IlJudea

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ This polity was coded through pers. comm. with Oren Litwin

♠ Original name ♣ Yehuda ♥ In the Hebrew, יהודה. Named after the most powerful of the pre-Exile tribes which were described as remaining loyal to the Davidic dynasty.

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 105 BCE ♥ This approximates the high point of the rule of John Hyrcanus, who engaged in significant conquests. After his death in 104 BCE, his sons and grandsons engaged in frequent intrigues and civil wars involving much loss of life. While Alexander Jannaeus briefly conquered additional territory in the Transjordan, he soon lost it and much of Hyrcanus' earlier conquests following the disastrous Battle of Gadara in 93 BCE.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣141-63 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ {vassalage; nominal allegiance}: 141-116 BCE; none: 115-63 BCE ♥ While Judea was technically a vassalage of the Seleucids in the earlier period, Jonathan and Simon assiduously played both sides of the Seleucid succession struggles against the middle, at times winning considerable practical autonomy. Circa 116 or 115 BCE, John Hyrcanus I broke away from the crippled Seleucid Empire and followed an independent policy, which lasted until his feuding descendants invited Pompey in.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Seleucid Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ This coding is arguable. The code book doesn't have a good descriptor for "successful political rebellion"; the new elites who ejected the Seleucids, the Hasmonean dynasty, were native to Judea, so "elite migration" doesn't really fit either. "Cultural assimilation" might fit, perhaps. At any rate, in 153 BCE the Hasmonean leader Jonathan "Apphus," having led a years-long guerrilla war against the Seleucids after the death of his brother (Judah the Maccabbi), was confirmed as High Priest and ruler of the Jews as a vassal of the Seleucid claimant Alexander Balas. In the swirl of conflict over the Seleucid throne, Jonathan fell into a trap and was executed in 142 BCE; he was succeeded by his brother Simon, who achieved a measure of quasi-independence from the Seleucids—though he remained a vassal and the population retained strong elements of Hellenism. Simon was confirmed as High King and Prince in a popular assembly in 141 BCE.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Roman Republic ♥ Two brothers of the Hasmonean dynasty, King Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, contended for the throne in continual civil wars and intrigues from 67-63 BCE. Finally each appealed to the Romans in Syria under Pompey the Great to intervene on his side.[1] Pompey, seeing the opportunity, intervened on the side of the ineffectual Hyrcanus, besieged Jerusalem and took it in 63 BCE, and absorbed Judea into the Roman Empire as a protectorate.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Jewish diaspora ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 100,000 ♥ km squared. This crude approximation reflects the substantial Jewish populations in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

♠ Capital ♣ Jerusalem ♥


♠ Language ♣ Aramaic; Hebrew; Greek ♥ Hebrew was mostly displaced by Aramaic in the aftermath of the Babylonian exile c. 582 BCE; however, both languages continued to be spoken in daily life, with Hebrew especially retaining religious importance even as Aramaic gained relatively greater importance as a vernacular. It had once been believed by scholars that Aramaic had replaced Hebrew altogether (outside of religious contexts), but newer archaeological evidence has shown that view to be mistaken.[2] Greek, meanwhile, was introduced by the Macedonian Empire and reinforced during the rule of the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, and was additionally important as a trade language.

General Description

The Judea (originally Yehuda) polity of 141 - 63 BCE was formed when Simon Thassi, brother of the executed Jonathan Apphus who had waged war against the Seleucids, was elected as High King and Prince in a popular assembly in 141 BCE. Simon achieved a measure of quasi-independence from the Seleucids—though he remained a vassal and the population retained strong elements of Hellenism.

According to archaeologists, it seems that Galilee was only sparsely settled before this period, and that the conquering of territories and increase in Jewish communities coming into the area contributed to the rise in permanent settlements and population during this time. However, agreements over the population differs widely, with estimates on the largest settlement, Jerusalem, ranging from 10,000 to 100,000 people.[3][4][5]

Judea was a sophisticated, well-organised and equipped society, with markets, established trade routes, water transportation infrastructure, aqueducts and cisterns, temples and palaces, sporting arenas, libraries, and many other modern features.[6] [7] [8]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [5,000-10,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. Very rough estimate from the varying descriptions of Judean territory. Records are not precise enough to provide finer-grained estimates by king.

