Hawaii2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ EC contributed general description.

♠ Original name ♣ Hawaii II ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Big Island of Hawai’i, Hawai’i Island, Island of Hawai’i, Big Island, Owyhee, Owhyhee ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1580 CE ♥ Since this is the period during which social complexity, stratification, territorial unification, agricultural intensification, population, etc. were increasing (before they plateaued), it is safe to say that the ‘peak’ was at the end of the period.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1200-1580 CE ♥ Justification for starting and ending dates: This is Kirch’s Expansion Period. The starting date is approximately when the population began to increase parabolically, and the ending date is when the population had plateaued[1]. AD: changed from end date of 1650 CE following an email from Patrick Kirch: "I would be inclined to put the division between Hawaii2 and Hawaii3 at around 1580 with the reign of 'Umi-a-Liloa who supposedly consolidated the entire island into one polity. Certainly, intensification of the great dryland field systems was also underway by this time. So, 1650 seems a bit late for these key transitions." [2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ 'Hawaii 1 is very difficult to say, but most likely to have been several independent polities - maybe as many as 5 or 6. 'Umi-a-Liloa is said to have been the first to consolidate all of these into one island-wide polity, and he is dated genealogical estimation to ca. AD 1570-1590, toward the end of your Hawaii 2 period'.[3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hawaii I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hawaii III ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ Chiefs/kings had no true 'capital'. Although there were 'royal centers', there were no true urban areas, nor was there any one place that a chief would spend most of his time.

♠ Language ♣ Hawaiian ♥

General Description

Hawai'i, also known as the Big Island, is the largest island of the Hawaiian archipelago. Our 'Hawaii 2' refers to the period from 1200 to 1580 CE. 1200 marks the beginning of archaeologist Patrick Kirch's 'expansion period',[4] while 1580 is the approximate date of the formation of the first island-wide unitary kingdom.[5]

Population and political organization

According to reconstructions of Hawaiki, the ancestral Polynesian homeland, ancient Polynesians recognized the authority of the *ariki, that is, the head of a lineage, who had both secular and sacred authority and was in charge of most, if not all, rituals.[6] However, a few thousand years separate Ancestral Polynesians from the earliest Hawaiians, and it is not clear how much the latter retained of the former's culture and sociopolitical organization. The earliest island-wide unitary kingdom on the Big Island emerged around 1580;[7] before then, the Big Island was probably divided into several small, independent polities.[8]
It is currently not possible to reconstruct the exact population of a typical Big Island community at this time.[9] No up-to-date estimates have been found in the literature. Scholars do, however, distinguish between distinct phases of demographic and agricultural development after the initial colonization period. From 1200 to 1400 CE, Hawaiians experienced significant population growth and adapted their technology and subsistence economy to local conditions while maintaining long-distance contact with Eastern Polynesia. From 1400 to 1580 CE, population growth peaked and began to stabilize, contact with Eastern Polynesia ceased, and large-scale dryland field systems were established across the Big Island.[10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; PRG ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,500-3,000] ♥ in square kilometers. During the reign of ‘Umi, the island had a single polity, so the area would be 10,432 (the entire Big Island) for the approximate period of his reign, 1550-1590[11]. During the rest of this time period, there were two or three polities. Thus, polity territory fluctuated between one-third and all of island. "Hawaii 1 is very difficult to say, but most likely to have been several independent polities--maybe as many as 5 or 6.'Umi-a-Liloa is said to have been the first to consolidate all of these into one island-wide polity, and he is dated genealogical estimation to ca. AD 1570-1590, toward the end of your Hawaii2 period." [12] Between 3 and 6 polities for the revised Hawaii2 period finishing at 1580 CE? Fluctuating between 1/6 and 1/3 of the island? AD.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [3,500-7,000]: 1200 CE; [7,000-13,200]: 1300 CE; [13,200-22,000]: 1400 CE; [22,000-50,000]: 1500 CE ♥ The following may also be relevant: Kirch[13] has figures for the western region of the Big Island. See Kirch[14]. The western part of the Big Island was low in population from 800 to 1200, then 1200-1600 very fast growth, then some decline. Many new parts of the Big Island were inhabited for the first time between 1200-1300CE, e.g. Lapahiki, Kalāhuipua’a, and ‘Anaeho’omalu[15]. The rate of population increase in West Big Island was the greatest during 1100-1300CE. By 1650CE there were probably 200,000 or more people in the whole archipelago. In 1100CE there were probably 20,000 in the whole archipelago[16].

