In all probability, the term "wali" was reserved for governors with extraordinary powers. The number of such governors was small and the major part of the sultanate was administered by governors with limited power. [65]
The muqti (fief holder) was appointed by the Sultan, and could be transferred and dismissed at will. Usually he maintained a body of troops consisting of both infantry and horsemen, out of his provincial revenues, and was responsible not only for the defense of his province, but also for the maintenance of law and order. [66]
4. Provincial governor of a province
"Iqtas were divided into provinces that were further sub-divided into shiqs and parganas."[67] Some Hindus became provincial governors.[68]
5. shiqdar of a shiq
"The provinces were again divided into shiqs and parganas."[69]
6. ? of a parganas is there someone at this level or is it just a term for a sub-division
"The provinces were again divided into shiqs and parganas."[70]
7. Amils of a sub-division (number of villages) of a parganas[71]
8. muqqaddam of a village (village headman)
"The village headman was known as the muqqaddam and the landowners as khuts. The village accountant or patwari assisted the officials in the discharge of their functions at the village level."[72] "The villages enjoyed a more-or-less autonomous status, with village republics managing their own affairs. The sultan did not usually interfere with the workings of local institutions."[73]
9. patwari (village accountant)
8. Khutd (land owner)
Khutd (village headmen). The headman of villages controlled the countryside and agricultural production. [74]


3. Tribute paying (Hindu) states
4.


_Note for later polities_

"This new administrative structure of the Delhi Sultanate had a powerful impact on small states and principalities that were formed after its disintegration as well as on the Mughal administration that would come into existence in the sixteenth century."[75]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥

"Though the Delhi Sultans ruled independently in India, they perceived themselves to be part of the Islamic world that operated through the Caliphate of Baghdad. ... Most of the sultans included the name of the caliph in their khubta of Friday sermon, on the coins that they issued, and in the titles they assumed, which were all symptomatic of their humility to the caliph."[76]

1. Caliph

"owed only nominal allegiance to the Abbasid Caliphs".[77]

1. Sultan

2. Advisory Council
"Since the sultans were expected to enforce the law of the Shariah, they were also obliged to take the opinion of the ulema."[78]
2. Sadr-u's-sudur (minister of theological affairs).
The Sadr-u's-sudur was a highly venerated official who not only enjoyed great prestige but also exercised much power. The offices of qadi-i-mumalik and sadr-u's-sudur were given to the same men because offices of a religious and legal nature were often concentrated in the hands of single individuals in the empire. [79] He was officially presided over the ahl-i-qalam (men of pen). [80]
3. Khatib - u'l - khutaba.
Subordinate to the Sadr-u's-sudur. "A preacher of exceptional eloquence .. as leader of the diwan - i - risalat, he appointed the religion preachers and imans to lead prayers and manage the mosques the realm." [81] He was officially presided over the ahl-i-qalam (men of pen). [82]
4. Shaikh-u'l-Islam. The large number of sufis and faqirs under the patronage of the state were under a shaikh-u'l-Islam. Probably administration of hospices and tombs of saints and kings ultimately rested in the hands of shaikh-u'l-Islam, because in many cases derwishes were included among the beneficiaries. [83]
4. Qadi.
The provincial qadis (judges) also acted as sadrs in their respective areas. [84]
5. Imam.
Imams led prayers and managed the mosques of the realm. They were generally trained at a college in theology. [85]


♠ Military levels ♣ 8 ♥

1. Sultan.

Sultan "was the commander-in-chief of the army, but the ariz-i-mumalik was its captain for all practical reasons, and exercised a lot of influence on the state."[86]
"The institution of slavery provided the basis for well-trained and loyal martial slaves (the mamluks) to the sultans."[87]
2 Ariz-i mamalik.
The Ariz-i-mamalik was the head of the army department (diwan-i-arz). He kept the iqtadar's (military assignee) muster-roll, recruited new troops and looked after the equipment and efficiency of fighting forces. He was, besides, the paymaster-general of army. [88]
3. Khan.
A khan's force contained at least ten maliks. [89]
4. Malik.
A malik had authority over ten amirs. [90]
5. Amir.
An amir commanded ten sipah-salars. [91]
6. Sipah-salar.
A sipah-salar directed ten sar khels. [92]
7. Sar Khel.
A sar khel had ten horsemen under him. [93]
8. Horsemen.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ e.g. ariz-i-mamalik, the head of the army department (diwan-i-arz). [94]

