IdCJBun

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Lottie Field ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Java - Buni Culture ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 100 CE ♥ Zahorka states the Buni pottery discoveries date between 400 B.C.E. to 100 C.E. [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 400 BCE - 500 CE ♥ Zahorka states the Buni pottery discoveries date between 400 B.C.E. to 100 C.E.,[2] but I have taken the date here roughly up to the start of the Kalingga Kingdom which was the first Hindu-Buddhist polity in Central Java. 2500-1450 B.P .
 [3]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kalingga Kingdom ♥ The most direct link to Buni culture was probably to be found in the Tarumanagara Kingdom of West Java, founded in 358 C.E. However, the first polity to have significant jurisdiction in Central Java is widely understood to be the Kalingga Kingdom.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ Rouletted pottery and monochrome glass beads imported from South India.[4]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The archaeological culture known as the Buni culture left material remains across the coastal plain of northwestern Java, some of them dating to the first or second century CE[5], though in all likelihood the Buni had existed since the third century BCE.[6] These remains include ceramics of various kinds (usually gray, burnished, and undecorated), a number of foreign items (for example, Romano-Indian ceramics), polished stone axes, and ceramic net sinkers, which point to the importance of fishing for the Buni economy.[7]

Population and political organization

No information could be found in the specialist literature, either on the political organization of the Buni, or on their population numbers.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Miksic and Goh (2016) state that although a large complex of sites has been found in west Java (the Buni Complex) which date from the transitional period between Preclassic and Protoclassic, not enough data have been collected to indicate whether any hierarchy existed...."[8] Higham (2004) states the hierarchies are: 1. Village or Simaas recorded in inscriptions dating from at least the fifth century: "Most record the establishment of sima, defined villages, segments of villages, or rice fields whose tax status was redefined or permanently established." 2. States: "Four inscriptions in the style of the mid-fifth century C.E. have been identified in western Java in Indonesia. They mention a state called Taruma and its king, Purnavarman. These are the earliest evidence in Java for the formation of states ruled by kings who had adopted Indian names and Hindu religion..."[9]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ [10]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥ “Malayo-Javanaese. Inscriptions by King Purnavarman mention canal, script related to Pallava; settlements undefined but related inscriptions found in Jakarta, Banten, and Bogor." [11]
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent: 400-300BCE; present: 299BCE-500CE ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [12]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent: 400-300BCE; present: 299BCE-500CE ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [13]
♠ Iron ♣ absent: 400-300BCE; present: 299BCE-500CE ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [14]
♠ Steel ♣ absent: 400-300BCE; suspected unknown: 299BCE-500CE ♥ Island South East Asia: 'Bronze and iron metallurgy appear to have arrived together, perhaps after 300 BC’. [15]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not found outside of the New World.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present: 400-301 BCE; suspected unknown: 300 BCE - 500 CE ♥ "While the Neolithic Javanese had the bow and arrow, we have no arrow point specimens in the Bronze Age. In fact, this lack of the bow and arrow in Bronze Age Indonesia explains the comparative lack of the bow and arrow in Western Indonesia, and its presence in modern Eastern Indonesia and the Mentawei Islands. The words for "bow" (gendwa," [16]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown: 500 BCE - 149 CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ Paleolithic Patjitan culture in Java had stone tools like hand-axes that could have been used for or developed into a weapon of war.[17] According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [18] Dewawarman I may have founded Salakanagara in west West Java 130 CE. He followed Aji Saka who may have introduced 'Buddhism, letters, calendar, etc.') into Central and East Java 78 CE. [19]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown: 500 BCE - 149 CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ Paleolithic Patjitan culture in Java had stone tools like hand-axes that could have been used for or developed into a weapon of war.[20] According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [21] Dewawarman I may have founded Salakanagara in west West Java 130 CE. He followed Aji Saka who may have introduced 'Buddhism, letters, calendar, etc.') into Central and East Java 78 CE. [22]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Javanese Kris was introduced sometime after 350 CE. [23] This was probably not the first bladed weapon in Java. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[24] and according to Schenk there was a maritime trade route from Sri Lanka as far as Vietnam and Bali in the second century BCE[25] which could have been the source of all kinds of products.
♠ Swords ♣ absent: 400BCE-149CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[26] and according to Schenk there was a maritime trade route from Sri Lanka as far as Vietnam and Bali in the second century BCE[27] which could have been the source of all kinds of products. According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [28] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'sword': "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[29]
♠ Spears ♣ absent: 400BCE-149CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [30] Dewawarman I may have founded Salakanagara in west West Java 130 CE. He followed Aji Saka who may have introduced 'Buddhism, letters, calendar, etc.') into Central and East Java 78 CE. [31] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'lance': "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[32]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[33] It could only have reached the island of Java by sea. There is no evidence that this occurred at this time.
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown: 400 BCE - 149 CE; present: 150-500 CE ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors but there must not have been very many of them as they were considered very prestigious possessions. [34] Dewawarman I may have founded Salakanagara in west West Java 130 CE. He followed Aji Saka who may have introduced 'Buddhism, letters, calendar, etc.') into Central and East Java 78 CE. [35]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Java has a native species of elephant.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown: 400 BCE - 149 CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [36] It is likely they had some basic armour. Dewawarman I may have founded Salakanagara in west West Java 130 CE. He followed Aji Saka who may have introduced 'Buddhism, letters, calendar, etc.') into Central and East Java 78 CE. [37] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[38]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown: 400 BCE - 149 CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [39] It is likely they had some basic armour. Dewawarman I may have founded Salakanagara in west West Java 130 CE. He followed Aji Saka who may have introduced 'Buddhism, letters, calendar, etc.') into Central and East Java 78 CE. [40] Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[41]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown: 400BCE-149CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [42] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[43] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[44]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown: 400BCE-149CE; inferred present: 150-500 CE ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [45] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[46] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour. Indian military terms surviving in Javanese: "war, weapon, sword, lance, armour, shield, helmet, banner, battle, siege, fortress, soldier, officer, enemy, spy, etc."[47]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [48] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[49] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [50] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[51] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [52] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[53] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [54] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[55] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [56] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[57] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour.
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to the Chinese Nan chou i wu chih (A Record of Strange Things in the Southern Regions) written about 222-228 CE a volcanic country called 'Ge-ying' (thought to be western Java) traded with the Malay Peninsula and imported horses from India. They were used by warriors. [58] It is likely they had some basic armour. Metallurgy was introduced after the third century BCE[59] so in addition to imported items, they may have had the ability to smith their own armour.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[60]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[61]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[62]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[63]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[64]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Indian military terms surviving in Javanese include 'fortress' and 'siege'.[65]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [66] [67] [68]

