IdMajap

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Majapahit Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Wilwatikta ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1389 CE ♥ Under Hayam Wuruk. [2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1292-1518 CE ♥ Established after death of King Kertanagara (1268-1292 CE) of Singhasari Kingdom when his son-in-law, Raden Wijaya (Kertarajasa Jayawardhan) founded a new capital and kingdom. [3] "The end of Majapahit itself is problematic: later Javanese tradition mentions saka 1400 (1478 C.E.) as the (symbolic) "end of Majapahit." But Ranawijaya still issues inscriptions in 1486 C.E., while Pigafetta, chronicler of Ferdinand Magellan's round-the-world voyage, acknowledge the existence of Magepaher (Majapahit) in 1522 C.E. And a Mahapahit inscription of Pabanolan Pari has been alternatively read as having the year saka 1563 (1541 C.E.). The demise of Majapahit was probably gradual and nondramatic. It is very likely that with the flourishing of trade cities on the northern coast of Java (pasisir), and especially the rise of Demak as a strong Islamic sultanate, Majapahit lost its control of the sea trade routes, then became disintegrated and subsequently exited the historical stage."[4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ Majapahit marked a transition to a kingdom with a more powerful centre which could collect revenue and products directly from outlying and subordinate areas rather than just receiving them as tribute or ritual offering. Tax and revenue is sent to the centre, but this relationship is mediated through watek ruled by individuals known as rakrayan, many of which would have once been independent chiefdoms which retained a separate but clearly subordinate identity, though the centre remained neither brave nor powerful enough to totally strip the power of this traditional elite. As time went on, the central court increasingly dealt directly with local indigenous temples and built trade links with the villages, bypassing the watek and offering local temples tax exemption or sima in exchange for loyalty. [5] Furthermore, the degree of centralisation increased throughout the Majapahit era - the idea of state evolvmed from fluid Indic mandala as described in the Tuhanaru inscription of 1326, but Jawa bhûmi as conceptualised in the Nagarakërtagama. In this formulation, the state is more stable and integrated politically and economically - it is distinguished from the larger territory that was said to be "in the orbit" of the Majapahit kraton. [6] However, the generally decentralized system also created powerful and autonomous enclaves in port areas.[7]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Singhasari Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ Following the Mongol invasion of 1293, Vijaya allied with the Mongols against the enemies of the Singhasari and established a new capital at Majapahit. [8]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Demak Sultanate ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ No supracultural entity as such, but definitely a wide network of trade relations, not least with Muslim merchants who brought their teachers with them and converted many on the coasts.[9]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Trowulan ♥ [10]


♠ Language ♣ Middle Javanese; Sanskrit ♥ [11] Sanskrit chiefly used as a religious language by this point, though there are still some Sanskrit inscriptions to be found during this period. [12]

General Description

The kingdom of Majapahit covered much of the eastern half of the island of Java; it was founded in the late thirteenth century, when the war between king Waijaya and the ruler of Kediri concluded with the latter's loss, and it gradually faded from relevance between the end of the fifteenth century and the middle of the sixteenth, as the Sultanate of Demak established its control over the main sea trade routes.[13] Majapahit experienced its apogee under the rule of Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara (1350-1389): during this time, the polity extended its sovereignty over the greater part of the Indonesian archipelago, as well much of the Malay peninsula.[14]

Population and political organization

Majapahit's king was assisted by a hierarchy of bureaucrats which reached down to the village level.[15] Indeed, Majapahit was more centralized than preceding Indonesian polities, collecting revenue and products directly from its peripheries, as opposed to simply receiving them as tribute.[16]

Majapahit's population has been estimated to around 5 million,[17], with a capital of about 200,000 inhabitants.[18]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 500,000 ♥ Km2 0.5 Mm^2 One source says 2.7 [1]. However, while Majapahit had many vassals, it likely did not have much administrative power outside Java, Bali, and Madura, whose combined territory is c 0.14 [2]. Estimate of 0.5 reflects influence of navy.

