InChaBd

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Chalukyas of Badami ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Badami Dynasty; Chalukyas of Badami; Chalukyas of Vatapi; Chalukyas of Vathapi ♥ [1]. It is worth noting that the ruling dynasty is both known as Chalukyas of Badami and Chalukyas of Vatapi (or Vathapi or Vatapai).

♠ Peak Date ♣ 609-643 CE ♥ Despite inheriting an empire torn apart by succession wars and the rebellions of provincial rulers, Pulakesin II was able to re-establish his dynasty's power through much of the Deccan, further extended the empire's bounds through a series of successful military campaigns, and founded new dynastic lines in Eastern India and in the Gujarat region [2].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 543-753 CE ♥ The start of the Chalukya Empire is generally said to coincide with the establishment of Badami as capital, and its end with with the last Emperor's military defeat at the hands of the Rashtrakutas [3].

Pulakesi I (543-566); Kirtivarman I (566-597); Mangalesa (597-609); Pulakesi II (609-642); Vikramaditya I (655-680); Vinayaditya (680-696); Vijayaditya (696-733); Vikramaditya II (733-746); Kirtivarman II (746-753); Dantidurga (753-756).[4] Ed: Notice that there is a gap between 642-655 CE.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ feudal empire The emperor often ruled over conquered territories indirectly, through feudal subordinates or family relations [5].

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ Independent polity.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kadamba Empire ♥ [6].
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ feudal subordinates[7].
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Rashtrakuta Empire ♥ [8].
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Badami ♥ Known, at the time, as Vatapi [9].


♠ Language ♣ Sanskrit; Kannada ♥ [10].

General Description

The Chalukyas of Badami (or Chalukyas of Vatapi)[11] ruled over an area roughly corresponding to the modern-day Indian states of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, the region of South Gujarat, half of the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Rayaseema district and half the Andhra district of Andhra Pradesh.[12] This polity was founded in 543 CE, when Pulakesin I established the capital of Badami or Vatapi,[13] and it was supplanted by the Rashtrakuta polity in the 750s.[14] The peak of the polity can be considered to correspond to the reign of Pulakesin II (609-643 CE), who re-established his dynasty's power throughout much of the Deccan after a period of instability, further extended the empire's bounds through a series of successful military campaigns, and founded new dynastic lines in eastern India and in the Gujarat region.[15]

Population and political organization

At the head of this polity was an emperor, who often ruled over conquered territories indirectly, through feudal subordinates or family relations.[16] The emperor was also the polity's supreme military commander.[17] In both military and administrative matters, he was assisted by the sandhivigrahika, or minister of war and peace: the only minister in the emperor's council mentioned explicitly in Chalukya inscriptions, and probably the most powerful.[18]
No population estimates for the entire polity could be found in the literature. However, the capital may have been inhabited by as many as 70,000 people.[19]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 750,000 ♥ in squared kilometers. Roughly the equivalent of the sum of the modern-day Indian states of Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Telangana, the region of South Gujarat, half of the state of Madhya Pradesh, the Rayaseema district and half the Andhra district of Andhra Pradesh.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [5,500,00-6,500,000] ♥ People.[20]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 70,000 ♥ Inhabitants [21]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

None of the sources clearly describe a settlement hierarchy. However, from information on the Emperor's administration [22], the following rough hierarchy may be inferred:

1. Capital
2. Provincial centre
3. Town
4. Village


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

1. Emperor [23].

_Court_

2. Sandhivigrahika (Minister of War and Peace)
This is the only minister in the Emperor's council mentioned explicitly in Chalukya inscriptions, and there is much evidence that this was the most powerful of the ministers [24]. Indeed, it seems that, on at least one occasion, the sandhivigrahika also held the post of "chief of the secretariat" (divirapati) and was in charge of revenue administration (akshapataladhikaranadhipati) [25].
3. Other ministers
Records here are a bit fuzzy. These "ministers and other administrators" may include the keeper of records, a guru, as well as the Crown Prince [26] and other loyal members of the royal family, including the Queen [27]. And, presumably, the divirapati and the akshapataladhikaranadhipati [28], in those occasions where they were not titles held by the sandhivigrahika.
4. Administrative officials
The long list of administrative officials includes: diviras (clerks) and akshapatalikas (revenue officers) [29]; baladhirkta or mahabaladhirtkas (military officials with administrative duties); dutakas (in charge of conveyance of royal grants); durgapatis (fort administrators); dandapasika and chauradhikarana (in charge of crime and punishment); chatas and batas (possibly police-like officers); vasavakas (in charge of arranging the residences of touring officials and foreigners); viniyuktakas (unclear); gamagamikas (supervised egress and ingress of travellers, including inspecting "passports") [30]
5.
e.g. senior batas?
6.
e.g. batas?