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ Hamlets and Villages. Greater social complexity and stratification developed during this time[17], though there were no urban areas.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Both before and after the sixteenth century, it appears that chiefs had military authority, not professional military officers [18][19].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent: 1200-1500 CE; present: 1500-1580 CE ♥ The development of protohistorical priestly categories appears to have begun in the sixteenth century [20].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ The first formal legal code dates to 1827: "These three laws were: first, against murder, 'the one who commits murder here shall die, by being hung'; second, against theft, 'the one who steals shall be put in irons'; third, against adultery, for which the penalty was imprisonment in irons. Three other proposed laws, against rum selling, prostitution, and gambling, were drawn up, to be explained and taught to the people before they should be adopted. It was agreed that the chiefs should meet six months later to continue their consultation upon the subject. The three laws adopted and the three proposed were printed together on one sheet, which bears the date December 8, 1827. On December 14, the people were assembled in a coconut grove near the fort; the three enacted laws were formally proclaimed, and the king, Kaahumanu, and Boki exhorted the people, both native and foreign, to obey the three laws which had been adopted and to give attention to the three which were not yet enacted." [21]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent: 1200-1390 CE; present: 1390-1580 CE ♥ This was the period during which intensive irrigation began. It continued to be expanded and intensified into the historical period[22]. However, for environmental reasons, the Big Island did not have as extensive irrigation as the other islands in the Hawaiian archipelago[23]. According to oral history, two men from a chiefly lineage were exiled from O’ahu and traveled to the Big Island, bringing with them their knowledge of irrigation. They used their knowledge to develop irrigation in the valley of Waipi’o, but their works were soon destroyed by a flood[24]. Oral history more generally states that irrigation began to intensify c. 1390CE, the end of the age of voyaging[25]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [26].
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [27].
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [28].
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [29].


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [30].
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [31].
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [32].
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [33].
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [34].
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [35].
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [36].
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [37].
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ Writing was introduced by Christian missionaries starting from the 1820s [38].


