InAyodE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 64BCE-34CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Middle Ganga corresponds to the eastern portion of the Upper Ganga Plain, in the eastern part of the north-central modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the state of Bihar. From the literature consulted, it is not entirely clear which polity occupied this region between the first century BCE and the first CE, though it was likely a relatively small kingdom resulting from the fragmentation of the Sunga Empire. This should therefore be considered a temporary "placeholder" page.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks", includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[1]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks", includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[2]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons. The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[3] "More by good luck than by design and by prominence, a few other texts have come down from the period between the empires. There are, to be sure, such texts of the Śuṅga/Kāṇva and the early Kushana periods, including the older parts of Arthaśāstra (which has additions up to the first century CE), early medicine (Caraka, Suśruta), some early astronomical texts (Yavanajātaka of Sphujidhvaja, ed. Pingree 1978, Paulīṣa, Romaka, etc.), the Bhāratīya Nāṭyaṣāstra (in part, first century CE), and some early Sanskrit poetry such as Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita and Saundarānanda, Bhāsa’s dramas, etc."[4]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred in previous polities.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Kautilya's Arthasastra contains a chapter title "Measurement of Space and Time."[5] The Arthaśāstra "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks".[6]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Jain, Buddhist and Hindu canons.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The Arthaśāstra, which "probably arose in the first half of the first millennium AD" but probably largely "derive[s] from older handbooks" includes instructions for the proper layout of cities, including "public edifices such as treasuries, storehouses for material and food, arsenals, and prisons".[7]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "More by good luck than by design and by prominence, a few other texts have come down from the period between the empires. There are, to be sure, such texts of the Śuṅga/Kāṇva and the early Kushana periods, including the older parts of Arthaśāstra (which has additions up to the first century CE), early medicine (Caraka, Suśruta), some early astronomical texts (Yavanajātaka of Sphujidhvaja, ed. Pingree 1978, Paulīṣa, Romaka, etc.), the Bhāratīya Nāṭyaṣāstra (in part, first century CE), and some early Sanskrit poetry such as Aśvaghoṣa’s Buddhacarita and Saundarānanda, Bhāsa’s dramas, etc."[8]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Ramayana and Mahabarata epics.