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

Leibner,[9] in his archaeological survey of the Southeastern Galilee exclusively, estimates a population of some 10,000 people based on the distribution of pottery fragments, but acknowledges a possible range from 4,000 to 17,000. From the archaeological record, it seems that prior to the Hasmoneans, the Galilee was sparsely settled; the Hasmoneans conquered the territory and began a massive wave of Jewish settlement, suggesting strong demographic pressures within the Judean heartland.[10]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [10,000-100,000] ♥ Inhabitants. The population size of Jerusalem is the subject of wildly different views. Tacitus believed that during the Jewish revolt of 66-73 CE (some years after the Hasmonean period ended), Jerusalem had some 600,000 inhabitants; archaeological estimates of the population within the defensive walls range between 80,000[11] and 20,000[12] (which is almost certainly far too low; Geva assumes that much of the enclosed territory of Jerusalem was actually uninhabited, being royal or Temple precincts, but it is hard to imagine that such extensive buildings and fortifications could have been produced by so few people). Both estimates are based on population-density coefficients; however, it is not clear that the coefficients in use are reasonable. "Some of the densities recently put forward for area coefficients have been based on unwalled, premodern villages…. How similar is such a village to a walled Bronze or Iron Age town or city? Although this is not a case of comparing apples and oranges (more like oranges and grapefruit), it seems probable that the economic constraints of building a defensive system put a permanent physical limit on the settlement area," leading to higher population densities.[13] (Another possibility that I have seen noted, but not in the scholarly literature, is that much of the population associated with a given ANE city might not have lived inside its walls at all, but would be semi-nomadic pastoralists circulating within its economic orbit. Such pastoralists would leave little trace archaeologically, which would pose problems for conventional population estimates.)

In any event, Jerusalem is generally believed to have grown significantly under the rule of Herod Antipas, immediately after the Hasmonean era ended.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

Speaking exclusively of Southeastern Galilee, Leibner comments: "[Almost] all of the large settlements (20 dunams and greater) are located at the margins of the valleys or abutting extensive patches of alluvial soil…. This is also true among the smaller sites; most are located in proximity to extensive agricultural plains.… [and] near a permanent water source. The pattern that emerges is of a series of medium and large-sized settlements near extensive areas suitable for agriculture… most fortified or at the very least with natural fortifications. In addition to these, there are a few small settlements [of less than 10 dunams area], mostly in fortified locations, with no small farms at all in the agricultural areas."[14]

