InDecNL

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Deccan - Neolithic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Ashmound Tradition; Southern Neolithic ♥ [1] [2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2700-1200 BCE ♥ [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Deccan - Iron Age ♥ [4]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The South Indian Neolithic lasted from about 3000 to 1200 BCE. Here we are particularly interested in the northern part of the modern-day Indian state of Karnataka, where Neolithic communities appear to have been small, egalitarian, and reliant on pastoralism (mostly cattle), agriculture (mostly millet and pulses), and hunting and gathering. The prevalence of cattle motifs in rock art, as well as the number of ashmounds (large mounds of burned cattle dung) dotting the landscape, point to the symbolic importance of cattle in South Indian Neolithic ideology as a whole.[5]

Population and political organization

The presence of only minor variations in house size, design and content, as well as in mortuary practices, suggests an egalitarian society during this period.[6] No population estimates are provided by the literature.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Sanganakallu first permanent settlement in South India dating to 3000 BCE? -- need to check

Sanganakallu-Kupgal

Bellary District archaeological project http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~tcrndfu/web_project/intro.html


NOTE: Three types of sites exist from this period: permanent settlements, long-stay encampments, and short-stay encampments [7]. They could be ordered into a hierarchy in terms of size, but, considering the widespread evidence for egalitarianism at the time [8], perhaps it would be wrong to describe the relationship between differently-sized sites as "hierarchy"?

"The archaeological record of the Neolithic Period (2700-1200 BC) in northern Karnataka and western Andhra Pradesh documents a regional social landscape of small village communities where relatively egalitarian social relations appear to have been a common practice. Neolithic settlements consisted of small circular wattle-and-daub houses grouped together in villages and camps, in some cases together with stock enclosures, communal butchering, and tool-making areas (Fuller et al., 2007; Paddayya, 1998, 2001). Where adequately documented, settlements contain houses with little variation in size, design, or content. The only significant dimension of variability observed in mortuary practices is that between adult and subadult burials (and perhaps in more limited terms sex), suggesting that the transition to adulthood was an important measure of difference and likely rank within Neolithic society (Bauer et al., 2007). Other than this, there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record."[9]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Beyond differences in mortuary treatment between adults and sub-adults, "there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record" [10].

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Beyond differences in mortuary treatment between adults and sub-adults, "there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record" [11].

However, there were communal rituals. Presumably these rituals were lead by an individual, e.g. an elder.

"Ashmounds marked the locations of important Neolithic places (e.g. settlements and camps) as well as commemorating and memorializing communal ritual; their permanence and scale further suggest that these highly visible structures were intended to mark the landscape for generations (Allchin, 1963; Boivin, 2004; Johansen, 2004; Paddayya, 2001). The centrality and high visibility of many ashmounds within Neolithic settlements and camps suggests that the ritual practices that created these features were open, public, and socially integrative, transmitting socio-symbolically charged information concerning community integration and social reproduction (Boivin, 2004; Johansen, 2004). The repetitive ritual practices that created these monuments employed a valued and almost certainly sacralized substance (dung) collected from an animal with profound symbolic, economic, and political importance to Neolithic agro-pastoral communities. Ashmound ritual also appears to have produced very specific sets of social claims to places such as seasonal and permanent settlements, adjacent pasturage, water sources, and critically to community cattle herds whose daily movements and seasonal transhumance navigated established and contested spaces within a dynamic Neolithic social landscape. In doing so, ashmound production clearly and legibly socialized places, materializing social relations at community and regional scales of practice. Ashmound production was, then, both ritual and political activity, affirming and reinforcing social relationships by inscribing them in monumental places with a highly visible and legible political materiality within the Neolithic landscape."

♠ Military levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.

Beyond differences in mortuary treatment between adults and sub-adults, "there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record" [12].

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "Dolerite trap dykes were quarried for the production of groundstone axes and other tools" [13].