_Provincial Government_

2. "Viceroys"
Members of the royal family who ruled over vishayas, or provinces [31].
2. Rajasamantas or "Governors"
Defeated rulers whom the Emperor trusted to keep in charge of their territories, now made into vishayas, or provinces [32]. It is not entirely clear, from the source, whether rajasamanta and "governor" are the same office.
3. Samantas
Feudal subordinates of the rajasamantas, they provided troops and tribute to the Emperor when required [33].
4. Town assemblies
Made up of elders (mahajanas), guild chiefs, mahallakas, and "head of business communities" [34].
5. Village administration
Made up of mahajanas (elders), mahattaras, mahattaradhikarins and gavundas (royal representatives) [35]. There also existed "gramabhogikas" or "village leaders" and karanas or "village accountants"[36], but it is unclear what their position was in relation to other village administrators.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

_Hinduism_

There are no official priestly hierarchies in Hinduism [37]. However, several sources allude to the importance, at least for some branches of the religion, of the relationship between student and teacher or guru (e.g. [38]), which suggests that perhaps it would not be entirely inappropriate to say that there is indeed a Hindu religious hierarchy, and that it is composed of two levels.

_Jainism_

NOTE: I have found two equally authoritative sources on Jain hierarchy:

(1) [39]

1. Arihants (ones who have conquered their inner enemies)
2. Siddhas (Liberated Ones)
3. Acharyas (who head the Order)
4. Upadhyays (who teach the message)
5. Sadhus (Monks/Seekers)

(2) [40]

1. Guru (teacher)
2. Monks
2. Male figure (not specified by author whether a monk) in charge of nuns
3. Pravartini or ganini (aides to the male figure in charge of nuns)
4. Nuns

_Buddhism_

"Buddhist monastic communities replaced the caste system with one based on year of ordination. Previously ordained monks enjoyed rights and privileges higher in status than monks ordained later, and monks were categorically of higher status and privilege than nuns. In effect seniority and gender provided criteria for social status and increased access to 'pure' teachings and exemption from 'impure' duties." [41].

♠ Military levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ levels.

1. Emperor [42]
2. Sandhivigrahika (minister of war and peace) [43]
3. Mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahika
Most likely the chief general, perhaps assigned the duty of assisting the minister of war and peace and/or supervising ten other generals[44]
4. Officials supervised by the mahabaladihktra or mahasandhivigrahika [45] - presumably more than one level
5. Soldiers [46]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Although military officers also took on civic and administrative duties, e.g. [47].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Inferred from the fact that there was a standing army [48].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ A guru may have been part of the Emperor's ministerial council [49]. Hinduism had its representatives in Brahmanas [50], Jainism and Buddhism in monks [51] [52].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [53]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ Unknown: members of the royal family often occupied important administrative positions [54], but the minister of war and peace had to be very highly qualified [55], and loyalty was also a factor in whether the Emperor would appoint duties [56].

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Smirtis and dharmashastras [57]. The Smriti, or Manu-smriti, is a collection of texts prescribing correct behaviour, including a section explicitly devoted to "the law of kings" [58], while the dharmashastras are a collection of more explicitly legal texts [59].

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ The Emperor was the supreme judge, but he also dispensed justice through judges he himself appointed [60].

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ A number of different courts existed, each probably dedicated to a different unit of administration [61].

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Dams were erected across the streams and from them channels taken out wherever and whenever necessary" [62].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the existence of a market tax [63].
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ The Chalukyas conquered several "flourishing ports" on the West coast: Mangalore, Thana, Sopara and Kalyana [64].