1. Capital (Jerusalem)
2. Large and medium-sized settlements
3. Small settlements

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The priestly caste that served in the Temple.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ For example, the Wadi Qelt irrigation system built by Alexander Jannaeus.[15]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Several aqueducts and cisterns have been found that date to this period or earlier, in particular the so-called "Lower Aqueduct" of Jerusalem, which is generally believed to have been built by the Hasmoneans themselves circa 150 BCE.
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Judea was a fully commercial society. Markets are frequently referenced in Talmudic accounts.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ The Temple in Jerusalem had grain stores, and the Hasmonean kings also had food stores which could be distributed in case of famine, e.g.: "Antigonus wrote to the city of Teos that if the need for grain arose it could be supplied from his own nearby sources."[16]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Most roads were worn dirt paths, with some stone reinforcement; but it is reasonable to suppose that given the importance of caravan trade, the regime would have spent effort maintaining the vital coastal route Via Maris at least.
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ A large bridge spanned the Tyropoeon Valley, connecting the palace and the Temple Mount to the Upper City of Jerusalem, which is believed to have been built by the early Hasmoneans. This was destroyed during the siege of Pompey in 65 BCE by the city's defenders.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ At least for transportation purposes; however, the so-called "Jerusalem Water Channel"(built by the Hasmoneans) was a massive drainage tunnel from Jerusalem into the Tyropoeon Valley, built with heavy stone and measuring about a kilometer.[17]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ The port of Acre was captured by the original Hasmonean revolt; additionally, Alexander Jannaeus took control of the ports of Dor and Caesaria.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Precious metals do not seem to have been mined locally; over 95% of Hasmonean-minted bronze coins were made of metals believed to have originated in Cyprus.[18] However, as was true in previous eras, several stone quarries were in use. Among them was a Samara-stone quarry near Jericho, used for decorative architecture.[19]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ At a minimum, the scholarly community of Rabbinic Judaism made constant use of memorization and mnemonics, since it was forbidden for the Oral Law to be written down. (The precise date at which the Rabbinic academies began is a matter of scholarly dispute, but Rabbinic tradition records several generations of leaders prior to Shimon ben Shetach, who was a contemporary of King Alexander Jannaeus.)
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Both the "square script" (also called ashurit, "Assyrian") and the older Phoenician-style scripts of Hebrew.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Both the "square script" (also called ashurit, "Assyrian") and the older Phoenician-style scripts of Hebrew.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Both the "square script" (also called ashurit, "Assyrian") and the older Phoenician-style scripts of Hebrew.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Presuming that as in previous ages, administrative records were written.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Aside from the Rabbinic calendar, whose months were determined by observation of each New Moon, several fixed calendars were in use. The so-called Qumran Calendar of 364 days is attested to in several of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the similar Enoch Calendar is described in the Book of Enoch.[20]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Even according to the least sympathetic scholarly views, the Torah (Pentateuch) had existed for several hundred years by this point. [tk]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Several books of the Apocrypha were written during this period, such as the Wisdom of Ben Sirach (AKA Ecclesiasticus), circa 190 BCE; and later sections of the Book of Enoch, circa first or second centuries BCE.[21] The Dead Sea Scrolls were also written during this period.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The Wisdom of Ben Sirach devotes much of its text to practical advice on commerce, social relationships, and ethical living. It was studied and popularly referenced for centuries, as the Talmud notes with some disapproval (see Sanhedrin 100b).
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Several figures close to the Hasmonean regimes produced historical or pseudo-historical works, including the Books of Maccabees and Eupolemus' On The Kings of Judea.[22]
♠ Philosophy ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ At a bare minimum, the Wisdom of Sirach contains several poems.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Greek and later Roman coinage would have been typical, and the Temple tax (see below) was paid exclusively with Tyrian coins.[23] Two Roman silver denarii have been found with likely allusions to the Hasmoneans, including one marked "BACCIUS JUDAEAS"; possibly they were used in trade between Rome and Judea. (Repeatedly referenced in nonacademic discussions, but I have not found the original source.)
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ In 138 BCE, King Antiochus VII gave Simon the right to mint coins.[24] No coins from his rule have been found, but bronze perutot have been recovered from the reigns of Yochanan Hyrcanus (either the First, Second, or both), Alexander Yannai, and Matityahu Antigonus.
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ The regime would have needed them, and many surrounding polities had used couriers for centuries.
♠ Postal stations ♣ unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ This polity was coded through pers. comm. with Oren Litwin

