InChaKl

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Chalukyas of Kalyani ♥ The ruling dynasty is often known as the Chalukyas of Kalyani, to distinguish them from the Chalukyas of Badami, founding branch of the family.

♠ Alternative names ♣ Calukya Empire; Kalyani Dynasty; Chalukyas of Kalyani ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1076-1126 CE ♥ The reign of Vikramaditya VI was long and relatively peaceful; the capital flourished and the Chalukyas' territories and influence extended. Scholars did much important work, including Vijnanesvara's Mitasakara, a commentary to the Yajnavalkya-smrti that would eventually become "the present law code for Hindus throughout India except Bengal" [2].

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 973-1191 CE ♥ Taila II exploited the Rashtrakutas' weakness after some important military defeats (including the sack of their capital) in order to re-establish his dynasty's sovereignty over the Deccan [3]. The Chalukyas then lost their empire twice in the twelfth century: first, briefly, to the Kalachuris, and then, definitively, to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas [4].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ changed from unitary to loose based on following feudal empire "The Chalukyan administration was not highly centralised and it allowed a lot of freedom and autonomy to its feudatories, which proved fatal to the empire" [5].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ Independent polity.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Rashtrakuta Empire ♥ [6]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ feudal subordinates [7]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hoysala Empire ♥ Kalachuris; Yadavas; Hoysalas For a few decades in the twelfth century (c. 1157-1184 [8]), the Chalukya Empire was briefly under the rule of a subordinate dynasty who successfully rebelled, the Kalachuris. Shortly after regaining power over their land, the Chalukyas lost it again, this time to the Yadavas in the North and the Hoysalas in the South [9].
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Manyakheta; Kalyana ♥ Manyakheta (or Malkhed) served as the empire's capital until the reign of Somesvara I: after that, Kalyana (or Kalyani, or Kalyanipura) was made the capital [10].


♠ Language ♣ Kannada; Sanskrit ♥ Literature both in Kannada and in Sanskrit was produced [11].

General Description

The Chalukyas of Kalyani ruled over a territory roughly corresponding to the modern-day Indian states of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Telangana, as well as the Andhra Pradesh districts of Kurnool and Anantapur.[12] Taila II re-established Chalukya rule over the Deccan by inflicting several military defeats on the Rashtrakutas and sacking their capital in 973 CE.[13] Then, in the 12th century, the Chalukyas lost their empire twice: first, briefly, to the Kalachuris, and then, permanently, in 1191, to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas.[14] This polity probably reached its peak during the reign of Vikramaditya VI (1076-1126 CE): during this relatively peaceful time, the capital flourished, as did scholarship, and the Chalukyas' territories and influence expanded.[15]

Population and political organization

At the head of this polity was an emperor, aided at court by his yuvaraja (crown prince) and ministers, and represented in the provinces by feudal subordinates.[16] According to some sources, the Chalukyan administration was insufficiently centralized, and allowed too much freedom and autonomy to provincial rulers.[17]
No population estimates for the polity as a whole could be found in the literature. However, the capital, Kalyani, is estimated to have been home to between 50,000 and 125,000 inhabitants in the 12th century CE.[18]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [600,000-7,000,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. This is the combined territory of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana and the Andhra Pradesh districts of Kurnool and Anantapur, which roughly correspond with this

♠ Polity Population ♣ [7,000,000-8,000,000]: 1000 CE; [7,500,000-8,500,000]: 1100 CE ♥ People.

ET: By 200 BC 30 million on the Indian Subcontinent, 20 million (40%) in Ganges basin. "The next fifteen hundred years consolidated without significantly altering this pattern."[19] McEvedy and Jones estimated for Pakistan, India and Bangladesh 77m for 1000 CE, 80m for 1100 CE. If the proportion within the Ganges basin remained the same (40%) that leaves for the rest of the Indian Subcontinent: 46.2m for 1000 CE, 48 for 1100 CE. Pakistan contains the Indus valley which presumably also was densely populated. If we assume the fertile Indus valley contained the majority (50% population?) of the remaining population, whilst respecting the claim that "the demographic centre of the country" was the Gangetic provinces (so Indus probably does not hold much more than 50% of the non-Gangetic population) that leaves for the remaining areas: 23.1m for 1000 CE, 24m for 1100 CE. The remaining area left covers 2,000,000 km2 and the polity of about 650,000 KM2 covered about 33% of this area. So, assuming an even distribution of population across the remaining landmass, a population magnitude estimate would be: 7.6m for 1000 CE, 7.9m for 1100 CE. According to maps of 800-900 CE[20] there were about 6-7 other polities in the remaining region during the same time period.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [50,000-125,000] ♥ Inhabitants. Capital of Kalyanipura, or Kalyani [21]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

Sources mention three types of "settlement":

1. Capital

2. Towns [22]
3. Villages [23]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

1. Emperor

_Court_

2. Ministers
Including chamberlain (thane veryashka), steward (bhanasa vergade), superintendent to the harem (antharpuradhyaksha), and the minister for war and peace (sandhivigrahika) [24].


_Provincial government_

2. Rashtrapathis
In charge of governing territorial units known as rashtras [25] (probably equivalent to four or five modern-day Indian districts [26]).
3. Vishayapathis
In charge of governing territorial units known as vishayas [27] (probably equivalent to modern-day Indian districts [28]).
4. Nadrasas or Nad-prabhus
In charge of governing nadus [29], "larger territorial divisions with numbers attached to their names" [30].
5. Gramakutas
Village head men [31].
6.accountants and sub-accountants at village level in some or all regions, as under previous polity


♠ Religious levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

_Hinduism_

There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [32]. However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [33]), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.

