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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Post-Mauryan Kingdoms ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 205-101 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

Western Deccan: "The earliest organized state in the region was that of the Satavahanas evolving out of the declining Mauryan power. The presence of the state is suggested by the evidence of political control and the use of an adminsitrative structure. References to units of adiministration and of what appear to be official designations point to a monarchical system. The title of mahamatra is suggestive of the Mauryan designation. The mahabhoja and maharathi as officials may in origin have been associated with high office in the Bhoja and Rathika clans and made the transition to administrative office when the requirements of the state demanded it. The constituents of the seven limbs of the state, the saptanga, are reflected in these and other indications such as the reference to Satavahana armies in action against the ksatrapas, to allies and enemies, to the treasury from the existence of Satavahana coins and revenue collection, to the capital from references to Pratishana and finally to the recognition of territory under Satavahana control."[1]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Deccan - Iron Age ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Satavahana Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

Here we look at Southern India in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, that is, between the collapse of the Mauryan Empire and the rise of the Satavahana Dynasty. Unfortunately, this appears to be a very poorly understood period in this region.

Population and political organization

No population estimates could be found in the literature. Information relating to political organization within our region of interest--roughly corresponding to the Bellary district in the modern-day Indian state of Karnataka--is also lacking, though sources suggest the existence of monarchies and an accompanying bureaucratic apparatus (scribes and mints, for example) in neighbouring regions.[2]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-4] ♥ levels. Based on codes from previous and subsequent polities: by Satavahana Empire - 1.Capital 2. nagara (city or palace) 3. nigama (market town) 4. gama.[3]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

1. King

2. Central / urban institutions
3. Mint
4. Village chiefs


"The Mauryan penetration into certain subregions of the Deccan was based on their interaction with the allready existing kin-based organizations, through its links with the political power of the indigenous chiefs."[4]

Kotalingala is 200 km NE of Bellary: "Two aspects of the pre-Satavahan situation need to be emphasised in the development of the early historical sites in the Central Deccan... One was the particular natural of the economy which rested on the small-scale production of iron-related artefacts. The other was the substantial evidence found from sites like Kotalingala of pre-Satavahana coinage (Krishnasastry, 1983), indicating that there was a mobilization of resources at a local level, which meant that the political elite had the ability to issue their own coins. Though this is most striking in the Central Deccan because these coins are found along with the early coins of the Satavahana"[5]

Western Deccan: "The earliest organized state in the region was that of the Satavahanas evolving out of the declining Mauryan power. The presence of the state is suggested by the evidence of political control and the use of an adminsitrative structure. References to units of adiministration and of what appear to be official designations point to a monarchical system. The title of mahamatra is suggestive of the Mauryan designation. The mahabhoja and maharathi as officials may in origin have been associated with high office in the Bhoja and Rathika clans and made the transition to administrative office when the requirements of the state demanded it. The constituents of the seven limbs of the state, the saptanga, are reflected in these and other indications such as the reference to Satavahana armies in action against the ksatrapas, to allies and enemies, to the treasury from the existence of Satavahana coins and revenue collection, to the capital from references to Pratishana and finally to the recognition of territory under Satavahana control."[6]

In Andhra region post-Mauryans: "This appearance of kingship, currency and writing indicates that the basic infrastructures of a state system, which had been introduced in the Maurayn period, started functioning at the local level and transforming the megalithic/tribal society into proto or early states, basically characterized by centralized administration, stable kingship and social stratification."[7]

Post-Mauryans in Krishna valley: "Amaravati inscription of this period records the existence of a royal scribe (rajalekhaka). This may indicate that record-keeping started to play an integral part in local political administration as well as in commercial activities in this period."[8]

In Andhra region post-Mauryans: "Along with local kingships, inscriptions of this period mention other socio-political and socio-economic institutions, particularly as nigama and gothi. Although it is not possible to comprehend the precise nature of these institutions in this period of coastal Andhra, textual and epigraphic evidence indicates that a nigama was an imporant economic and social unit larger than a village (gama), and was composed of integrated members of kin groups and occupational or professional groups. A gothi (skt. gosthi), was another important economic and social institution particularly for urban elites. Bhattiprolu inscriptions also show that these urban institutions and local kings were closely connected, as the inscriptions describe the king Kuberaka as the chief (pamukha=skt. pramukha) of a nigama and a gothi. This seems to indicate that the kings in this period of Andhra were not absolute rulers with invincible powers, but were close to chiefdoms or, in Chattopadhyaya's word, 'localities' that derived possibly from the foundations of megalithic chiefs. These 'localities' seem to have consolidated their powers in close association with urban elites that also started appearing in this period."[9]