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Significant "wealth economy" in the form of precious feathered garments (cloaks, capes, helmets, lei) which was very important to the ruling elite (the ali'i). [39] This may be true of more recent periods, can it be extended backwards?
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ [40]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ 'Needless to say, there was no money (in Diamond's words, no "abstract, intrinsically valueless medium for appropriating surplus, storing value, and deferring payment or delaying exchange") in precontact Hawai'i'.[41]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ 'Needless to say, there was no money (in Diamond's words, no "abstract, intrinsically valueless medium for appropriating surplus, storing value, and deferring payment or delaying exchange") in precontact Hawai'i'.[42]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ 'Needless to say, there was no money (in Diamond's words, no "abstract, intrinsically valueless medium for appropriating surplus, storing value, and deferring payment or delaying exchange") in precontact Hawai'i'.[43]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Peter-Rudiak Gould, Robert Ross ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ [44]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ [45]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ [46]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ [47]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Presumably they had these, as throwing spears were used later in Hawaiian prehistory, but evidence is needed. [48]. Similarly, if Polynesian ancestors had spears too this would be good converging evidence.
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Presumably they didn't have these as they do not appear later in Hawaiian prehistory.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ They may have had these, as they were present later in Hawaiian prehistory[49].
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ It is unlikely these were used, as later in Hawaiian prehistory bows and arrows were used only for sport, not for war[50].
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ It is unlikely these were used, as later in Hawaiian prehistory bows and arrows were used only for sport, not for war[51]. Moreover it is implausible that a weapon as complex as a compound bow would be invented but then abandoned, leaving no archaeological trace.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ [52]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ [53]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ [54]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ [55]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ [56]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Presumably they had these, as they were appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed. pg 515.[57]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There are some almost axe-like weapons at contact, but they should probably be treated as clubs.
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Presumably they had these, as wooden daggers appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed. Wooden daggers.[58]
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Lists of weapons at contact don't mention swords.[59]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Presumably they had wooden spears, as they appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed.[60]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Presumably they didn't have these, as they didn't appeared at European contact, but direct evidence is needed.[61]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Hawaiians had dogs, but I have found no references to their use in war.
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ No donkeys in Hawaii at this time.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ No horses in Hawaii at this time.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ No camels in Hawaii at this time.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ No elephants in Hawaii at this time.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [62] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [63] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [64] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [65] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [66] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No mention of any armor in a "weapons and armor" section on Hawaiian warfare at contact. [67] Probably true of earlier period, but more evidence is probably needed.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ No metals at this time.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ No metals at this time.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ No metals at this time.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ No metals at this time.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Canoes were present at contact and being used for war and must have been present during earlier periods to reach Hawaii, so we can assume that they were at this time too.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "defenders more commonly established a fortress site known as a pali (cliff) or pā kauau (war enclosure), a “natural or artificial fortress, where they le their wives and children, and to which they fled if vanquished in the field.” One kind of fortress was the point of a narrow, steep-sided ridge that had been made somewhat defensible by digging deep trenches" Pg 35-36. [68]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu'uhonua." Pg 4. [69]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu'uhonua." Pg 4. [70]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "One kind of fortress was the point of a narrow, steep-sided ridge that had been made somewhat defensible by digging deep trenches" Pg 35-36. [71]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu'uhonua." Pg 4. [72]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu'uhonua." Pg 4. [73]. Nevertheless, there does appear to evidence for some stone walls, but I'm not sure if they are used in warfare. The “Great Wall” at Hōnaunau, built around 1600 CE, was over 300m long, 3m high and 5m wide[74][75]. Lapakahi also had a “Great Wall”, which was built between about 1450 and 1500 CE[76].
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fornications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu'uhonua." Pg 4. [77]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not clear whether this information applies to pre-contact polities. "The Hawaiians generally did not build fortifications, but non-combatants could find sacred sanctuary in places of refuge known as pu'uhonua." Pg 4. [78]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ KM. See “Stone walls” above: the “Great Wall” of Hōnaunau was not nearly large enough to defend an entire territory, so it does not count as a “long wall”. Moreover, if there had been such a “long wall”, it is difficult to imagine that it would not have left any trace in the archaeological, historical, or oral-history record.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred[79]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jenny Reddish ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ I have found no mention of impeachment (whether formal or informal) in the sources. Hommon comments: 'The traditional accounts suggest that chiefly rivalry for active rulership tended to be resolved (often ending a war of succession) in one of two ways: either territory of the polity was partitioned, usually with multidistrict units awarded to each claimant ... or one claimant usurped the power of the other by eliminating him in a coup d'état'.[80]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ The society of the earliest Hawaiian settlers 'must have been structured around the Ancestral Polynesian concept of hereditary chieftainship'.[81] 'The Polynesians of ancient Hawaiki [ancestral Polynesia] ... possessed a social system marked by differences in rank, by heritable asymmetry in which these differences are passed down through family lines'.[82] This social stratification became more and more elaborate as Hawaiian society developed.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [83] [84] [85]

References

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  2. (Kirch 2016, personal communication)
  3. (Kirch 2016, personal communication)
  4. (Kirch 2010, 127-28) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai'i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  5. (Kirch 2010, 174) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai'i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  6. (Kirch 2012, 45) Patrick V. Kirch. 2012. A Shark Going Inland Is My Chief. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  7. (Kirch 2010, 174) Patrick V. Kirch. 2010. How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai'i. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  8. (Kirch 2016, personal communication)
  9. Kirch, personal communication
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