IdKedir

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kediri Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Pangjalu; Kadiri ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1049-1222 CE ♥ Airlangga's reign ended in 1049, after which point the kingdom was divided between his two sons.[2] The Singhasari Kingdom began in 1222.[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal ♥ A political structure evolved that despite being decentralised, allowed a flow of income to the central government. [4]. Although this supported a sophisticated level of court life, there was still no centre of power and instead a number of principalities and vassal states vied for dominance. [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kahuripan Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Airlangga abdicated to become a Hindu ascetic and divided his kingdom between 2 sons, creating two new polities, Kediri and Janggala..[6]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Singhasari Kingdom ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kediri ♥ Also known as Daha. ([1])


♠ Language ♣ Sanskrit; Old Javanese ♥ Kediri = 'Indian Mulberry' in Sanskrit. ([2]) The translations of Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata into old Javanese language took place during the era of Medang Kingdom and Kediri kingdom around 9th to 11th century. ([3])

General Description

The kingdom of Kediri ruled over a territory roughly corresponding to the modern-day province of East Java, at least based on the locations where its rulers' inscriptions have been found.[7] Midway through the eleventh century CE, the Javanese monarch Airlangga split his realm into two smaller kingdoms, each to be ruled by one of his sons: one of these kingdoms was likely Kediri[8]. The latter rapidly overshadowed its "twin": it was the first Indonesian kingdom to develop stratified territorial administration, it became known for the organization of its armed forces, and it even introduced bureaucratic officials specifically tasked with the management of the polity's water resources.[9] Kediri does not appear to have collapsed: rather, in the early thirteenth century, the cente of power shifted to Singhasari, with the foundation of a new dynasty.[10]

Population and political organization

Kediri was ruled by a king, who was assisted by bureaucratic officials. Moreover, as already mentioned, Kediri was the first known Indonesian state to develop stratified territorial administration: more specifically, the polity was organized into three levels, the village, the cluster of villages, and the state.[11] This suggests that there were officials in charge of administrating both village clusters and individual villages.

According to McEvedy and Jones,[12] Indonesia had a population of four million in 1100 CE. Given the fact that Kediri occupied a small portion of the archipelago, it seems reasonable to infer a population size of a few hundred thousands.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [50,000-70,000] ♥ in squared kilometers.

"Kadiri was an ancient kingdom on the island of Java." [13]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [200,000-300,000]: 1100 CE; [250,000-350,000]: 1200 CE ♥ People.

Estimates for Indonesia (less West New Guinea): 4.0m in 1100 CE. 4.5m in 1200 CE[14]

Total area of Indonesia (less West New Guinea) 1,500,000 km2.[15]

On the basis of territorial extent, Kediri, which was 50,000-70,000 km2 may have had 3-5% of the Indonesian population. 200,000 in 1100 CE, 225,000 in 120,000 CE. Will use these figures for the bottom end of a range that assumes this well-organized polity was more density populated than surrounding regions.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Large town e.g. capital Kediri/Daha

2. Village
3. Hamlet

Ruling class, religious authority, hamlets, non-farming sub-communities, commoners, slaves. Hamlets within villages came to increased prominence and became taxable units within the larger community. Other non-farming sub-communities emerged as regular features of expanded settlement complexes e.g. groups of artisans, small religious establishments, and merchant enclaves.[16]

" [17]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

Increasingly hierarchical state administrative structure. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, royal command passed from the monarch through 'expansive networks of individuals with state and local titles of authority'. [18]


1. King

"The capital, where the king abided in his palace, was called nagara, and the palace itself was called kadatwan. The denomination of the capital may, occasionally, be used as a synonym for the whole country. Based on the location where inscriptions issued by authorities of the Kadiri kingdom have been found, the territory of this kingdom can be identified as within the present-day East Java Province." [19]

_Central government_

2. upper level bureaucrats functioning as intermediaries
3. mid level bureaucrats who needed to go through upper bureaucrats for favours
4. Storehouse manager for rice
5. Storehouse worker
village officials managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges.[20]