"The political and economic development in the post-Mauryan period progressed further under the Sadas, a regional dynasty which ruled the larger part of coastal Andhra for at least a century ... Although the historical evidence on this recently-found dynasty is still meagre, a few epigraphic records indicate the presence of a regular administrative structure indicated by titles such as an irrigation officer (?) (paniyagharika) and a scribe (lekhaka). There is also little doubt that the dynasty maintained royal coinage. Unlike the post-Mauryan coinage, which was basically uninscribed, the Sada coins were consistently inscribed with the ruler's name and kept the same design, a standing lion facing a tree ..."[10]

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Buddhist monasteries.[11]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Buddhist monasteries.[12]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Full-time specialists

Post-Mauryans in Krishna valley: "Amaravati inscription of this period records the existence of a royal scribe (rajalekhaka). This may indicate that record-keeping started to play an integral part in local political administration as well as in commercial activities in this period."[13]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Post-Mauryan kingdoms had mints for coinage: "Two aspects of the pre-Satavahan situation need to be emphasised in the development of the early historical sites in the Central Deccan... One was the particular natural of the economy which rested on the small-scale production of iron-related artefacts. The other was the substantial evidence found from sites like Kotalingala of pre-Satavahana coinage (Krishnasastry, 1983), indicating that there was a mobilization of resources at a local level, which meant that the political elite had the ability to issue their own coins. Though this is most striking in the Central Deccan because these coins are found along with the early coins of the Satavahana"[14]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present♥ "The political and economic development in the post-Mauryan period progressed further under the Sadas, a regional dynasty which ruled the larger part of coastal Andhra for at least a century ... Although the historical evidence on this recently-found dynasty is still meagre, a few epigraphic records indicate the presence of a regular administrative structure indicated by titles such as an irrigation officer (?) (paniyagharika) and a scribe (lekhaka).[15]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥ Post-Mauryans in Krishna valley: "Amaravati inscription of this period records the existence of a royal scribe (rajalekhaka). This may indicate that record-keeping started to play an integral part in local political administration as well as in commercial activities in this period."[16] In Andhra region post-Mauryans: "This appearance of kingship, currency and writing indicates that the basic infrastructures of a state system, which had been introduced in the Maurayn period, started functioning at the local level and transforming the megalithic/tribal society into proto or early states, basically characterized by centralized administration, stable kingship and social stratification."[17]
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ Post-Mauryans in Krishna valley: "Amaravati inscription of this period records the existence of a royal scribe (rajalekhaka). This may indicate that record-keeping started to play an integral part in local political administration as well as in commercial activities in this period."[18] In Andhra region post-Mauryans: "This appearance of kingship, currency and writing indicates that the basic infrastructures of a state system, which had been introduced in the Maurayn period, started functioning at the local level and transforming the megalithic/tribal society into proto or early states, basically characterized by centralized administration, stable kingship and social stratification."[19]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Post-Mauryans in Krishna valley: "Amaravati inscription of this period records the existence of a royal scribe (rajalekhaka). This may indicate that record-keeping started to play an integral part in local political administration as well as in commercial activities in this period."[20]
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Post-Mauryans "saw the emergence and development of local currencies throughout the Deccan. Numismatic studies have agreed that such local currencies first appeared as uninscribed cast and die-struck coins in semi-precious metals like lead and copper."[21] "Two aspects of the pre-Satavahan situation need to be emphasised in the development of the early historical sites in the Central Deccan... One was the particular natural of the economy which rested on the small-scale production of iron-related artefacts. The other was the substantial evidence found from sites like Kotalingala of pre-Satavahana coinage (Krishnasastry, 1983), indicating that there was a mobilization of resources at a local level, which meant that the political elite had the ability to issue their own coins. Though this is most striking in the Central Deccan because these coins are found along with the early coins of the Satavahana"[22]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ ‘Before 600 BC, warfare in India consisted of duels among the Kshatriya aristocrats in chariots and cow lifting raids carried out by tribal militias’. Kshatriya charioteers wore helmets made of metal [23], presumably of copper.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ A military historian states that metal armour was not widely used before the Macedonian invasion of Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BCE [24] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? Metal weapons did exist. Bronze was not produced in India but was imported and may have been used for weapons perhaps for the elites who could afford them.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ First finds of iron weapons in northern India earlier than 1000 BCE and from at least 1000 BCE in Karnataka in south India where iron arrowheads, spears and swords have been found.[25] Ancient Indians used iron for armour cuirasses and breastplates but copper was also used.[26] Likely referring to time following the Macedonian invasion but it can be implied from Gabriel (2002) that metal armour was present, at low level (elite) useage for sometime before then: A military historian states that metal armour was not widely used before the Macedonian invasion of Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BCE [27] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? The Guptas were known for their exceptional skill in iron metallurgy, such as demonstrated by the monumental Iron Pillar of Delhi and they may have been the first to use iron helmets for their cavalry.
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Probably not common but it is quite probable that the elite soldiers used wootz steel swords. Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [28] Produced in Karnataka and Sri Lanka.


