IdMedng

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Medang Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Sailendra Kingdom; Mataram Kingdom ♥ Mataram Kingdom is a name used to refer to the period in which the kingdom's capital was located in Central Java, between 732 and 918. This name cannot be used in reference to the later period, when the capital shifts to East Java. It must also be distinguished from the much later Islamic polity, the Mataram Sultanate.[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 850 CE ♥ The period between 732 and 918 is said to be a golden age of Javanese culture - height of temple building projects and thus the flourishing of art and architecture.[2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 732-1019 CE ♥ The definitive end of Medang seems to have come with military defeat in 1006.[3] but it seems there was then a period of fragmentation and turmoil before Airlangga consolidated power beginning in 1019.[4] There are two hypotheses regarding Medang. One suggests that the founder of the Sanjaya dynasty was actually founder of the Sailendra dynasty, which was initially Shivaist Hindu, and changed to Mahāyāna Buddhism on the conversion of his son Panangkaran. [5] The other theory is that there were two competing dynasties within the same polity and the Sailendra gradually assumed dominance. [6]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal ♥ Political centralization hard to achieve, despite the lack of geographical barriers, due to the influence of local elites in eco-regions. The main political actors were the leaders of eco-region water boards who coordinated the planting of rice. "Kingdoms" began to form on the rice plains through alliance structures. [7]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥ 732-800 C.E.: alliance Dharaindra (rr. 780-800) ascended to become the Maharajah of Srivijaya. The nature of the Sailendra's close relationship with the neighbouring Srivijaya empire is complex. It seems that in earlier times, the Sailendra family was within the Srivijayan mandala (sphere of influence), and that later the Sailendra's monarch rose to become the head of Srivijaya. It is uncertain as to whether this was due to a military campaign or close alliance.[8] It seems that over the course of the ninth century, however, any alliance broke down, as in 990 Medang launched a campaign against Srivijaya, leading ultimately to the downfall of Medang in 1006.[9]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kalingga Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Sanjaya, founder of the Medang Kingdom, was great-grandson of the famous Kalingga monarch Queen Shima. ([1])
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kahuripan Kingdom ♥ Airlangga managed to reunite central and eastern Java after its disintegration into several petty kingdoms following the destruction of the Medang capital in 1006. [10]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ No supracultural entity as such, but definitely interaction with other cultures, not least trade with Chinese, Indian, and Arab-speaking peoples.[11] Also evidence of cultural exchange with the Philippines - Laguna copperplate inscriptions from around 900 C.E. discovered in Manila suggests that officials of the Medang Kingdom had connections in regions as far away as the Philippines.[12]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Mataram; Mamrati; Poh Pitu; Tamwlang; Watu Galuh; Wwatan ♥ The phrase "Mdaŋ i Bhûmi Matarâm" found in inscriptions means "Medang in the land of Mataram", which means the kingdom name is Medang with its capital in Mataram. [13] The capital was in the mid-ninth century moved to another site in Central Java, Mamrati, and then again around half a century later to Poh Pitu. [14] When Medang moved to East Java around 929, the capital was placed firstly at Tamwlang for a very short time, and then moved to Watu Galuh. [15] It finally moved to Wwatan. [16]


♠ Language ♣ Sanskrit; Old Javanese ♥ Śailendra — Sanskrit for ‘Lord of the Mountain" ([2]). The translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of the Medang and Kediri Kingdoms. ([3])

General Description

The Medang, or Mataram, Kingdom, is the first well-attested Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in central Java. In 732 CE, in an inscription written in Sanskrit, a local ruler called Sanjaya made the 'first definite claim to kingship' known from the region.[17] Over the next few centuries, his successors would extend their influence over areas suitable for irrigated rice agriculture in upland central Java. The Medang Kingdom is famous for its large-scale sacred construction projects, such as the Buddhist pilgrimage site of Borobudur (a series of ascending stone terraces decorated with stone reliefs and topped with stupas) and Prambanan, a Hindu temple complex.[18]
A long-standing debate about dynastic succession in late 1st-millennium CE central Java is still unresolved,[19] showing that there are still many gaps in our understanding of the kingdom. Some scholars hold that there were two competing dynasties, the Buddhist Sailendras and the Shaivite descendants of King Sanjaya, while others believe that the rulers mentioned in inscriptions were two branches of the same family. In the early 10th century CE, the centre of royal power shifted from the high volcanic plains of central Java to the east of the island, signalling the increased importance of maritime trade to the polity.[20]