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded as present in preceding polities
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded as present in preceding polities
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "It is believed that Indian steel was exported in the early centuries A.D. and was known even in the time of Alexander. By the sixth century there is more definite evidence of the manufacture of Damascene swords and the steel used for this purpose came from India."[25] Steel is coding as present in previous polities.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ A staple in Hellenic and Roman armies, and for centuries previous.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Used in the region for at least the previous millennium, and still effective in contemporary militaries such as that of Carthage. “The [Hasmonean] infantry probably included lightly armed units of archers and slingers, semi-heavy infantry units such as the Hellenistic theurophoroi, and heavily armed infantry, organized along similar lines to the late Hellenistic phalanx.”[26] A sling bullet dated to the Hasmonean era was found at Beth Zur, the site of a battle between the Seleucid general Lysias and Judah the Maccabbi.[27]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Though not commonly used by militaries because of the prevalence of the composite bow.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ A staple of the region's militaries for the previous millennium.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ I Maccabees reports (5:30) that the Maccabees captured siege engines (mekhanai in the Greek), which were later likely used in the siege of Jerusalem (6:20, 6:52). The text also describes the Jews making their own engines.[28] The tension catapult and ballista were well-known by that point, having been used for centuries by various Greek cities and especially by the Macedonian Empire.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not known outside of China until the 6th Century CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Common in the region for over a millennium, but during the Hellenistic era axes were typically used only by light or irregular infantry.
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ A Roman-style gladius has been found at Jericho and dated to the middle of the second century BCE.[29] Atkinson infers that this weapon was Hasmonean, demonstrating that the Hasmoneans had adopted Hellenistic weapons.[30] (The Romans adopted the gladius in the late 3rd century BCE from the Iberians, and the Seleucid and Ptolemaic armies are known to have adopted some Roman practices.)[31]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Josephus reports that the army of Judah the Maccabi used phalanx formations, and they would have been necessary against the Seleucid phalanx.[32]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ A typical pack animal of the region.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry was used during the later stages of the rebellion under Judah the Maccabi, and later by Simon in his campaign in 138 BCE.[33] It would have been standard once the monarchy was well established, as was typical of the time.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded as present in preceding polities.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

Direct evidence for the armor used by the Hasmonean armies is thin: "The main frustration is, of course, that during the Second Temple period, especially between the Maccabean uprising and the destruction of the Second Temple, Jews upheld the Second Commandment—the prohibition on making any graven images—quite strictly. For this reason there is no figurative Jewish art from this period; although the use of symbols was widespread, and pictures of plants and even animals can often be found, human figures are not depicted."[34] The main types of evidence are thus the scanty literary references in Josephus and others, inference from the armor in use during previous eras, and comparison with neighboring Hellenic powers.

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Only used in shields, however.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Typically worn by militias or light units. Hellenic cuirasses made of leather or stiffened linen are well-attested.[35]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Various types of Attic-Boeotian helmets in bronze have been found throughout the Hellenistic East…"[36]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Suits of armor were incorporated into the funerary monument for Simon's brothers (I Maccabees 13), suggesting a rigid body suitable for display. The "muscle cuirass" was in wide use across the Hellenic world.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding polities.
♠ Chainmail ♣ [inferred present; inferred absent] ♥ The lorica hamata was probably in use in the Hasmonean armies; it was almost certainly used by their successor Herod. "By the 2nd century BC the lorica hamata was widespread in the neighboring Seleucid and Ptolemaic armies, which were inspired by the armor worn by the Roman Republican armies."[37]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Attested to from the early Iron Age, its contemporary form was the lorica squamata.[38]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ The lorica lamellata.[39]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥ Given the amount of trade taking place from Judean ports, and the amount of piracy in the Mediterranean, this is likely. Indeed, Hyrcanus II accused his brother Aristobulus of engaging in piracy himself. Various Hasmonean kings also used maritime motifs in their coinage.[40]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ unknown ♥ Herod, successor to the Hasmoneans, likely possessed war galleys,[41] but there is little evidence one way or the other before him.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ True at minimum in the Galilee; those settlements which lacked walls were almost exclusively built to take advantage of natural fortifications.[42]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ unknown ♥ These would likely have only been used in hasty fortifications; improved battering rams and siege engines forced builders to use stone when they could, and brick as a last resort.[43]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ As was the practice back into Canaanite times, fortifications were often built on a glacis, a mound of angled earth that was sometimes stabilized with crushed stone or retaining walls. An example can be found at the winter-palace complex.[44]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ A defensive moat is attested to at the winter-palace complex near Jericho, dug 7 meters deep, with the outer edge topped with a 3-meter wall.[45]
♠ Moat ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ “…a new type of stone dressing developed in the mid second century BC. Stones were cut with façades showing bosses and polished margins on all sides, and not only on one vertical and one horizontal side as during the Iron Age and at the beginning of this period. The blocks were normally laid and set in walls according to the ‘headers and stretchers’ tradition, as in the walls of Hasmonaean fortifications. Generally, on flat terrain city walls followed the city’s trace. On hilly sites, as in Hasmonaean Jerusalem, there is a curious incongruity between the town plan and the city walls: while the city’s shape maintained a rigid orthogonal system, the city walls seemed to take topographical features into consideration."[46]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Smaller fortifications were often mortared.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in preceding polities.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ The fortified winter palace featured an outer wall, a defensive moat, and an inner wall and towers.[47]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ This polity was coded through pers. comm. with Oren Litwin