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE).[9]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Indian iron smiths invented the 'wootz' method of steel creation between 550-450 BCE. The Greek physician Ctesias of Cnidus commented on an Indian steel sword in the possession of Artaxerxes II of Persia (c400 BCE).[10]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Javelins were a standard form of projectile delivered from war elephants. Not referenced but surely inferred present on the basis of elephants.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Satavahanas in central and southern India used slingers[11] and the Mauryans could field slingers.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Iron arrowheads found at Kausambi (of the post-Mauryan period).[12] Military equipment depicted on the Bhilsa Topes statues include bows and arrows.[13] The Bhilsa topes are Buddhist monuments from central India thought to date to c100 BCE. Bow ("drawn in the perpendicular fashion of English archers) known from later period illustrations in hill caves in Orissa (eastern India 200 BCE - 474 CE).[14]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in preceding and succeeding polities. A bow shorter than the longer bows were used by infantry. One was straight in the middle and curved in at each end.[15] The composite bow came to India with the Kushanas but "after the collapse of the Gupta Empire, the use of composite bows died out in India."[16]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ "The hand crossbow was used on Indian battlefields probably from the third century A.D. It was mainly used as an infantry weapon and occasionally as a cavalry weapon. A Sanskrit inscription at Avanthipuram, in South India, reads: '... Of him who has the name of Ananta impelled with speed and skillfully discharged from the machines of his bow fitted with the well stretched string....' Obviously, the machine referred to was a hand crossbow."[17]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (needs confirmation from a polity specialist) siege engines such as catapults were used by the Mauryans[18] which might have implications for technology available to later polities.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First historically known sling siege engines used by the Byzantine Empire.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Club represented on Indo-Scythian coins.[19]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Military equipment depicted on the Bhilsa Topes statues include axe and battle-axe.[20] The Bhilsa topes are Buddhist monuments from central India thought to date to c100 BCE.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Dagger represented on Indo-Scythian coins.[21] Military equipment depicted on the Bhilsa Topes statues include dagger.[22] The Bhilsa topes are Buddhist monuments from central India thought to date to c100 BCE.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Sword represented on Indo-Scythian coins.[23] Military equipment depicted on the Bhilsa Topes statues include sword.[24] The Bhilsa topes are Buddhist monuments from central India thought to date to c100 BCE. Straight, medium-sized sword known from later period illustrations in hill caves in Orissa (eastern India 200 BCE - 474 CE).[25] Cave 16 at Ajanta c400 CE shows warriors with short sword.[26]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Lance represented on Indo-Scythian coins.[27] Military equipment depicted on the Bhilsa Topes statues include spear with triangular head.[28] The Bhilsa topes are Buddhist monuments from central India thought to date to c100 BCE. Greek historian Arrian c2nd century CE said that the Indian horsemen carried two lances.[29]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in preceding and succeeding polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[30][31] in different regions according to local conditions.[32]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ "On a pillar of the Amravati Tope, 300 years later than that at Sanchi, is portrayed the scene thus described. ... part of the army is seen defending the walls of the citadel, and armed with straight and scythed-shaped swords, long spears, and long bows. In front the infantry is advancing, and the rear is brought up by horsemen and elephants. There are no chariots at Sanchi, but this is probably owing to some local peculiarity."[33] 300 years later than the Bhilsa Tope monuments so possibly referring to 200 CE.
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In ancient India the buffalo, bullock, yak, goat, camel, elephant, horse, ass and the mule were all used for transport[34][35] in different regions according to local conditions.[36] Were camels used in this region as pack animals?
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred present ♥ "On a pillar of the Amravati Tope, 300 years later than that at Sanchi, is portrayed the scene thus described. ... part of the army is seen defending the walls of the citadel, and armed with straight and scythed-shaped swords, long spears, and long bows. In front the infantry is advancing, and the rear is brought up by horsemen and elephants. There are no chariots at Sanchi, but this is probably owing to some local peculiarity."[37] 300 years later than the Bhilsa Tope monuments so possibly referring to 200 CE.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "On a pillar of the Amravati Tope, 300 years later than that at Sanchi, is portrayed the scene thus described. ... In Pl. LXIX. of the same work are represented men bearing narrow oblong shields apparently of wicker-work."[38] 300 years later than the Bhilsa Tope monuments so possibly referring to 200 CE. According to a military historian (needs confirmation from a polity specialist) the earlier Maurayans carried shields made of raw oxhide stretched over a wood or wicker frame.[39]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Raw hide was used on shields.[40] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions armour made from iron, skins, hoofs and horns.(Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents"). Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions a head covering called sirastrana but not the material it was made from (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Military equipment depicted on the Bhilsa Topes statues include the infantry and cavalry shield.[41] The Bhilsa topes are Buddhist monuments from central India thought to date to c100 BCE. The oblong shield is known from later period illustrations in hill caves in Orissa (eastern India 200 BCE - 474 CE).[42] Cave 16 at Ajanta c400 CE shows warriors with an ornamental shield.[43]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Conical helmet represented on Indo-Scythian coins.[44] Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions a head covering called sirastrana but not the material it was made from (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in preceding and succeeding polities.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Kautilya's Arthashastra mentions coats extending to the knees, one which reached the floor, and another without arm covering (Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents").
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Chain mail represented on Indo-Scythian coins.[45]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (needs confirmation from a polity specialist) after the Macedonian invasion use of "scale plate armor for horses and elephants" became more common.[46]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ 1st CE Greek historian who chronicled the campaign of Alexander the Great "Quintus Curtius speaks of armour made of iron laminae connected in rows within each other."[47]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (needs confirmation from a polity specialist) after the Macedonian invasion use of "scale plate armor for horses and elephants" became more common.[48]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Gradually the entire region comprising the Middle Ganga Valley was colonized. Kashi (Varanasi) and Ayodhya emerged as two great cultural and political hubs situated as they are on navigable rivers like the Ganga and the Ghaghara respectively."[49]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "extensive traces of structural mounds within the fortification of ancient Ayodhya ... extensive excavations urgently needed at this site which is one of the most important of northern India ... there are still places which would bear extensive horizontal excavations."[50] "In the Middle Ganga valley all the city sites are fortified (e.g. Ayodhya, Rajghat, Kausambi, Sravasti, Patna, Kankarbagh, Rajgir, Vaisali, Champa, Balirajgarh) while the rural sites were not fortified (e.g. Piprahwa, Sohgaura, Khairadih, Chirand, Buxar, Mason, Sonepur, Apsad, Sarai-Mohna Prahladpur, Takiapar, Lakhneshwardih, Nandigram, Chechar-Kutubpur, Chandadih, Oriup)..." [51]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Kautilya's Arthashastra discouraged use of timber for walls[52] but that doesn't mean they weren't being used.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Ramparts at Kausambi in the post-Mauryan period.[53] "earth ramparts faced with burnt brick or stone" known at Kausambi (period not stated).[54]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "According to A. N. Bose (1961, 205-6), Saketa and Ayodhya, both celebrated in the Buddhist sources and the Ramayana, were the same city. The excavations conducted at the site in 1975-77 showed a burnt-brick fortification wall with a ditch outside dating possibly from c. BC 200 (IAR, 1975-76, 1976-77)."[55]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE.[56]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "According to A. N. Bose (1961, 205-6), Saketa and Ayodhya, both celebrated in the Buddhist sources and the Ramayana, were the same city. The excavations conducted at the site in 1975-77 showed a burnt-brick fortification wall with a ditch outside dating possibly from c. BC 200 (IAR, 1975-76, 1976-77)."[57] Was stone used for fortifications, or was it all brick?
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Referring to a period of time that appears to begin with the Mauryan era and include the first millennium CE:"The royal residence is designated with an old name the “interior city” (antaḥpura) and is described as being just as fortified as the city itself. There are even expressions where the palace wall is confused with the city wall and the castle gate with the city gate. Nonetheless, it would be a false conclusion were one to consider the royal residence, on the strength of this description, to be a citadel. We know from the narrative literature that it was easy to negotiate the moat and wall of the king’s palace by means of a pole or rope. The palace wall formed a police and not a military protection. Once besiegers had breached the city wall, the city lay at their feet. There was no last stand for the palace."[58]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [59] [60] [61]

References

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  4. (Witzel 2006, 482) Michael Witzel. 2006. 'Brahmanical Reactions to Foreign Influences and to Social and Religious Change' in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by Patrick Olivelle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. (Subramaniam 2001, 79) Subramaniam, V. in Farazmand, Ali. ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. CRC Press.
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  61. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html