Population and political organization

King Sanjaya and his successors drew their legitimacy from Indic religious concepts, sometimes devoting themselves to Hindu deities (especially Shiva) and sometimes favouring Buddhist practices.[21][22] They gathered courtly entourages about them and drew their wealth from the taxation of rice and other goods and the use of corvée labour.[23] Local lords, known as rakrayan, and temple foundations could be granted the right to collect taxes from the population within a given parcel of land: these sima tax-grants were a useful way for the Medang kings to reward and ensure loyalty.[24][25]
Secure population estimates for the Medang Kingdom are lacking, but in the early 11th century CE, the East Javanese settlements of Cane, Patakan and Baru each had populations of over 1000 people.[26] The demographer Peter McDonald believes the population of the island as a whole in the 14th century could have been as high as five million.[27] Evidence from Javanese inscriptions suggests that by this time, the population levels of East Javanese states had been rising ‘fairly consistently’ since the early 10th century.[28]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [100,000-150,000] ♥ km2

Based in Java. Majority of area of Indonesia as a whole at this time covered by another polity, Srivijaya. [4]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [250,000-350,000] ♥ People.

Estimates for Indonesia (less West New Guinea): 2.8m in 700 CE, 3.0m in 800 CE, 3.4m in 900 CE, 3.75m in 1000 CE.[29]

Majority of area of Indonesia at this time covered by Srivijaya.[5] Total area of Indonesia (less West New Guinea) 1,500,000 km2.[30] Medang had about 10% of this area. On basis of area we could estimate for Medang: 280,000 in 700 CE, 300,000 in 800 CE, 340,000 in 900 CE, 375,000 in 1000 CE.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 1,000 ♥ Inhabitants. The settlements of Cane, Patakan, and Baru, lying just to the south of Surabaya, each appear to have supported populations exceeding a thousand persons by the early eleventh century. [31]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Large town (1000 people)

The settlements of Cane, Patakan, and Baru, lying just to the south of Surabaya, each appear to have supported populations exceeding a thousand persons by the early eleventh century. [32]
2. Village
Small towns(?)


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3: 732-899 CE; 4: 899-1019 CE ♥ levels.


1. King

_Court government_

2.
As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels. [33]
3.
4.


_Provincial government_

2. Dispersed wanua (regional landlords)
3. Village leaders?


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

The Sailendra court attracted Buddhist scholars from afar and was a major international centre of Buddhist pilgrimage and learning. [34]

Three major temple complexes - Borobudur (Buddhist, built around 825), Prambanan (Hindu - Shivaist, built around 850), and Dieng (Hindu - Shivaist, completed between the mid-seventh century and the end of the eighth century). Many smaller temples were in addition built by regional coalitions, and each local constituent contributed parts of the temple. [35]


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

We can infer the presence of a well-organized military. There is evidence for armour[36] and noble cavalry[37] which suggest specialization, and a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya.[38] Elephants were used in warfare[39] and their riders were called maliman.[40]

1. King

2. General inferred
a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya.[41]
3. Officers inferred - could be more than one level
There is evidence for armour[42] and noble cavalry[43] which suggest specialization
4. Individual soldier
Elephants were used in warfare[44] and their riders were called maliman.[45]


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Full-time specialists. We can infer the presence of a well-organized military. There is evidence for armour[46] and noble cavalry[47] which suggest specialization, and a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya.[48]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Full-time specialists. We can infer the presence of a well-organized military. There is evidence for armour[49] and noble cavalry[50] which suggest specialization, and a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya.[51] Elephants were used in warfare[52] and their riders were called maliman.[53]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The Sailendra court attracted Buddhist scholars from afar and was a major international centre of Buddhist pilgrimage and learning. [54]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Full-time specialists [55]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels. [56]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Airlangga was said to be the first to codify Javanese law in the period after Medang, although there are written legal documents available from the ninth century. [57] Written legal documents strongly implies there was a formal law process.