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Are thrown harpoons javelins? In the 'prehistoric age' (not associated with the Aryans) at Fatehgarh in the upper Ganges valley and at Kallur in Hyderabad, Deccan, weapons of copper and sometimes bronze included barbed spears, harpoons and swords.[29]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon that has only been found in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for the Indus Valley Civilization: "Commonest among the weapons of offence and defence in the Indus valley are sling pellets of baked clay."[30]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Arrowheads have been excavated[31] (bow type not specified). In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition." [32]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Brought to India by the Kushans.
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Known to Chinese in the first millennium BCE but Vedic literature does not describe anything like a crossbow although Pant suggests "the weapon mentioned as the nalika in ancient Sanskrit literature was a crossbow."[33] "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[34]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ According to Jaina texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[35] Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that 'liquid fires' containing naphtha were in use in ancient India."[36]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Much later, Byzantines or possibly Chinese were the first to use sling siege engines
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ A military historian states that the Maurayan heavy infantry is known to have used iron weapons including maces, dagger-axes, battle-axes and a slashing sword[37] - do Maurayan specialists agree?
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ A military historian states that the Maurayan heavy infantry is known to have used iron weapons including maces, dagger-axes, battle-axes and a slashing sword[38] - do Maurayan specialists agree?
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Found in iron age burials [39]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ A military historian states that the Maurayan heavy infantry is known to have used iron weapons including maces, dagger-axes, battle-axes and a slashing sword[40] - do Maurayan specialists agree?
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Found in iron age burials [41]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ At a "megalithic habitation site" in Tamil Nadu, rock-art has been found depicting "two horse riders fighting each other with poles" [42].

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[43][44] in different regions according to local conditions.[45]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ At a "megalithic habitation site" in Tamil Nadu, rock-art has been found depicting "two horse riders fighting each other with poles" [46]. The Gupta Empire, after 350 CE, was built around a powerful cavalry force. [47] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[48] 1000 years earlier than the classical age would have included this period. "In the Deccan and South India, chariots do not seem to have been used much at any time, because of the rugged terrain of the region - the ox-drawn chariots mentioned in early Tamil literature were probably only glorified bullock-carts."[49]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[50][51] in different regions according to local conditions.[52] Were camels used in the Deccan region of India?
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ According to Pliny the Elder, the Satavahana army, in the period following this one, included 1,000 elephants. [53] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[54] 1000 years earlier than the classical age would have included this period. Buddhist texts suggest "Indians had become skilled in taming and training elephants" by the early first millennium BCE."[55] Potent force by the fourth century BCE.[56]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ A military historian states that the Mauryans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame[57] - do Mauryan specialists agree?
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ A military historian states that helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads[58] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? A military historian states that the Mauryans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame[59] - do Mauryan specialists agree? Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield.[60]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ A military historian states that the Mauryans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame[61] - do Mauryan specialists agree? Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor and a leather shield.[62]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ ‘Before 600 BC, warfare in India consisted of duels among the Kshatriya aristocrats in chariots and cow lifting raids carried out by tribal militias’. Kshatriya charioteers wore helmets made of metal [63], presumably of copper. Refers to north of India? Deccan in south unlikely to be more developed than this. A military historian states that helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads[64] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet and a neck guard.[65]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Ancient Indians used iron for armour cuirasses and breastplates but copper was also used.[66] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor, a metal coat of mail, metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and breast plate.[67]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[68]
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[69]] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a metal coat of mail.[70]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ A military historian states that metal armour was not widely used before the Macedonian invasion of Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BCE[71] - do ancient Indian historians agree? It can be implied from Gabriel (2002) that metal armour was present, at low level (elite) useage for sometime before the Macedonian invasion, but no source yet consulted mentions scaled armor at this time.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ A military historian states that metal armour was not widely used before the Macedonian invasion of Alexander the Great in the late fourth century BCE[72] - do ancient Indian historians agree? It can be implied from Gabriel (2002) that metal armour was present, at low level (elite) useage for sometime before the Macedonian invasion, but no source yet consulted mentions scaled armor at this time.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet and breast plate.[73]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[74] It can be inferred that no other state had a significant naval force although some of them may have had a smaller navy.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Lower Deccan (Krishna-Tungabhadra River Valleys; Krishna-Tungabhadra Doab) 1100-100 BCE: "Preferred settlement location are on high hilltops or on the slopes of outcrops, with some evidence for walls and other defensive features."[75]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, recommends never to build a wall out of wood "for fire lurks hidden within it".[76]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present in the north of India at this time.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Moats around defensive walls are known in the Ganga valley in India from about 500 BCE, or perhaps earlier. [77] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a moat.[78]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Lower Deccan (Krishna-Tungabhadra River Valleys; Krishna-Tungabhadra Doab) 1100-100 BCE: "Preferred settlement location are on high hilltops or on the slopes of outcrops, with some evidence for walls and other defensive features."[79] Walls existed but not known what materials were used or whether the walls were mortared or un-mortared.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Lower Deccan (Krishna-Tungabhadra River Valleys; Krishna-Tungabhadra Doab) 1100-100 BCE: "Preferred settlement location are on high hilltops or on the slopes of outcrops, with some evidence for walls and other defensive features."[80] Walls existed but not known what materials were used or whether the walls were mortared or un-mortared.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a complex arrangement of moats. He suggested around provincial capitals three moats should be built "constructed at distances of one Danda from each other. ... They should be revetted with stone or their sides should be lined with stone or brick. They should be fed either by natural springs or by channeled water, and they should be provided with means of drainage and stocked with lotuses and crocodiles. At a distance of four Dandas from the moat, he should get a rampart constructed using the earth that has been dug out."[81]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ Kingship.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ ‘The divinity that kings had about them was different from the divine right claimed by absolutist kings of a later Europe. For Buddhist and Jaina rulers, sacredness meant ruling through moral example. Expressions in the edicts of Ashoka, the Buddhist emperor, reflect this: the king was beloved of the gods and the turner of the wheel of righteousness (chakravartin).’ [82] Ashoka and others adhered to Buddhist principles, but rule was based on military power and birthright, not divine authority, even though rulers could profess to be 'beloved by the gods' [83] Note: I changed this code from 'absent' to 'present' because this variable does not stipulate the the legitimation of rulers occurred predominately or exclusively through their support by supernatural agents. The quotes above make explicit references to the ruler being 'beloved of the gods'. The legitimation of rulers appears to have emerged as a combination of military might, birthright, and favour garnered from supernatural agents, with each of these sources of power functioning to legitimate rulers. (DM)