Payment of soldiers in cash was a measure adopted by Alauddin Khilji.[95]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present: 1206-1295 CE; present: 1296-1526 CE ♥ e.g. jandars (king bodyguards). [96] Under Alauddin Khilji "a regular muster of armed forces was maintained."[97]

Payment of soldiers in cash was a measure adopted by Alauddin Khilji.[98]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ e.g. qazi-i-mamalik (chief justice of kingdom) , wakil-i-dar (household officer). [99]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ "Sultans could not afford to estrange the feelings of their Hindu subjects who contributed largely to the material strength and prosperity of the Sultanate. In fact, the sultans soon realized that it was impossible to carry on administration without the assistance of Hindus, therefore appointing them to posts of trust and responsibility."[100] Especially from Muhammad bin Tughlaq.[101] Some became provincial governors.[102]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ The royal mint in Delhi. [103]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Shariah (Islamic law) which was not applied to non-Muslim zimmis and customary law. [104] "The rulers also framed regulations related to criminal law."[105]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ The king was the highest judge, although other judges and magistrates also operated in the state. There were different courts of law (primarily for Muslim and non-Muslim law codes) which needed separate judges. [106] "the sultan appointed judges to dispense justice and also acted as a court of appeal to hear cases against the decisions taken by judges."[107]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Different courts were used for the different law codes (which included the Muslim tashrii law and non-Muslim ghair tashrii law). Courts did not however extend into the more rural communities where village laws continued to be enforced. [108]