♠ Judges ♣ ♥ unknown. written legal documents available from the ninth century. [58] -- who wrote these documents? specialist judges and/or lawyers?

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Borobudur reliefs depict the stepped roof type pendopo which once sheltered the institutions of ancient Javanese kingdoms, such as law courts, clergy, palaces, and for public appearances of the king and his ministers. [59]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown. written legal documents available from the ninth century. [60] -- who wrote these documents? specialist judges and/or lawyers?


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Network of drainage systems. [61]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Relationship between village producers and international traders mediated by four layers of merchants and markets: rice, salt, beans, and dyestuffs were taken by the producers to the farmers' market; merchants bought the produce and passed it to intermediary wholesalers; then passed on to merchants on the coast who delivered it to ports; then delivered to international merchants. [62]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Must have had storage sites at very least to carry out trade.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [63]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ [64]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Relationship between village producers and international traders mediated by four layers of merchants and markets: rice, salt, beans, and dyestuffs were taken by the producers to the farmers' market; merchants bought the produce and passed it to intermediary wholesalers; then passed on to merchants on the coast who delivered it to ports; then delivered to international merchants. [65]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Legal documents preserved on copperplate or stone remain the best source of data relating to demographic and economic development. [66]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit is phonetic - the spoken and the written always match. ([6])

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Literate culture.
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Literate culture.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Translations of Hindu-Buddhist into Old Javanese sacred texts e.g. the Ramayana.[67]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The oldest religious tract and treatise can be dated back to the tenth century - it is a compilation of Mahayana texts, called Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan. [68].
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Literate culture.
♠ History ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Old Javanese texts contain major poetical works and prose literature. Examples are not specified. [69]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown. cowrie shells?
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent: 732-800 CE; present: 800-1019 CE ♥ 'The appearance of a silver Sandalwood Flower coinage in south central Java at the end of the eighth century provides the earliest indication of monetized transactions in insular Southeast Asia'.[70] Currency name = Masa and tahil. [71]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ [72]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ As the kingdom grew in the tenth century, during the reign of Baltigung, more state officials created more administrative levels.[73] This isn't evidence for specialist couriers but an administrative system might well have used them.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Lottie Field ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [74]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ “Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [75] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [76]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ “Iron tools, best evidenced in Southern Vietnam, West Malaysia, and Java, were attached to handles (presum- ably wooden) via tangs, sockets, or shaft holes."[77] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [78]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE[79] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [80]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[81]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[82] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[83] In southern India at this time (Rashtrakuta dynasty) military technology included "the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc."[84]; while their predecessors had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc."[85]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords.[86]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[87] In southern India the Chalukyas had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc."[88]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[89] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[90] In southern India at this time (Rashtrakuta dynasty) military technology included "the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc."[91]; while their predecessors had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc."[92]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[93]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[94]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Cannon was not used in siege warfare until the seventeenth century. [95]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords.[96] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[97]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[98] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[99] In southern India at this time (Rashtrakuta dynasty) military technology included "the sword, the trident or spear, the javelin, the battleaxe, the shield, etc."[100]; while their Chalukya predecessors had "swords, shields, spears, clubs, lances, bows and arrows etc."[101]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords.[102] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[103]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords.[104] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[105]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords.[106] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[107]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Halberds. [108]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [109]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [110]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Noble cavalry. [111] Experts with horses were called makuda. [112]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [113]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ Elephants were used in warfare. [114] Their riders were called maliman. [115]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Based on the fact that the Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[116] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[117] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[118]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Based on the fact that the Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds - these were the types used later.[119] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[120] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[121]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Borobudur and Prambanan temples contain murals showing the weaponry of early times - swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, clubs, knives, halberds. The Plaosan temple group 3 miles from Prambanan depicts stone carved gate guards armed with clubs and swords.[122] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[123] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[124] In southern India at this time the Rashtrakuta dynasty used the shield.[125] Their Chalukya predecessors also had shields.[126]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[127] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[128]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[129] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[130]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[131] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[132]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Based on the fact that the Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds - these were the types used later.[133] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[134] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[135]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[136] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[137]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[138] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[139]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[140] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[141]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Based on the fact that a military campaign was launched against Srivijaya.[142]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Convenience and pressures to reduce social tensions appear to have over-ridden considerations of defence in the location of housing from the early tenth century. [143] Ratu Boko - a palace compound converted into a hilltop fortress with defensive structures. [144]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ 'The people make fortifications of wood...' [145] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[146]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Reference suggested a code of 'present'[147] but no description was provided to explain why. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[148] "'In this country they have made the city walls of piled-up bricks, the wall has double gates and watch-towers,' wrote a Chinese voyager who went to Java fourteen centuries ago."[149]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[150] Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [151]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [152]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Ratu Boko had stone walls as defensive structure. [153] Borobudur stone laid without mortar - this was a temple. ([7])
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[154]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Ratu Boko - a palace compound converted into a hilltop fortress with defensive structures. [155] - did it have more than one ring of defenses?
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jenny Reddish; Lottie Field ♥