_Jainism_

NOTE: I have found two equally authoritative sources on Jain hierarchy:

(1) [34]

1. Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)

2. Siddhas (Liberated Ones)
3. Acharyas (who head the Order)
4. Upadhyays (who teach the message)
5. Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)


(2) [35]

1. Guru (teacher)

2. Monks
2. Male figure (not specified by author whether a monk) in charge of nuns
3. Pravartini or ganini (aides to the male figure in charge of nuns)
4. Nuns

_Buddhism_

"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to 'pure' teachings and exemption from 'impure' duties." [36].


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ levels.

The "military administration of the Chalukyas resembled [that] of their ancestors" [37]: Here, then, is the likely military hierarchy of the Chalukyas of Badami:

1. Emperor [38]

2. Sandhivigrahika (minister of war and peace) [39]
3. Mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahika
Most likely the chief general, perhaps assigned the duty of assisting the minister of war and peace and/or supervising ten other generals [40].
4. Officials supervised by the mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahika [41] -likely more than one level
5. Soldiers [42]

NOTE: In an admittedly older source, there is mention of four different kinds of military officers: the senadhipati, the maha (pracanda) dandanayaka, the dandanayaka, and the kari-turaga (patta-)sahini. No explanation is given as to the role or hierarchical position of these officers, except that the last one was probably in charge of cavalry and elephants [43].

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ The "military administration of the Chalukyas resembled [that] of their ancestors" [44]: therefore, the Chalukyas of Kalyani likely had mahabaladihktras or mahasandhivigrahikas, like the Chalukyas of Badami [45].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [46], Jainism and Buddhism in monks [47] [48].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "ministers"

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ The "judicial [...] administration of the Chalukyas resembled that of their ancestors" [49]: therefore, like the Chalukyas of Badami, they must have followed smirtis and dharmashastras [50]. The Smriti, or Manu-smriti, is a collection of texts prescribing correct behaviour, including a section explicitly devoted to "the law of kings" [51], while the dharmashastras are a collection of more explicitly legal texts [52].

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ The "judicial [...] administration of the Chalukyas resembled that of their ancestors" [53], the Chalukyas of Badami, for whom the Emperor was the supreme judge, but he also dispensed justice through judges he himself appointed [54].

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ The "judicial [...] administration of the Chalukyas resembled that of their ancestors" [55], the Chalukyas of Badami, for whom a number of different courts existed, each probably dedicated to a different unit of administration [56].

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Importance of irrigation to agriculture was realised, and attention paid for the proper maintenance of tanks" [57].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [58]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Written records.[59]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e.g. by court/government
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e.g. by court/government
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Vedas and the puranas are both mentioned as texts studied at temples [60].
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. Nayasena's Dharmamrta, which "expounds the essential teaching of Jainism and its ethics in an easy and flowing style" [61].
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. several treatises on grammar [62].
♠ History ♣ present ♥ e.g. Bilhana's Vikramankadevacarita, which "purports to narrate the life-story of the Chalukya emperor whose name it bears", that is, Vikramaditya VI [63].
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ e.g. treatises on astronomy and veterinary science [64].
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ e.g. Karnataka Kambari, a romance by Nagavarman [65].

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Gold and silver drammas (65 g), gold gadyanaka (96 g), kalanju (48 g), kasu (15 g), manjadi (2 1/2 g), akkam (half a manjadi), pana (1/10th of a gadyanaka) [66].
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ The javelin was still in use during the preceding Rashtrakuta period.[67]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon found only in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference was for the Satavahanas.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition."[68] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[69] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[70]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[71] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[72]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[73]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that 'liquid fires' containing naphtha were in use in ancient India."[74]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First used by the Byzantines or perhaps the Chinese.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ "The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [75]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "The age of Turkish rule in India can be divided into two periods, the Afghan period from the 1200s to the 1500s and the Mughal period from the 1500s to the 1800s. Firearms arrived in India during the Afghan period and began to change the conduct of warfare in the Mughal period." [76]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[77]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[78]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from a description, in the Yasastilaka Champu (a Rashtrakuta poem), of soldiers whose "daggers adorned their waists" [79].
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[80]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[81]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[82][83] in different regions according to local conditions.[84]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ There was an officer in charge of cavalry and elephants, the kari-turaga (patta-)sahini. [85] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[86]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[87][88] in different regions according to local conditions.[89] At its maximum extent the Western Chalukya Empire stretches quite north, close to camel habitat.
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ There was an officer in charge of cavalry and elephants, the kari-turaga (patta-)sahini. [90] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[91] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times."[92]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor.[93]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a leather shield.[94] The preceding Rashtrakutas employed the shield.[95]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a helmet.[96]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.[97]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[98]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[99]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[100]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, and corselet.[101]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, and breast plate.[102]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ "That there must have been some trade with foreign countries across the seas we may safely assume, and it is not a little disappointing that direct references to such trade, as also to a mercantile marine, or a navy protecting it, are even scantier than they are under the Chalukyas of Badami" [103]. 'Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[104]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution".[105]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche's monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable."[106] Deloche's studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats.[107]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats[108] and the moat was still employed during the preceding Rashtrakuta period.[109]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kolanupaka "served as an alternative administrative and military capital for the Kalyani Chalukyas (Western Chaluyaks) in the 11th Century CE."[110]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ The ruling dynasty is often known as the Chalukyas of Kalyani, who were a branch of the same family as the Chalukyas of Badami.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [111]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [112]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [113]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [114]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [115]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [116] [117] [118]

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