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "The people of the South Indian Neolithic Culture (1700-1100 BCE) "used polish stone celts and axes on a larger scale than was the case in the Deccan Chalcolithic. ... produced slender chalcedony blades ... The use of copper was on a restricted scale." [14] Copper swords associated with the Chalcolithic culture of the Karnataka region "with the time when 'Jorwe' influences were reaching there from the north. This we suggested dated from 1400-1500 BC.'" [15] Reference for Vedic-period India (mostly Ganges valley but may also be relevant further south) mentions copper armour: "No material evidence exists to prove the use of body-armour, helmets and shields by the people of the Indus valley. It has been suggested, however, that domed pieces of copper, each pierced by two holes, were stitched on to a piece of cloth and used as a coat of mail."[16]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ No bronze age in southern India but they may have imported bronze. Copper and sometimes bronze weapons found in hoards at Kallur (Hyderabad in the Deccan) among non-Aryan populations.[17]
♠ Iron ♣ absent: 2700-1501 BCE; suspected unknown: 1500-1301 BCE; [absent; present]: 1300-1200 BCE ♥ First finds of iron weapons in northern India earlier than 1000 BCE and from at least 1000 BCE in Karnataka in south India where iron arrowheads, spears and swords have been found.[18]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [19]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ NB: The following likely refers to a later period. Copper and sometimes bronze weapons found in hoards at Kallur (Hyderabad in the Deccan) include barbed spears and harpoons.[20]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon that has only been found in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Present for the Indus Valley Civilization: "Commonest among the weapons of offence and defence in the Indus valley are sling pellets of baked clay."[21]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Rock-art dated to the South Indian Neolithic, for example at the site of Kupgal, in Northern Karnataka, occasionally depicts anthropomorphic figures equipped with bows and arrows: these may have been "cattle raiding" scenes.[22]. NOTE: Bow type not specified.
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ 'From the Kushans, the Indians learnt the use of composite bows. The Sanchi sculptures which can be dated to the first century BC show many soldiers carrying strung and unstrung composite bows. Murray B. Emeneau writes that the Guptas used Sassanian types of composite bows.'[23]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Known to Chinese in the first millennium BCE but Vedic literature does not describe anything like a crossbow although Pant suggests "the weapon mentioned as the nalika in ancient Sanskrit literature was a crossbow."[24] "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[25]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. According to Jaina texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[26] Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that 'liquid fires' containing naphtha were in use in ancient India."[27]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Much later, Byzantines or possibly Chinese were the first to use sling siege engines
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "The people of the South Indian Neolithic Culture (1700-1100 BCE) "used polish stone celts and axes on a larger scale than was the case in the Deccan Chalcolithic. ... produced slender chalcedony blades ... The use of copper was on a restricted scale." [28]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Knives and daggers existed in Vedic-era India.[29]
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Copper swords associated with the Chalcolithic culture of the Karnataka region "with the time when 'Jorwe' influences were reaching there from the north. This we suggested dated from 1400-1500 BC.'" [30] Copper and sometimes bronze weapons found in hoards at Kallur (Hyderabad in the Deccan) include swords (among non-Ayran populations).[31]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Neither the Chalcolithic folk of Ghaneswar nor the Neolithic folk of the Deccan used any spear-head".[32]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[33][34] in different regions according to local conditions.[35]
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥ At a "megalithic habitation site" in Tamil Nadu, rock-art has been found depicting "two horse riders fighting each other with poles" [36] As cavalry absent, but don't know whether horses were used as a pack animal. Probably absent if warfare not large scale.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Buddhist texts suggest "Indians had become skilled in taming and training elephants" by the early first millennium BCE."[37]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Reference for Vedic-period India (mostly Ganges valley but may also be relevant further south): "No material evidence exists to prove the use of body-armour, helmets and shields by the people of the Indus valley. It has been suggested, however, that domed pieces of copper, each pierced by two holes, were stitched on to a piece of cloth and used as a coat of mail. And a few pictographs of the Indus script may represent men holding shields."[38]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Reference for Vedic-period India (mostly Ganges valley but may also be relevant further south): "No material evidence exists to prove the use of body-armour, helmets and shields by the people of the Indus valley. It has been suggested, however, that domed pieces of copper, each pierced by two holes, were stitched on to a piece of cloth and used as a coat of mail. And a few pictographs of the Indus script may represent men holding shields."[39] By the time of Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, there is mention of "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield.[40] According to a military historian: "In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points."[41] - do Indian specialists agree with this statement?
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Reference for Vedic-period India (mostly Ganges valley but may also be relevant further south): "No material evidence exists to prove the use of body-armour, helmets and shields by the people of the Indus valley. It has been suggested, however, that domed pieces of copper, each pierced by two holes, were stitched on to a piece of cloth and used as a coat of mail. And a few pictographs of the Indus script may represent men holding shields."[42] By the time of Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, there is mention of "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield.[43]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield.[44]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield.[45]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Reference for Vedic-period India (mostly Ganges valley but may also be relevant further south) mentions a coat of mail but the description reads more like scaled armor: "No material evidence exists to prove the use of body-armour, helmets and shields by the people of the Indus valley. It has been suggested, however, that domed pieces of copper, each pierced by two holes, were stitched on to a piece of cloth and used as a coat of mail."[46]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent: 1500-1200 BCE ♥ NB: The following refers to a different era and place. Reference for Vedic-period India (mostly Ganges valley but may also be relevant further south) mentions a coat of mail but the description reads more like scaled armor: "No material evidence exists to prove the use of body-armour, helmets and shields by the people of the Indus valley. It has been suggested, however, that domed pieces of copper, each pierced by two holes, were stitched on to a piece of cloth and used as a coat of mail."[47] According to a military historian: "In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points."[48] - do Indian specialists agree with this statement?
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[49] It can be inferred that no other state had a significant naval force and there were no states in this period.


Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent: 2700-1701 BCE; suspected unknown: 1700-1200 BCE ♥ Regarding the granitic hills of Northern Karnataka: "Although, from below, their stony landscapes make the hills appear rather inhospitable, those who make the effort to climb them are often rewarded with the discovery of surprisingly sizeable and protected plateaux that are invisible from the lower reaches. It is here, on the hill-top plateaux, that we find the most substantial evidence for Neolithic habitation [...] [The inhabitants] almost certainly benefited from the commanding views these sites provided over very large stretches of terrain" [50]. NOTE, however, that the author does not explicitly say that these settlements were built in these locations for defensive purposes.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent: 2700-1701 BCE; suspected unknown: 1700-1200 BCE ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent: 2700-1701 BCE; suspected unknown: 1700-1200 BCE ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ absent: 2700-1701 BCE; suspected unknown: 1700-1200 BCE ♥
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent: 2700-1701 BCE; suspected unknown: 1700-1200 BCE ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent: 2700-1701 BCE; suspected unknown: 1700-1200 BCE ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ absent ♥ Beyond differences in mortuary treatment between adults and sub-adults, "there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record" [51]

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred present ♥ "The archaeological record of the Neolithic Period (2700-1200 BC) in northern Karnataka and western Andhra Pradesh documents a regional social landscape of small village communities where relatively egalitarian social relations appear to have been a common practice. [...] Where adequately documented, settlements contain houses with little variation in size, design, or content. The only significant dimension of variability observed in mortuary practices is that between adult and subadult burials (and perhaps in more limited terms sex), suggesting that the transition to adulthood was an important measure of difference and likely rank within Neolithic society (Bauer et al., 2007). Other than this, there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record. [...] The centrality and high visibility of many ash- mounds within Neolithic settlements and camps suggests that the ritual practices that created these features were open, public, and socially integrative, transmitting socio-symbolically charged information concerning community integration and social reproduction (Boivin, 2004; Johansen, 2004)." [52]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ "The archaeological record of the Neolithic Period (2700-1200 BC) in northern Karnataka and western Andhra Pradesh documents a regional social landscape of small village communities where relatively egalitarian social relations appear to have been a common practice. [...] Where adequately documented, settlements contain houses with little variation in size, design, or content. The only significant dimension of variability observed in mortuary practices is that between adult and subadult burials (and perhaps in more limited terms sex), suggesting that the transition to adulthood was an important measure of difference and likely rank within Neolithic society (Bauer et al., 2007). Other than this, there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record. [...] The centrality and high visibility of many ash- mounds within Neolithic settlements and camps suggests that the ritual practices that created these features were open, public, and socially integrative, transmitting socio-symbolically charged information concerning community integration and social reproduction (Boivin, 2004; Johansen, 2004)." [53]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ "The archaeological record of the Neolithic Period (2700-1200 BC) in northern Karnataka and western Andhra Pradesh documents a regional social landscape of small village communities where relatively egalitarian social relations appear to have been a common practice. [...] Where adequately documented, settlements contain houses with little variation in size, design, or content. The only significant dimension of variability observed in mortuary practices is that between adult and subadult burials (and perhaps in more limited terms sex), suggesting that the transition to adulthood was an important measure of difference and likely rank within Neolithic society (Bauer et al., 2007). Other than this, there is no evidence for Neolithic social differences or ranking in the archaeological record. [...] The centrality and high visibility of many ash- mounds within Neolithic settlements and camps suggests that the ritual practices that created these features were open, public, and socially integrative, transmitting socio-symbolically charged information concerning community integration and social reproduction (Boivin, 2004; Johansen, 2004)." [54]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [55] [56] [57]