♠ Polity Population ♣ 5,000,000 ♥ People. Based on MacDonald's estimate. [19]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [100,000-200,000] ♥ Inhabitants. 200,000 is the figure given by John Miksic for the supposed capital of Majapahit located in the vicinity of a model village called Trowulan. [20] Within the walled kratons resided 700-800 families resided including 8 residential chiefs. [21] There is no description, however, of a settlement which can confidently be called a city.[22]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Capital

2. Village
3. Hamlet

Ruling class, religious authority, hamlets, non-farming sub-communities, commoners, slaves. Hamlets within villages came to increased prominence and became taxable units within the larger community. Other non-farming sub-communities emerged as regular features of expanded settlement complexes e.g. groups of artisans, small religious establishments, and merchant enclaves.[23] More broadly speaking, the state is characterized as consisting of villages (wanua), religious communities, and the royal compound (râjya), which was the social center [24]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

King; upper level bureaucrats functioning as intermediaries; mid level bureaucrats who needed to go through upper bureaucrats for favours; officials at village level; officials at central village level, both of which managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges. Kinney suggests that this administrative structure was carried through to the Majapahit era.[25]

1. King.

_Central government_

2. upper level bureaucrats functioning as intermediaries
3. mid level bureaucrats who needed to go through upper bureaucrats for favours
4. Storehouse manager for rice
5. Storehouse worker
village officials managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges.[26]

_Provincial government_

2. Several villages (wisaya) Inferred from the preceding Kediri kingdom
Kediri "was the first kingdom known in Indonesia to have developed a stratified territorial administration, consisting of three levels: the village (called thani, which itself consisted of several subdivisions, each having its own name); the coordinated unity, made up of several villages (called wisaya); and the state or kingdom (called bhumi)." [27]
3. Village (thani) Inferred from the preceding Kediri kingdom
4. officials at central village level Inferred from the preceding Kediri kingdom
both of which managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges.[28]
4. Subdivision of village Inferred from the preceding Kediri kingdom


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. 1) Buddhist and Saivite clergy (sogata); 1) Vaisnava clergy (wipra); 2) local religious specialists (resi); 3) residential communities of monks (caturdwija); 3) rural shamans (jangga). [29]


♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. Commander-in-chief; Subcommanders; Noble cavalry; Troops (composed of swordsman, archers and skirmishers). [30]

1. King.

2. Commander-in-Chief
3. Sub-commanders
4. Noble cavalry = officers?
5. Individual soldiers


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Warrior elite class. Commander-in-chief given 8,000 copper coins per day. [31]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Commanders, sub-commanders and noble cavalry [32]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Full-time specialists - royal abbots, priests and brahmins. [33]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Court administrators. [34]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Court administrators. [35]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Hayam Wuruk's court issued legal decrees which are described in epigraphic records. The epigraphic accounting is not a logical legal rendering, but reads as a 'dramatic literary record that tells the story of the eventual winner'. [36] Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java, however. [37]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Judicial decrees of the Majapahit era assert that judicial official "sought the opinion of the law books." [38]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Stepped roof type pendopo once sheltered the institutions of ancient Javanese kingdoms, such as law courts, clergy, palaces, and for public appearances of the king and his ministers. [39]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ There was a court-based executive council of legal specialists (upapatti)." [40]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ [41] Majapahit rulers encouraged irrigation projects with tax incentives. They possessed a network of dams and irrigation canals. [42] [43]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Large reservoirs and other hydraulic features. [44] One large reservoir was Kolam Sengaran - 575m long and 175m wide; also served as a recreation spot for local residents.[45]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Bubat on the Brantas River was the residence of foreign merchants and the centre of major commercial transactions. Furthermore, villages were linked to other villages through a market system. [46]
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [47]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ the preceding Kediri Kingdom pioneered a system of water management for both transportation and irrigation. [48]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ [49]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ Oral tradition continued to be more important than the conduct of justice in Java. [50]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Legal literature. [51] Middle Javanese literature called kidung.[52]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit is phonetic - the spoken and the written always match. ([3])