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ Chalukya temples are often decorated with frescoes which provide much information on their military organisation [65].
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Several contemporary inscriptions available [66].
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Inscriptions are in both Kannada and Telugu scripts [67].
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ likely used by government officials
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥ likely used by government officials
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Hindu scriptures.
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ likely used by government officials
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Treatises on Sanskrit grammar [68].
♠ History ♣ present ♥ The work of poet Ravikirtti is an important source on the military campaigns of Pulakesin II [69]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ unknown - when was the first mathematics, medicine, astronomy in this region?
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ The work of poet Ravikirtti is an important source on the military campaigns of Pulakesin II [70]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ A gold coin, the gadyana, is mentioned in an inscription; it weighed 120 grams in imitation of Gupta currency [71]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [72]. Type of metal not specified. Likely used primarily for ornamental reasons.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [73]. Type of metal not specified. 'Usually replaced by steel but likely used for ornamental reasons and for handles.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [74]. Type of metal not specified. Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [75]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Metal armour was used for both warriors and horses [76]. Type of metal not specified. Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE). [77]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ The javelin was still being used as a weapon in the time of the Rashtrakutas who followed this period.[78]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon found only in the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present for earlier Satavahanas but for this time no data.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Artistic and written evidence for the use of bow and arrow (bow type not specified) [79] In the hot Monsoon climate of India the composite bow decomposed rapidly so Ancient Indians made bows out of Wootz steel. These were "considerably more rigid than their composite bretheren, meaning they were also less powerful. But they were reliable and predictable, and could be stored away in munitions vaults without worry of decomposition."[80] "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[81] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[82]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "The Hindus used bows made of cane or bamboos which were inferior in range, accuracy and penetrative power when compared to the composite bows."[83] Composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[84]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ "The hand crossbow was usd on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[85]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ According to Jaina texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[86] A military historian reports that ancient Indians had a weapon called the yantra that "may refer to a device for hurling stones and missiles at the enemy, but we have no information as to its design."[87] - what do specialist scholars of this period know about this? Ancient Indian armies had siege engines that could "fling stones and lead balls wrapped up in burning materials. The Mahabharata mentions an Asma-yantra (a stone-throwing machine) in the battle with Jarasandha and we have further records that such engines were used in later periods to set enemy fortifications alight and that 'liquid fires' containing naphtha were in use in ancient India."[88]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Byzantines, or perhaps the Chinese, were the first.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "among the weapons of warfare are mentioned swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [89].
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "There was no significant change in the weaponry of the Indian army from ancient to classical times; in fact, according to Kosambi, there was a decline in the standard of arms. Indian soldiers were mostly very poorly equipped, noted Marco Polo."[90]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Artistic evidence for both daggers and double-bladed "dagger-like" vajra [91].
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Artistic evidence for the use of at least two types of sword [92].
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "among the weapons of warfare are mentioned swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc." [93].
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Artistic and written evidence for the use of lances [94].

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[95][96] in different regions according to local conditions.[97]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [98] "The Chalukyan army no doubt consisted of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, besides the naval unit."[99] By the medieval period cavalry had mostly relegated the chariot to ceremonial function.[100] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[101]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[102][103] in different regions according to local conditions.[104]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ [105] "The Chalukyan army no doubt consisted of infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants, besides the naval unit."[106] "In the classical age, Indian armies were still organized, as they had been a thousand years earlier, into four divisions: infantry, cavalry, chariots and elephants."[107]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ A military historian states that the Maurayans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame[108] - do Maurayan specialists agree?
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ A military historian states that helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads[109] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "dense structures made of the skin, hooves, and horns/tusks of the river dolphin, rhinocerous, Dhenuka, and cattle" used as armor.[110]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Artistic evidence for shields made of metal and hide [111].
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Earlier period Vakataka "soldiers were provided with armours and helmets."[112] A military historian states that helmets were not widely used until the CE period; soldiers used thick turbans to protect their heads[113] - do ancient Indian specialists agree? "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[114]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[115] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a breastplate.</ref> Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions "Helmet, neck guard, cuirass, corselet, mail, breast plate, and thigh guard".[116]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[117] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a thigh guard.[118]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ In Ancient India soldiers of the Gupta Empire who could afford to do so and were willing to bear the heat (or for night operations?) wore chain mail.[119] "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[120] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions a coat of mail.[121]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[122] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, mail and breast plate.[123]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[124] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal fabric, metal plate, cuirass, corselet, mail and breast plate.[125]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Ancient Indians used iron for armour cuirasses and breastplates but copper was also used.[126] "Several Chalukyan epigraphs refer to kavacha or armour. A good number of sculptures at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal show not only armoured soldiers but also caparisoned horses. Metal armours served as shields against attack by enemies, protecting both men and animal forces."[127] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions metal plate, cuirass, corselet and breast plate.[128]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Contemporary inscriptions mention the "war boats" of both Emperors Vinayaditya and Mangalesha [129]. "There was also a strong division of navy to guard the sea-coast and conduct maritime operations."[130] 'Chalukyas, Pallavas and the Cholas are noted for their naval forces."[131]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Commenting on Jean Deloche's 'Studies on Fortification in India' a book reviewer says that fort construction "with long-term building and modification programs ... became the focal point for local populations as well as for their leaders" and often were "placed at points on the landscape that already were natural strongholds and places of ritual devolution".[132]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Till date, the best study of the evolution of fortifications in India from the Indus Valley Civilization till the rise of British power, remains Deloche's monograph on fortification in India. Deloche notes that between the third and fourteenth centuries, the Hindu rulers constructed complex gateways, towers and thicker walls with earthen embankments in order to make their durgas (forts) impregnable."[133] Deloche's studies on Indian fortifications are in French. Ditches and moats were present during the Satavahana period[134] and the simpler technology of earth rampart is therefore also likely. Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats.[135]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for the Satavahana period.[136]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for the Satavahana period.[137] Kautilya's Arthasastra, written after 200 BCE, mentions ramparts constructed with earth and moats.[138]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ During the Satavahana period towns were protected by "high walls" [139] but the construction materials and methods are not mentioned.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ During the Satavahana period towns were protected by "high walls" [140] but the construction materials and methods are not mentioned. "The temple is enclosed by a stone wall and has evidently been used as a fort. On the outside of the east wall of the temple is a stone inscription of the Early Chalukya dynasty..."[141]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ The ruling dynasty is known both as Chalukyas of Badami and Chalukyas of Vatapi (or Vathapi or Vatapai).