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Hasmonean dynasty

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ This polity was coded through pers. comm. with Oren Litwin

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ "When Jonathan died in 142 bce, he was succeeded by his brother Simon. Simon was granted the power to mint his own coins, which amounted to granting Judah independence. That same year, Simon succeeded in expelling the Seleucid garrison from the Akra, a move that was both symbolic and substantive in overthrowing Seleucid hegemony. 1 Macc. 14 contains a declaration by the priests, elders, and people of Judah proclaiming Simon leader and high priest and allowing him to wear royal apparel 'until a trustworthy prophet should arise' (14:41). This qualification may indicate that although the Hasmoneans were accepted as kings and high priests, there was a consciousness that things were not as they should be. It is possible that there were some supporters of Hasmonean rule who thought that God would eventually restore the Davidic monarchy and the Zadokite high priesthood." [48]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ "The essential belief of Judaism is that God is One." [49]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ "The priestly legislation rules that women are 'unclean' for much more of the time than men - primarily through menstruation and childbirth - and this naturally causes restrictions on their activities. (We have little evidence for this complicated code of purity in pre-exilic times, though the example of Bathsheba in 2 Sam. 11:4 suggests that people in the time of David already regarded menstruation as requiring purification - assuming that the story genuinely reflects that time, of course.) In general it is assumed in the Old Testament that women do not take initiatives in society but remain in the home, very much like women in classical Greece: only prostitutes go about freely, or characters such as the 'strange woman' in Prov. 7:6-27, who is certainly not an example to be imitated. (Proverbs is definitely advice for men: there is no single saying in it that is addressed to women, not even by implication.)" [50]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Charity is also one of the most often repeated obligations of the Torah. Apart from the system of tithes, the requirement to help the poor is repeated more than any other law in the Torah. One is obliged to give at least a tenth of one's income to charity and there is a great deal of discussion as to whether one includes taxes gross or net and whether such charitable money may be used for education. No one, however poor, is exempt, but on the other hand there is a limit to how much one can give so as to avoid impoverishing oneself." [51]