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ ‘The divinity that kings had about them was different from the divine right claimed by absolutist kings of a later Europe. For Buddhist and Jaina rulers, sacredness meant ruling through moral example. Expressions in the edicts of Ashoka, the Buddhist emperor, reflect this: the king was beloved of the gods and the turner of the wheel of righteousness (chakravartin).’ [84]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [85].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “The king’s religious status was generally seen as that of the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity. Under Mahāyāna influence - though by no means only in Mahāyāna-Buddhist countries - he was accorded the status of a Bodhisattva, that is, one who is on his way to becoming a Buddha and acts only for the welfare of all others (see Chapter 10).” [86]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [87].

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ Buddhism: “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [88] “Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.” [89] Jainism: “The ethos of storing up merit leads to all manner of positive charitable activities, for which the Jain community is justifiably famous. But all such activities are ultimately in the service of spiritual liberation. To give, for a Jain layperson, is actually a mentally purifying act - a mini-renunciation - in preparation for the ultimate renunciation for which the layperson hopes eventually to be ready - if not in this life, then in a future rebirth.” [90] Asoka’s edicts: “There is no higher duty then the welfare of the whole world. And what little effort I make is in order that I may be free from debt to the creatures, that I may render them happy here and they may gain heaven in the next world.”’... The new ideas of social and moral ethics which Asoka infused into Buddhism were in keeping with his idea of adapting a new religion to contemporary needs during a period of political and economic transition. Instead of appealing to the narrow sectarian religious interests, he stressed the conscious aplication of pristine virtues of humanitarianism in social behaviour. In the complex cultural milieu of the third century B.C., Asoka inculcated the true meaning of Dhamma - man’s responsibility to his fellow human beings.’ [91]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ Buddhism generally: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [92] Kautilya’s Arthashastra: ‘The king shall provide the orphans, (bala), the aged, the infirm, the afflicted, and the helpless with maintenance. He shall also provide subsistence to helpless women when they are carrying and also to the children they give birth to. Elders among the villagers shall improve the property of bereaved minors till the latter attain their age; so also the property of Gods.’ [93] Asoka’s edicts: ‘The 2nd Rock Edict mentions certain measures for the welfare of men and animals. These consisted of provision of medical treatment, gardens containing medicinal herbs beneficial to both men and animals and the construction of roads studded with wells and lined with shady groves.’ [94]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [95] [96] [97]

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