_Provincial government_

2. Several villages (wisaya)
"It was the first kingdom known in Indonesia to have developed a stratified territorial administration, consisting of three levels: the village (called thani, which itself consisted of several subdivisions, each having its own name); the coordinated unity, made up of several villages (called wisaya); and the state or kingdom (called bhumi)." [21]
3. Village (thani)
4. officials at central village level
both of which managed irrigation system and guaranteed supply of rice to capital in exchange for privileges.[22]
4. Subdivision of village


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. No firm data, but inferred on the basis of Majapahit. 1) Buddhist and Saivite clergy (sogata); or 1) Vaisnava clergy (wipra); 2) local religious specialists (resi); 3) residential communities of monks (caturdwija); and 3) rural shamans (jangga). [23]

♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. King

2. General inferred
3. Officer of higher group?
4. Unit leader
"Every unit had a leader and a certain symbol put on its flag. Most symbols used a figure of an animal."[24]
5. Individual soldier

"Aside from territorial administration, the Kadiri period also saw developments in military organization and mobilization. Troops were divided according to the mastery of different kinds of weapons, such as the club, the arrow, the battle-ax, and the lance, or according to mastery over different serving animals, such as the elephant and the horse."[25]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Military organisations protected outlying regions.[26]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Military organisations protected outlying regions.[27]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Full-time specialists specialists in religious affairs were elevated. [28]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ There was a multi-tiered administrative structure. [29]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Law codified by Airlangga who drew together local traditions, however this is not extant. It is unclear when this codified law fell out of use. [30]

♠ Judges ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Stepped roof type pendopo once sheltered the institutions of ancient Javanese kingdoms, such as law courts, clergy, palaces, and for public appearances of the king and his ministers. [31]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Kediri pioneered a system of water management for both transportation and irrigation. [32]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ no mention of drinking water projects: "Initiatives in the Kadiri state formation also including the development of water management (supposedly for both transportation and irrigation purposes). A special government official appointed for this task, the senapati sarwwajala, first appeared during the Kadiri period. A water-related professional that was first mentioned in Kadiri inscriptions was the undahagi lancang, the shipbuilder. Another official that likewise first appeared during the Kadiri period was the sopana, who acted as an intermediary between the king and those who needed the king's favor." [33]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Markets and the trades associated with them are frequently mentioned in the legal literature. These markets circulated among groups of neighbouring communities at the village rather than hamlet level.[34]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Sedyawati refers to granaries in the rajya, the 'city of the king'.[35]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ [36]
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Kediri pioneered a system of water management for both transportation and irrigation. [37]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Legal literature from ninth century onwards [38]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Sanskrit is phonetic - the spoken and the written always match. ([4])

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥ Literate culture.
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥ Literate culture.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ There was a burgeoning of literature with emerging Old Javanese versions of the Indian Mahabharata.[39]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ unknown. Literate culture.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poetic works including Bharatayuddha, Smaradahana, Bhomakawya, and Ghatotkacasraya. [40]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown. cowrie shells?
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ A mixture of silver, tin, lead, and copper.[41]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥ unknown

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Lottie Field ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [42]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ “Bronze metallurgy was practiced in at least Southern Vietnam, the islands surrounding the Sulu and Sulawesi seas, West Malaysia, South Sumatra, and especially Java and Bali." [43] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [44]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ “Iron tools, best evidenced in Southern Vietnam, West Malaysia, and Java, were attached to handles (presum- ably wooden) via tangs, sockets, or shaft holes."[45] Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [46]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Historical records show "good quality Indian steel" was reaching Ethiopia in 200 BCE[47] - did they also export across the Bay of Bengal? Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [48]


