IdMatrm

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Mataram Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1568-1703 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ Generally there was a rule of autonomous financing for all parts of the administration - it was a state governed by the ideal of non-interference, which in turn was in accord with the self-sufficiency of the agrarian life. Not much differentiation of occupation nor contact with the outside world was required, and the state became the guardian against disturbance, interfering only when there was a threat to tranquility. The punggawa, or official, within his region wielded the power of administrator, judge, and commander of the local contingent of troops. [1] Amangkurat I (Sultan Agung's son) attempted to consolidate the empire and to centralise its administration and finances. He hoped to turn an empire which Sultan Agung had based on military might into a unified kingdom where resources were monopolised for the benefit of the king. However communication, population and geographical factors proved impossible to overcome and Amangkurat I brought about the greatest rebellion in the seventeenth century and allowed for the intervention of the VOC. [2]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Demak Sultanate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ (gradual change) Gradual decline of Demak in the late sixteenth century allowed for the rise of other states including Mataram and Surabaya which emerged as the leading powers by 1600.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kota Gede; Karta; Plered; Kartosuro ♥ Kota Gede: 1587-1613; Karta: 1613-1645; Plered 1646-1680; Kartosuro: 1680-1755[3]


♠ Language ♣ Javanese ♥

General Description

Mataram started out as a vassal to the kingdom of Pajang—itself one of a number of short-lived polities that emerged from the disintegration of the Demak Sultanate—and gradually established itself as the dominant polity in central Java between the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth centuries.[4] The polity's heyday coincided with the rule of Agung Hanyokrokusumo (1613-1645), whose marriage alliances and military campaigns resulted in the polity's greatest territorial expansion, annexing the Sultanate of Cirebon in the West and the kingdoms of Surabaya and Blambangan in the East.[5] Mataram went in decline shortly after Hanyokrokusumo's death, succumbing to the Dutch East India Company in the first half of the eighteenth century.[6]

Population and political organization

The Sultan governed with the assistance of a number of functionaries, though the exact hierarchy of these functionaries remains unclear, as does their relationship to the bureaucratic systems in the polity's administrative subdivisions, particularly its powerful trading centers on the coast.[7] It is worth noting, however, that Hanyokrokusumo enacted a sweeping reform of the judiciary system meant to integrate Islamic law into traditional customs.[8]
No demographic estimates have been found in the specialist literature, with the exception of Reid's[9] conjecture that the polity's population density corresponded to about thirty people per squared kilometer.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [90,000-110,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Estimated from map of Java.[10]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [3,000,000-3,500,000] ♥ People.

density of 30 people per km2.[11] -- was 4 million code the estimate made by the source or a calculation done by RA on basis of a polity area estimate?

Highest figure we get from a maximum polity territory of 110,000 at 30 per km2 is 3.3m.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels. Inferred continuity with preceding polity[12]

1.

2.
3.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-5] ♥ levels. 5 levels inferred continuity with previous polity in region.

1. King

_Central government_

2. Top functionaries
3.
4.
5.

_Provincial government_

2.
powerful coastal regions, and administrative structures within these regions[13]
3.
4.

Information on the administration of the Mataram Sultanate is very scarce. It seems that the Majapahit structure of the ruler and a few top functionaries with varying influence was retained. There were various different titles for functionaries, but it is unclear whether there was a particular hierarchical structure between them, and moreover the relationship of these functionaries to powerful coastal regions, and the administrative structures within these regions, is far from clear and there was probably much fluidity and development over time.[14] Moertono shows that in later Mataram (possibly after the VOC came to dominate) there was a ligion including rendering justice in disputes under the jurisdiction of Islamic law. Thseparate and more independent department, the reh pangulon, which was responsible for matters of ree institution of the penggulu (head of the clergy in the main mosque in the king's capital) was gradually incorporated into the administrative system as head of a special division. The penggulu had his say about appointing lower penggulu naibs, who each administered the religious affairs of a certain number of villages. These lower officials were not thought of as belonging to the king's administration, for unlike other royal officials they did not receive income from the king.[15]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels. Moertono says that generally the Islamic clergy did not have an organized hierarchical structure in the sense of the Christian church. However, once religious specialists began to be more intertwined with the state administration in later Mataram, some hierarchies of power did develop (see 'Administrative Levels').[16]

♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. Commander-in-chief; Subcommanders; Noble cavalry; Troops (composed of swordsman, archers and skirmishers). [17] Slaves used as auxiliaries.[18] Mataram often adopted fighting formations inspired by Indian astrological signs, including a huge crayfish. The feelers represented special troops of amok fighters, the body of the crayfish was the sovereign, preceded by sons and relatives, the commander and ministers, and other numbers represented troops of different nobles and officials.[19]