References

  1. (Zahorka 2007, 27)
  2. (Zahorka 2007, 27)
  3. (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 107)
  4. (Miksic in Glover and Bellwood 2004, 237)
  5. (Miksic in Glover and Bellwood 2004, 237)
  6. (Zahorka 2007, 27)
  7. (Bulbeck in Peregrine and Ember 2000, 108)
  8. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 233)
  9. (Higham 2004: 157: 342) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JBEBEPPM.
  10. (Ooi 2004, 584)
  11. (Ooi 2004, 584)
  12. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  13. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  14. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  15. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  16. (American Oriental Society 1944, 123) American Oriental Society. 1944. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 64.
  17. (Barstra 1976, 77) Gert-Jan Bartstra. 1976. Contributions to the Study of the Palaeolithic Patjitan Culture Java, Indonesia. Part 1. Volume 6. E J BRILL. Leiden.
  18. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  19. (Iguchi 2015) Masatoshi Iguchi. 2015. Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd.
  20. (Barstra 1976, 77) Gert-Jan Bartstra. 1976. Contributions to the Study of the Palaeolithic Patjitan Culture Java, Indonesia. Part 1. Volume 6. E J BRILL. Leiden.
  21. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  22. (Iguchi 2015) Masatoshi Iguchi. 2015. Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd.
  23. (Forbes 1950, 79-80) R J Forbes. 1950. Metallurgy In Antiquity. A Notebook For Archaeologists And Technologists. Leiden. E J BRILL.
  24. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  25. (Schenk 2014) Heidrun Schenk. Tissamaharama Pottery sequence and the Early Historic maritime Silk Route across the Indian Ocean. 2014. Zeitschrift für Archäologie Außereuropäischer Kulturen. Band 6. Reichert Verlag. Wiesbaden.
  26. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  27. (Schenk 2014)Heidrun Schenk. Tissamaharama Pottery sequence and the Early Historic maritime Silk Route across the Indian Ocean. 2014. Zeitschrift für Archäologie Außereuropäischer Kulturen. Band 6. Reichert Verlag. Wiesbaden.
  28. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  29. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  30. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  31. (Iguchi 2015) Masatoshi Iguchi. 2015. Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd.
  32. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  33. (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  34. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  35. (Iguchi 2015) Masatoshi Iguchi. 2015. Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd.
  36. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  37. (Iguchi 2015) Masatoshi Iguchi. 2015. Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd.
  38. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  39. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  40. (Iguchi 2015) Masatoshi Iguchi. 2015. Java Essay: The History and Culture of a Southern Country. Troubador Publishing Ltd.
  41. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  42. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  43. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  44. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  45. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  46. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  47. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  48. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  49. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  50. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  51. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  52. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  53. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  54. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  55. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  56. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  57. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  58. (Miksic and Goh 2017, 215) John Norman Miksic. Geok Yian Goh. Routledge. 2017. Ancient Southeast Asia. London. p. 215
  59. (Bellwood 2004, 36) Bellwood, Peter. The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia. Glover, Ian. Bellwood, Peter. eds. 2004. Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. London.
  60. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  61. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  62. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  63. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  64. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  65. (Kumara 2007, 161) Sasiprabha Kumara. 2007. Sanskrit Across Cultures. Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. New Delhi.
  66. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  67. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  68. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html