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The magical power which pervaded the king at his consecration was restored and strengthened in the course of his reign by further rites, such as the ceremonial rejuvenation of the ‘’vajapeya’’ and the horse-sacrifice (‘’asvamedha’’, p. 42), which not only ministered to his ambition and arrogance, but also ensured the prosperity and fertility of the kingdom. Implicit in the whole brahmanic ritual was the idea of the king’s divine appointment, and though the rajasuya was replaced in later times by a simplified ‘’abhiseka’’, or baptism, the ceremony still had its magical flavour.” [142]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “Divinity was cheap in ancient India. Every brahman was in a sense a god, as were ascetics with a reputation for sanctity. Householders sponsoring and financing sacrifices were in theory raised to divinity, at least for the duration of the ceremony, while even sticks and stones might be alive with inherent godhead. Moreover the gods were fallible and capable of sin. If the king was a god on earth he was only one god among many, and so his divinity might not always weigh heavily upon his subjects.” [143]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...] In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [144]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [145]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Caste system. "There have been a number of attempts to underplay, to question, and to lampoon the hierarchical inequality and even the existence of the caste system. As we will also see it differs, in some degree, from region to region. However, the concepts of varna and, more importantly, jati lie at the heart of the caste system and they form an ideal core around which the complexity of detail and difference can then be erected. [...] Thus the four varnas are the Brahmins who represent priesthood and learning, the Kshatriyas who represent the warriors and kings, who protect the people, the Vaishyas who represent the people who engage in agriculture, farming and trade, and the Shudras who represent the servants who look after and serve the others. The Brahmins fulfil the function of the mouth, the Kshatriyas fulfil the function of the arms, the Vaishyas fulfil the function of the thighs, and the Shudras fulfil the function of the feet. The model is clearly a hierarchy but it is a complementary hierarchy and unity, wherein the different elements sustain one another. [...]In practice the key to the caste system are the sub-castes, or jatis. There are a great number of these in each varna, and in practice there is a hierarchy within each set so that only certain jatis can marry and eat with each other. Not all Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras can marry or eat together. Those privileges are confined to a limited number of jatis within each varna. [...] Clearly there have been changes in the system over long centuries. Particular jatis have elevated themselves through economic means, through disputing status, through propaganda, through moving, through changing religion, and so on. But on the whole, over such a long period of time, the system has remained strong, especially in the villages. [...] The strength of the caste system has been enhanced by another principle emphasised by Dumont (1980) in his classical work entitled ‘’Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications’’. According to Dumont, in addition to the distinctions already outlined that fit varnas and jatis into hierarchies, another must be added. This distinction takes caste hierarchical divides beyond the kind of class distinctions found in eighteenth-century Britain or in the Ancien Regime in Europe, by stressing the opposition between purity and pollution. Caste difference, according to this classification, goes beyond class differences into this other realm of ritual purity and pollution. The Brahmins are the highest and purest varna, and the Dalits are the lowest, in that they are outside varna and are impure altogether. The other varnas rank in between. Pollution occurs in different ways. It occurs through bodily contact of one sort or another, with menstrual cycles, through birth and death, through emissions such as faeces, urine and saliva, and through contact with night-soil, dirty clothes, unswept rooms and so on. Thus marriage and sex have to function within the correct set of jatis in the correct varna. Polluting jobs such as laundering and sweeping are done by people of lower castes so that the blood of people of higher castes can remain ‘pure’. Equally menstrual activity among older women makes them more ‘impure’ than men or pre-menstrual virgins, and therefore women are more polluting than men. They will thus often live semi-separately while menstruating, during which time they will also avoid going to the temple and therefore ‘polluting’ the gods. Furthermore, untouchable Dalits were prohibited from entering many temples before the post-Independence freedom-of-temple-entry legislation and even now they are kept out of some temples in many villages. [...] It is also true to say that Dumont’s thesis suffers from exaggeration and other matters are important in discussing caste. Nevertheless, there is at least an element of truth in the notion that purity and pollution has relevance in any discussion of caste.” [146]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [147] [148] [149]

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