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥ Literate culture.
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥ Literate culture.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Kidung and kakawin poetry such as the Bubuksha and Kunjarakarna.[53]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥ Literate culture.
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Two particularly important chronicles recorded events of the fourteenth century - Nagarakertagama and Pararaton. [54]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ The Panji stories written down in Majapahit era but transmitted orally since the Kediri period. [55]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown. cowries?
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Gold and silver. [56]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Chinese copper coinage. [57]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ In 1300, during reign of first Majapahit king, indigenous coinage is replaced with Chinese copper coinage. Gold and silver remain important as commodities. [58]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ King known to have employed state officials[59] but this is not direct evidence for specialist couriers.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Lottie Field ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [60]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ “Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [61] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [62]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [63] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [64]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE[65] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [66]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ [67] Infantry with shields, swords, throwing-spears; reference to jacket armour being "thick enough to protect against javelins only." (69) [68]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World Weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not listed: "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[69]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Coded present based on this[70] source. "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[71]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[72]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not listed: "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[73]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[74]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[75]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Cannon was not used in siege warfare until the seventeenth century. [76]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[77]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[78]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Pisau (short bladed knife), parang (cleaver-type knife), kris (double edged-dagger). Krises were worshipped as sacred objects with spiritual power and kris-makers themselves were regarded as being among the elite of Javanese-Hindu society, along with the nobility and priests.[79]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Coded present based on this[80] source. "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[81]
♠ Spears ♣ present♥ Spear and blades dominated Indonesian warfare [82] "Weapons, notably axes, clubs, swords, and daggers, seem to have been Indian, though the curved swords are of a later type than those on the Central Javanese reliefs. The reappearance of the spear in these reliefs, while the use of the bow is confined to human heroes, suggests an increasing pressure to resume use of local types of weapons."[83]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ toya (a wooden staff, 5-6 feet in length).[84]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [85]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [86]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Noble cavalry. [87] Experts with horses were called makuda . </ref> (Hall
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare [88]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ Elephants were used in warfare. [89] Their riders were called maliman. [90]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[91] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[92] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[93]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[94] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[95] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[96]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present based on this[97] source but no quote/description provided. "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[98] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[99] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[100]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[101] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[102] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[103]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[104] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[105] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[106]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[107] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[108] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[109]
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[110] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[111] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[112]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[113] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[114] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[115]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[116] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[117] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[118]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "After the formation of the Majapahit Dynasty, however, weapons and warfare underwent significant changes. The military dress completely evolved from the Indian to the East Javanese fashion."[119] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[120] The Borobudur reliefs depicted armour but do not specify which kinds.[121]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ central government controlled building and use of boats. [122]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ [123]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ It has been noted by historians that despite the aggressive military history from which Majapahit arose, its kraton was not fortified. [124] According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [125] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[126]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[127] "At the time, Singapore's defenses included not only the fortified earthen wall but also a stockade-type structure made of wood. The Singaporeans withstood this initial Majapahit attack, but that did not remain the case."[128] ET: Singapore had defenses of earth and wood when Majapahit attacked. Surely there were similar defenses in Majapahit, if not the capital city then some smaller towns. Since there was no explanation for the code of absent will change code to inferred present.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[129] "'In this country they have made the city walls of piled-up bricks, the wall has double gates and watch-towers,' wrote a Chinese voyager who went to Java fourteen centuries ago."[130] "At the time, Singapore's defenses included not only the fortified earthen wall but also a stockade-type structure made of wood. The Singaporeans withstood this initial Majapahit attack, but that did not remain the case."[131]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [132] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[133]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [134] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[135]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [136] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[137]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [138] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[139]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [140] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[141]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [142] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[143]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. [144]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Miksic the Majapahit capital did not seem to have any sort of defensive perimeter. [145] This does not mean that no town or fort in Majapahit had any type of defensive fortification. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[146]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ The Majapahit era saw an increased distinction between king and commoners, although this was not an unbridgeable gulf. The acceptance of titles was an acknowledgement of a place within a royal order, and subordination to social status networks that emanated from the court and were lineage based, the top of which being the royal family. [147]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field; Enrico Cioni ♥ LF mostly responsible for "Deification of Rulers" section.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [148]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [149]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [150]. However, it is worth noting that one of the key differences between South Asian and Javanese Hinduism is that the latter lacked a true caste system [151].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [152].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ One of the key differences between South Asian and Javanese Hinduism is that the latter lacked a true caste system [153].
♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ Generosity was one of the key moral values in this polity [154].

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [155] [156] [157]

References

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  7. (Christie 1991, 37)
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  42. (Kieven 2013, 100) Lydia Kieven. 2013. Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs: A New Look at the Religious Function of East Javanese Temples, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. BRILL. Leiden.
  43. Kestity Pringgocharjono. Soewito Santoso trans. 2006. The Centhini Story. The Javanese Journey of Life. Marshall Cavendish Editions. Singapore. p. 39
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  45. (Kinney 2003, 174)
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  48. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)
  49. (Hall in Tarling 1993, 218)
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