"Cases involving non-Muslim subjects were decided according to their own particular religious laws by panchayats in the villages."[109]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ The muhtasib "was primarily a member of the judicial staff and acted as a kind of prosecutor in offences against religious law." [110] "Since the sultans were expected to enforce the law of the Shariah, they were also obliged to take the opinion of the ulema."[111]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ e.g. cisterns [112] Firuz Shah Tughlaq "created the biggest network of canals known in pre-modern India"[113]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Inferred from presence of roof tanks. [114]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Alauddin Khilji kept prices of commodities (including grain) down with market regulation, but not consistently enforced after him.[115]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Alauddin established system of grain procurement using state granaries. [116]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ There was a good system of roads which were maintained by governors, such as the road between Dhar and Delhi which made a 24 day journey marked by kroh minars all the way. [117] [118] "Apart from the Royal Road from Peshawar to Sonargaon, Muhammad bin Tughlaq also built a highway connecting Delhi to Daulatabad."[119]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ During the reign of Sultan Firuz Shah (1351-1388 CE), "contemporary writers have noted with pride and joy that beautiful edifices were put up, including bridges, aqueducts, lakes, cisterns and irrigation channels." [120]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Canals brought water to north of Delhi. [121] Firuz Shah Tughlaq "created the biggest network of canals known in pre-modern India"[122] -- were these irrigation or transport canals or both?
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ e.g. Lahri Bandar in Sind, Cambay in Gurajat. [123]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Manuscripts in Persian, Sanskrit. [124]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Manuscripts in Persian, Sanskrit. [125]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ i.e.Persian, Sanskrit [126]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ e.g. the Qu'ran, Rigveda.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ commentaries used in teaching. [127]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Treatise by Thakkura Pheru, mint master, on precious-metal content of coins. [128]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Kabir-u'd-din is reported to have written an official history of 'Ala-u'd-din's reign which has unfortunately not survived. [129] Almost every ruler had court historian.[130]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Hindu philosophers Ramananda, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Ramanuja and others.[131]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. Tibb-i-Firuzshahi (medicine book) by Firuz Shah. [132]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Under Firuz Shah Tughlaq Sanskrit epics were translated.[133] Amir Khusrau - Persian poet.[134]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Habib, "The numismatic evidence ... suggests a considerable increase in coined money." Even peasants were paying the land tax in cash, rather than in kind. Gold coins were in use, although pure silver was rare. Early coins came from plunder and hordes, but there was a state lead remoneterization in the mid-1220s. There was a fixed ratio [10:1] of gold to silver coins. "The coinage of the Delhi sultanate was more efficiently controlled than any Middle Eastern or European currency of the period." p.93 [135]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Denominations of cowries were in use. [136]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Gold and silver coins from Mamluk kingdom, coins from Yemen and Europe. [137]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Coins minted in Delhi at the Mint. [138] It was commercially prosperous, introducing standardised gold, silver and copper coinage.[139]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred present ♥ "The production of paper gave rise to increased record keeping in government offices, and to the widespread use of bills of exchange called hundis."[140]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ According to Ibn Battutah, it took five days for runners, called dhawahs, (and horsemen) to travel from Sind to Delhi, using relay stations with runners ready to continue the journey. [141]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ At each station there were three shelters where men waited all ready to take a letter and run hard to the next post. [142]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ [143]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ War elephant crews sometimes could use bow and arrow, long spear or throw javelins.[144]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Skilled archery (on horse back) was a key weapon for the Sultans' armies.[145]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ tufak or tufang [146] "From the Indian chronicles of the Late Medieval period, it could be seen that the Delhi Sultans, probably Iltutmish, adopted the crossbow for military use."[147]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Mangonel [148]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ The siege engines are not fully described in the historical texts, but they were used in battles to throw large balls, naphtha and fireworks. [149]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent: 1206-1399 CE; suspected unknown: 1400-1449 CE; present: 1450-1526CE ♥ From second half of 15th century [150] Does the 'From the second half of 15th century' reference refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically? "it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army."[151]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent: 1206-1399 CE; suspected unknown: 1400-1449 CE; present: 1450-1526 CE ♥ From second half of 15th century [152] Does the 'From the second half of 15th century' reference refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically? "it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army."[153]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance.[154]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance.[155]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance.[156]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ According to the Ibn Battuta (14th century) "in North India mounted soldiers usually carried two swords: one, called the stirrup-sword, was attached to the saddle, while the other was kept in his quiver."[157]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Cavalrymen with spears.[158] According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry.[159]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Many passing references to presence of donkeys in medieval India.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ The sultans armies were "highly skilled in deploying horses in warfare." [160] "The cavalry was in fact the strength of the Sultanate armies, and a lot was spent on keeping it in good shape by procuring premium war horses that were extremely expensive."[161] Horses wore house shoes, horses of their Hindu adversaries did not.[162]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Ghaznavids, a Turkish-Islamic dynasty in Central Asia 977-1186 CE, used elephants and camels.[163]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ Elephants were the preferred animal of war in India, partly because of a lack of success in breeding horses.[164] The importance of elephants is shown when, for example, in 1309 the ruler Ala-ud-din went on campaign to Southern India 'in order to seize elephants and treasures from the rulers of the south' (as written in the chronicle Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi).[165] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times."[166]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Quilted cotton jackets. Cannot quite confirm reference is for Delhi Sultanate but highly likely since book chapter is titled 'Administrative System Of The Delhi Sultanate'.[167]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Have a reference for its use in southern India.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Iron stirrups and heavy armour, for both horses and horsemen also became common during this period."[168]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "Iron stirrups and heavy armour, for both horses and horsemen also became common during this period."[169] According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry.[170] Elephant armour (bargustawan-i-pil) included plate.[171]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ "Iron stirrups and heavy armour, for both horses and horsemen also became common during this period."[172] According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry.[173]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry.[174] Elephant armour (bargustawan-i-pil) included chain mail.[175] According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) chain armor was used in battles against the Hindu Rajputs.[176]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry.[177] Elephant armour (bargustawan-i-pil) included plate.[178]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy."[179]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy."[180]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ "The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy."[181]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Castles on hills. As the walls could not be surrounded with a ditch the slopes were 'scarped' [not scraped].[182]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ "The Delhi army surrounded the island fortress by erecting wooden palisades, and small balistas and manjaniks."[183]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ e.g. Fortifications built by Firuz [184] Reference for use of the mud rampart in ancient India.[185]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "Most Indian castles have a ditch, dry or filled with water, in front of the walls; only mountain castles rarely have a ditch."[186]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ "Most Indian castles have a ditch, dry or filled with water, in front of the walls; only mountain castles rarely have a ditch."[187] "In The Arthashastra, Kautilya (Art. II, 3 (21)) recommends surrounding a fortress with three ditches (parikha) filled with water. ... This was an ideal scheme but it was rarely put into practice."[188]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There seems to be at least some dry stone working at the fort of Chittogarh. However, it's not easy to tell just from photographs on the internet whether this is true of any of the defensive walls and this fort was originally built in an earlier era.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ e.g. Fortifications Firuz Shah [189] Example of wall with mortar in photograph. [190]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Fortified camp outside of a city mentioned in the context of a war against Vijayanagaran king.[191] Don't have access to previous page but I presume it is the Delhi Sultanate at war since the book is about the Delhi Sultanate.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Such as on mountains where the outer wall was scarped rock faced with stone. Even in open countryside attempted to maintain an inner wall at a slightly higher elevation than outer wall.[192]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred from the period.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Kiran Basava ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Four different dynasties.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [193]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [194]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[195]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[196]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[197]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [198] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [199]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [200]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [201] [202] [203]

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