1. King

2. Commander-in-chief
3. Sub-commander
4. Officers?
5. Individual soldiers

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Warrior elite class.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Standing army fell at different points in the range between free and paid service. Indigenous guardsmen in Mataram did not represent a true stipendiary force, for they received income from land allotments and sustenance from the food grown on these lands, but were not paid directly by the court. Reliance on land allotments meant that the standing army was just as affected by drought and famine as the general population. [20] Only a minority of soldiers were professional. [21]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Full-time state administrators [22]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥ unknown.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Islamic law (fiqh) used extensively existed alongside older Hindu Javanese adat (customary law) which took precedence. [23] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [24]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic law (fiqh) used extensively existed alongside older Hindu Javanese adat (customary law) which took precedence. [25] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [26]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic law (fiqh) used extensively existed alongside older Hindu Javanese adat (customary law) which took precedence. [27] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [28]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ The royal court had public prosecutors, and the regional administration imitated this by employing their own in the eighteenth century.[29]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Rice stores were set up for troops marching to Batavia.[30]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ By the mid-seventeenth century (and probably before) where was a system of roads in Java with toll gates. [31]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ By the mid-seventeeenth century there were permanent bridges. [32]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ [33]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ port at Jepara[34]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Piwulangs were didactic writings which gave instruction of a moralistic nature. [35]. Pedagogical works of early Mataram court writers - Serat Manikmaja and Serat Nitisruti. [36]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ the babad-literature. Most are centred around and written for the benefit of a certain court or dynasty and may be considered to have a national character such as the Babad Tanah Djawi.
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ unknown. Piwulangs were didactic writings which gave instruction of a moralistic nature. [37]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ unknown.
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown. cowrie shells?
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The state had paid officials[38] but no specific details on whether specialist messengers existed.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Lottie Field ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [39]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ “Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [40] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [41]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [42]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE[43] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [44]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Coded present based on this[45] source but no quote or description provided so we cannot be sure whether the reference was to thrown spear or handheld spear.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World Weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ The bow and arrow would still have been used for hunting but fell out of use as a standard weapon among Javanese armies by 1590. [46]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ The bow and arrow would still have been used for hunting but fell out of use as a standard weapon among Javanese armies by 1590. [47]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ The bow and arrow would still have been used for hunting but fell out of use as a standard weapon among Javanese armies by 1590. [48]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Stones thrown at enemy.[49]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Cannon are present, but were not specifically used in siege warfare until the Mataram laid siege to Batavia. [50] At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Javanese began to cast their own muskets, bases, and cannons, though according to Dutch observers in 1622, they were extremely bad at handling cannon and muskets.[51]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ By 1624 Mataram had 4000 musketeers comprising 10-13% of troops. [52] At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Javanese began to cast their own muskets, bases, and cannons, though according to Dutch observers in 1622, they were extremely bad at handling cannon and muskets. From 1726, they began to use firearms more frequently.[53]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ The most common bladed weapon was still the kris [54]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Broadsword.[55]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Coded present based on this source[56] but no quote or description provided so we cannot be sure whether the reference was to thrown spear or handheld spear.
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Coded present based on this source[57] but no quote/description provided. Weapons consist chiefly of pikes, krises, and shields.[58]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [59]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [60]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Mataram controlled the horse-breeding districts of Java. In 1678 the Dutch encountered a force of 240 Javanese horsemen, and Trunajaya used hundred of cavalry at the siege of Kediri in 1678. The importance of cavalry grew due to the difficulties of using elephants in battle against improved firearms. [61]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [62]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ Over the course of the Mataram era, elephants were increasingly used to meet the increasing transportation demands of gunpowder. [63]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in Charney (2004) and more sophisticated armor is present.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Buffalo hide. [64]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Light leather shields using buffalo skin. [65]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Southeast Asian helmets or other forms of headgear were worn everywhere" [66]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Worn by elite. [67]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ [68]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ [69]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sultan Agung built a new capital at Plered which had "much greater walls" than the previous one.[70] The material the wall was made out of is not mentioned.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Introduced by the Dutch. What is the reference for this? Sultan Agung built a new capital at Plered which had "much greater walls" than the previous one.[71] The material the wall was made out of is not mentioned.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Made of wood.[72]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Turrets?
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

The monarch so thoroughly dominated all parts of state life that one cannot study the factors of kingship (finance, administration) separately, p.12

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Punggawas, or the officials in the king's administration and formed a social stratum between the king and a small group of princes of royal blood and the great mass of private citizens who were, irrespective of wealth, called the wong tjilik. The ruling group was thus composed of two groups - aristocracy by blood and aristocracy by profession.[73]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [74]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [75]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[76]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[77]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[78]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [79] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [80]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [81]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [82] [83] [84]

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