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of thrown spears. Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[49] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[50] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[51] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[52]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention of slings. Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[53] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[54] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[55] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[56]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Coded present on the basis of this reference.[57] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[58] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[59] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing bows and arrows.[60]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of the composite bow. Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[61] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[62] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[63] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[64]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of crossbows. Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[65] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[66] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[67] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[68]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[69]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[70]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Cannon was not used in siege warfare until the seventeenth century. [71]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Coded present based on this reference.[72] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[73] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[74] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[75] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[76]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded present based on this reference.[77] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[78] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[79] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[80] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[81]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[82] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[83] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[84] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[85]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[86] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[87] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[88] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[89]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Coded present based on this reference.[90] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[91] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[92] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[93] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[94]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[95] The switch-over did not occur until the end of the Kediri Kingdom: it was the Singhasari Kingdom that witnessed 'the decline of Hindu culture and civilisation in Java and the succession of Javanese culture.'[96] Temple reliefs from earlier periods contain murals showing clubs, swords, bows and arrows, spears, shields, armour, knives, halberds.[97] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[98]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [99]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [100]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [101]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not specified in list of animals used in warfare. [102]
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ [103]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[104] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[105] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[106]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[107] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[108] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[109]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[110] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[111] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[112]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[113] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[114] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[115]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[116] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[117] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[118]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[119] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[120] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[121]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[122] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[123] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[124]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[125] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[126] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[127]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[128] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[129] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[130]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Borobudur reliefs depict armour but do not specify which kinds.[131] Old Mataram was a 'highly Indianized culture' until it was replaced by an East Javanese one "that increasingly promoted various elements of the island's older indigenous traditions."[132] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'armour, shield, helmet'.[133]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ central government controlled building and use of boats. [134]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Professional seamen. [135] "A water-related professional that was first mentioned in Kadiri inscriptions was the undahagi lancang, the shipbuilder."[136] According to the Chinese the Kediri kingdom was an even greater maritime power than the Sailendra empire, controlled islands such as Bali, Borneo, South-Celebes.[137]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥ Convenience and pressures to reduce social tensions appear to have over-ridden considerations of defence in the location of housing from the early tenth century. [138]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ 'The people make fortifications of wood...' [139] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[140]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference suggested a code of 'present' for Medang period.[141] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[142] "'In this country they have made the city walls of piled-up bricks, the wall has double gates and watch-towers,' wrote a Chinese voyager who went to Java fourteen centuries ago."[143]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[144] In Medang period Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [145]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[146] In Medang period Ratu Boko had a dry moat as a defensive structure [147]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Ratu Boko had stone walls as defensive structure. [148] Borobudur stone laid without mortar - this was a temple. ([5])
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In Medang period Ratu Boko had stone walls as defensive structure.[149] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[150]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[151]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[152]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field; Jenny Reddish ♥

JR: We have very little information about the Kadiri royal succession, or even its political history more generally. 'At present next to nothing is known about the kingdom of Janggala, but the level of knowledge of the kingdom of Pangjalu or Kadiri is not much better. As Coedès (1968: 167) notes, "the history of the states of Indonesia during this whole period is singularly colorless". What has come down to us is a handful of names of Kadiri kings, most of which are unread and unpublished, except for their calendrical information...'.[153]

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Writing about the late Medang period, Kinney refers a 'Javanese-style council of military commanders and Hindu and Buddhist priests' being instituted in Bali, implying that this council was already part of the Javanese government by 1000 CE.[154] However, extensive reading around this topic revealed no account of the rights and duties of this body, so it is unclear whether members had the formal right to constrain the monarch's actions.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Extensive reading around this topic revealed no evidence that non-governmental, non-religious bodies had a formal right to constraint the Kediri kings' actions.
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ Extensive reading around this topic revealed no mention in the sources of any legal mechanism for removing the monarch from power.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Wisseman Christie refers to 'aristocratic' families and the 'upper classes' in Java from the early 9th century onwards, implying a system of inherited high status.[155] Carter Bentley has written that across early Southeast Asia, 'membership in social strata was often hereditary, either in principle or in effect, though status ascription took a bewildering variety of forms'.[156]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field; Enrico Cioni ♥ LF mostly responsible for "Deification of Rulers" section.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [157]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [158]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [159]. However, it is worth noting that one of the key differences between South Asian and Javanese Hinduism is that the latter lacked a true caste system [160].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Kings of the Singhasari and Majapahit eras were considered incarnations of gods. [161].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ One of the key differences between South Asian and Javanese Hinduism is that the latter lacked a true caste system [162]. DM: While Javanese Hinduism did not have a true caste system, it did distinguish between political elites and commoners.
♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ Generosity was one of the key moral values in this polity [163].

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [164] [165] [166]

References

  1. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)
  2. (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004 (a), 134)
  3. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (c), 1208)
  4. (Kinney 2003, 49)
  5. (Kinney 2003, 83)
  6. (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004 (a), 134)
  7. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)
  8. (Sedyawati in Ooi 2004 (a), 134)
  9. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)
  10. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (c), 1208)
  11. (Sedwayati in Ooi 2004 (b), 707)
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