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

References

  1. E.g. Josephus, cited in Eshel (2008:140).
  2. Cf. Buth/Notley (2014).
  3. Leibner (2009:319).
  4. Broshi (1978).
  5. Geva (2013).
  6. Chanson (2002:56).
  7. Netzer (2001:13-39).
  8. See the Specialized Buildings section for more information from our expert
  9. Leibner (2009:319).
  10. Leibner (2009: 322).
  11. Broshi (1978).
  12. Geva (2013).
  13. Zorn (1994:33).
  14. Leibner (2009: 318-319).
  15. Chanson (2002:56).
  16. Pastor (2013:59).
  17. See the website of the excavation here.
  18. Epstein et al. (2010).
  19. Peleg-Barkat (2013).
  20. Cf. Pratt (2000).
  21. Cf. Mendels (1987).
  22. Cf. Mendels (1987).
  23. Regev (2013:74).
  24. Reifenberg (1965:10).
  25. (Abraham 1988, 171) Meera Abraham. 1988. Two medieval merchant guilds of south India. Manohar Publications.
  26. Rocca (2008).
  27. Pearlman (1973).
  28. Bar-Kokhva (1989:81).
  29. Stiebel (2004).
  30. Atkinson (2016:45).
  31. Stiebel (2004).
  32. Bar-Kokhva (1989:76).
  33. Bar-Kokhva (1989:69-71).
  34. Rocca (2009:20).
  35. Rocca (2009:21).
  36. Rocca (2009:21).
  37. Rocca (2009:21).
  38. Rocca (2009:21).
  39. Rocca (2009:21).
  40. Patai (1999:75).
  41. Rocca (2009:21).
  42. Leibner (2009: 318-319).
  43. Rocca (2008).
  44. Netzer (2001:28).
  45. Netzer (2001:28).
  46. Rocca (2008).
  47. Netzer (2001:27-28).
  48. Murphy, F.J. 2002. Second Temple Judaism. In Neusner, J. and A.J. Avery-Peck (eds) The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  49. Cohn-Sherbok, D. 2003. Judaism p. 75. New York: Routledge.
  50. Barton, J. 2014. Ethics in Ancient Israel p. 58. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  51. Rosen, J. 2003. Understanding Judaism p. 85. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.

Author name, surname. Date. Title. Publisher. Location.

Adams, Samuel. 2014. Social and Economic Life in Second Temple Judea. Westminster John Knox Press. Louisville, KY.

Atkinson, Kenneth. 2016. A History of the Hasmonean State: Josephus and Beyond. Bloomsbury Publishing. London.

Bar-Kokhva, Bezalel. 1976. The Seleucid Army: Organization and Tactics in the Great Campaigns. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Bar-Kokhva, Bezalel. 1989. Judas Maccabaeus: The Jewish Struggle Against the Seleucids. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Broshi, Magen. 1978. "Estimating the Population of Ancient Jerusalem." Biblical Archaeology Review, Vol. 4, No. 2.

Buth, Randall, and R. Steven Notley, eds. 2014. The Language Environment of First Century Judaea: Jerusalem Studies in the Synoptic Gospels—Volume Two. Brill. Leiden.

Chanson, Hubert. 2002. Hydraulics of Stepped Chutes and Spillways. Swets & Zeitlinger B.V. Lisse.

Dorsey, David. 1991. The Roads and Highways of Ancient Israel. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.

Epstein, Michael, David Hendin, Lee Yu, and Nathan Bower. 2010. "Chemical Attribution of Corroded Coins Using X-ray Fluorescence and Lead Isotope Ratios: A Case Study from First Century Judaea." Applied Spectroscopy, Vol. 64, No. 4: 384-390.

Geva, Hillel. 2013. "Jerusalem's Population in Antiquity: A Minimalist View." Tel Aviv, Vol. 41, No. 2: 131-160.

Greenberg, Raphael. 2002. Early Urbanizations in the Levant: A Regional Narrative. Leicester University Press. London.

Kozloff, Arielle. 2012. Amenhotep III: Egypt's Radiant Pharaoh. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Leibner, Uzi. 2009. Settlement and History in Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Galilee: An Archaeological Survey of the Eastern Galilee. Mohr Siebeck. Tübingen.

McMaster, Daniel. 2014. "Economy and Exchange in the Iron Age Kingdoms of the Southern Levant." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 372: 81-97.

Mendels, Doron. 1987. The Land of Israel as a Political Concept in Hasmonean Literature: Recourse to History in Second Century B.C. Claims to the Holy Land. Mohr Siebeck. Tübingen.

Netzer, Ehud. 2001. The Palaces of the Hasmoneans and Herod the Great. Yad Ben-Tzi Press, Israel Exploration Society. Jerusalem.

Pastor, Jack. 2013. Land and Economy in Ancient Palestine. Routledge. London.

Patai, Raphael. 1999. The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ.

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