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Writing about the late Medang period, Kinney refers a 'Javanese-style council of military commanders and Hindu and Buddhist priests' being instituted in Bali, implying that this council had previously been part of the Javanese government.[156] However, I have not been able to find any account of the rights and duties of this body, so it is unclear whether members had the formal right to constrain the monarch's actions. It seems unlikely given that the inscription of Salingsingan (880 CE) reports some iron and copper smiths as saying 'that nobody could offer opposition to royal command'.[157]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the inscription of Salingsingan (880 CE), the iron and copper smiths summoned to the king's presence over a tax dispute are reported as saying 'that nobody could offer opposition to royal command and that they should have submitted to Sang Pangaruhan' (a tax collector).[158] Though these inscriptions of course reflect how the monarchs wished to be seen, we could interpret this as an indication that royal commands were - at least theoretically - not subject to any formal constraints (veto, overturning decisions etc.) imposed by agents outside the government. More generally, Zakharov does not see Medang Java as characterized by 'mutual consent between the rulers and ruled',[159] commenting that the state 'possessed enough power to act independently and arbitrarily on its subjects'.[160]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ I have found no mention in the sources of any legal mechanism for removing the monarch from power.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ There was some recognition of the caste system in Medang Java.[161] 'The rigid, stratified caste system of India, however, was never adopted in the Indonesian Archipelago'.[162] Likewise, Benedict Anderson (writing about the historical roots of 20th-century Javanese cultural attitudes) claimed that 'Java has never had a caste system. Yet something of the pure idea of caste, shorn of its rigid Indian barbarities and with greater emphasis upon function than on birth, struck and maintained strong roots as the appropriate expression of an hierarchical community'.[163] Despite local transformations of the Indian caste system, I think we can say that elite status could to some degree be inherited in the kingdom. Wisseman Christie refers to 'aristocratic' families and the 'upper classes' in Java from the early 9th century onwards, implying a system of inherited high status.[164] After the 8th century, sumptuary distinctions marking status difference become prevalent in the Javanese epigraphic evidence,[165] and de Marly has commented that historically, a common role of sumptuary law was of 'ensuring class distinctions'.[166]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field; Enrico Cioni ♥ LF mostly responsible for "Deification of Rulers" section.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [167]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [168]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [169]. However, it is worth noting that one of the key differences between South Asian and Javanese Hinduism is that the latter lacked a true caste system [170].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [171].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ One of the key differences between South Asian and Javanese Hinduism is that the latter lacked a true caste system [172]. DM: While Javanese Hinduism did not have a true caste system, it did distinguish between political elites and commoners.
♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ Generosity was one of the key moral values in this polity [173].

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [174] [175] [176]

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