References

  1. D. Fuller, Dung Mounds and Domesticators: Early Cultivation and Pastoralism in Karnataka, in C. Jarrige, V. Lefevre (eds), South Asian Archaeology, vol. 1: Prehistory (2006), p. 121
  2. N. Boivin, Rock Art and Rock Music: Petroglyphs of the South Indian Neolithic (2004), in Antiquity 78:299, pp. 38-53
  3. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0:0, pp. 1-28
  4. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0:0, pp. 1-28
  5. (Johansen 2014, 62-65) Johansen, Peter. 2014. “The Politics of Spatial Renovation: Reconfiguring Ritual Practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India.” Journal of Social Archaeology 14 (1): 59-86. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/M4E9T7IR.
  6. (Johansen 2014, 63) Johansen, Peter. 2014. “The Politics of Spatial Renovation: Reconfiguring Ritual Practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India.” Journal of Social Archaeology 14 (1): 59-86. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/M4E9T7IR.
  7. D. Fuller, Dung Mounds and Domesticators: Early Cultivation and Pastoralism in Karnataka, in C. Jarrige, V. Lefevre (eds), South Asian Archaeology, vol. 1: Prehistory (2006), pp. 121-123
  8. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0(0): 1-28
  9. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0:0, pp. 1-28
  10. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0:0, pp. 1-28
  11. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0:0, pp. 1-28
  12. P. Johansen, The politics of of spatial renovation: Reconfiguring ritual practices in Iron Age and Early Historic South India (2014), Journal of Social Archaeology 0:0, pp. 1-28
  13. N. Boivin, Landscape and Cosmology in the South Indian Neolithic: New Perspectives on the Deccan Ashmounds (2004), in Cambridge Archaeological Journal 14:2, pp. 235-257
  14. (Shinde and Deshpande 2002, 345) Vasant Shinde. Shweta Sinha Deshpande. South Indian Chalcolithic. Deccan Chalcolithic, South Indian Neolithic. Peter N. Peregrine. Melvin Ember. eds. 2002. Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Volume 8: South and Southwest Asia. Springer. Boston. pp 344-360.
  15. (Allchin 1979, 114) F R Allchin. A South Indian Copper Sword and Its Significance. J E Van Lohuizen-De Leeuw. 1979. South Asian Archaeology 1975. From the third international conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe held in Paris. E J BRILL. Leiden.
  16. (Singh 1997, 91) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997 (1965). Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.
  17. (Singh 1997, 91) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997 (1965). Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.
  18. (Tewari 2010) Tewari, Rakesh. 2010. Updates on the Antiquity of Iron in South Asia. in Man and Environment. XXXV(2): 81-97. Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies.
  19. (Singh 1997, 102) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.
  20. (Singh 1997, 91) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997 (1965). Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. Delhi.
  21. (Singh 1997, 90) Sarva Daman Singh. 1997. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Delhi.
  22. N. Boivin, Rock Art and Rock Music: Petroglyphs of the South Indian Neolithic (2004), in Antiquity 78:299, pp. 38-53
  23. (Roy 2013, 23) Kaushik Roy. 2013. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. London.
  24. (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.
  25. (Phillips 2016) Henry Pratap Phillips. 2016. The History and Chronology of Gunpowder and Gunpowder Weapons (c.1000 to 1850). Notion Press.
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