GrCrFPa

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣Kostis Christakis♥


♠ Original name ♣Final Postpalatial Crete♥

♠ Alternative names ♣Postpalatial Crete, Mycenaean Crete♥

♠ Peak Date ♣1200-1100 BCE♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1200-1000 BCE ♥ The Final Postpalatial period is divided in Late Minoan IIIC (1200-1100 BCE) and Subminoan (1100-1000 BCE). [1] The begining of the period is marked by the extensive destructions that destroyed many Cretan sites (1200 BCE) and its end by the arrival of Dorians (1000 BCE).

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ The centralized administrations established by regional elites in Late Minoan IIIB (1300-1200 BCE), once under the control of the Knossian polity, are now replaced by new ones, "thereby creating new processes and new dynamics and exerting a new impact of settlement patterns, social organizations, forms of production and exchange and the conception of the role of the individual within the social community." [2]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣Postpalatial Crete♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣Geometric Crete♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Cretan Broze Age Civilization ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣none♥ Settlements are small and isolated without any settlement network or clustering being identifiable except in very few cases where certain settlements were developed into central places for small regional clusters. [3]

♠ Language ♣Minoan and early Greek♥

General Description

With the fall or weakening of the great Eastern Mediterranean powers--the Hittites, the Assyrians, Egypt--there is evidence for a correspondingly "troubled" phase in Crete's prehistory. Most notably, the population moved from the coast to the hinterland, suggesting the coasts were no longer safe. Minoan culture continued to exist in some form, but contacts with the rest of the world were greatly reduced[4]

Population and political organization

Firth estimated the Cretan population during Late Minoan IIIA and IIIB periods (1400-1200 BCE) at 110,000 people[5] There are no estimates for the Final Post Palatial Period; settlement patterns, however, point to a considerable population decrease, especially during the 1100-1000 BCE period.[6][7] Similarly, not much is known about political organization at this time.[8]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣Kostis Christakis♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Km2. During this period Crete was divided up into many small, independent political units.[9] Expert input may be needed to suggest a figure for the typical territory of one of these polities.

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ people. Firth estimated the Cretan population during Late Minoan IIIA and IIIB periods (1400-1200 BCE) as 110,000.[10] There are not estimates for the Final Post Palatial Period; settlement patterns, however, points to a considerable population decrease especially during 1100-1000 BCE. [11] Moreover, during this period Crete was divided up into many small, independent political units.[12] Expert input may be needed to suggest a figure for the typical population of one of these polities.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣1,000♥ people. The largest settlement of the period was Knossos and its population is estimated to about 1,000 people. [13] There is no detailed data for the size of many of the other Final Postpalatial settlements. If we consider, however, that the average size of a large settlement is about 2.5 to 4.5 ha., we could speculate a population of 375 to 600 souls or 75 to 80 families. [14] Karphi, one of the few fully excavated settlements of the period (1200-1000 BCE), consisted of 125 to 150 houses. If we assume a figure of five persons as a typical household, we have a total population of 625 to 750 souls. [15]

Minoan Crete "a lively and pleasure loving matriarchal society, made wealthy by extensive trade."; "Houses were up to 5 stories high, palaces had plumbing with flush toilets and there was little indication of warfare or social strife on the island and in their colonies."[16]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ The settlement patterns appears to be more dispersed than before and their is no evidence for a site hierarchy[17] By the end of Late Minoan IIIB most settlements had suffered destruction or abandonment. During the next period, 1200-1000 BCE, settlement patterns changed and followed marked regional tranjectories. [18] In the area of west and central Crete many sites experienced growth and retrieval (e.g. Chania, Knossos, Phaistos, and Kastelli Pediada). The growth of these sites has encouraged some scholars to assert the arrival of newcomers. The process of nucleation around certain lowland settlements surrounded by arable lands and costal sites provided with harbors is in contrast to the limited regional occupation. This pattern highlight the significant changes in economic, social and ideological aspects of local societies. The foundation of new inland sites (Sybrita and Gortyna) and the diffusion of defensible sites, although less numerous that these in east Crete, suggest complex settlement patterns able to deal with diversified environmental resources. In the area of east Crete the consequence of the LM IIIB crisis were more disruptive. Many plain and costal sites were abandoned and new settlements were founded on strategic locations at night altitudes. The population growth and the increased in size of the upland settlements lead to a stable occupation and even to the emergence of some major sites (e.g. Kavousi-Vronda and Karphi).

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣absent♥

♠ Judges ♣absent♥

♠ Courts ♣absent♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣absent♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣absent♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣present♥
♠ Bridges ♣present♥
♠ Canals ♣absent♥
♠ Ports ♣present♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ quarries

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣absent ♥
♠ History ♣absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣present ♥ It has been generally argued that all economic transactions were based on fruitful barter. [19] Recent research, however, suggest that market exchanges also existed in prehistory Aegean. [20]
♠ Tokens ♣ present♥ It has been generally argued that all economic transactions were based on fruitful barter. [21] Recent research, however, suggest that market exchanges also existed in prehistory Aegean. [22]
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣absent♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣Kostis Christakis♥

Military Technologies

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent♥
♠ Slings ♣ present♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣absent♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ absent♥
♠ Swords ♣ present♥ A new type of sword which had a Central European origin and appeared in Greece ca. 1230 BCE is the so-called Naue II sword.[23] It had a flanged hold and the blade has parallel edges for the greater part of its length -the length is 60-80 cm. - before tapering to a sharp point.
♠ Spears ♣ present♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣present ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present♥
♠ Iron ♣ ♥
♠ Steel ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present♥ The most common helmet is the so-called boar's tusk helmet made by a series of small boar's tusks sewn onto a cup-shaped piece of leather or felt in alternating rows. [24] These helmets were used from ca. 1650 to 1150 BCE. They were depicted on frescoes -a very fine example was found at Thera - seals, and metal vessels. Bronze helmets with a plume knob and two cheek guards that were sewn onto the bowl were also know from the Warrior Graves at Knossos. Helmets were recorded in Linear B tablets. [25] Around 1200 BCE, a horned helmet appeared. [26]
♠ Breastplates ♣present ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present♥ Greaves were made from a thin braze sheet and worn over a legging of linen, leather or felt. [27] It seems, however, that bronze greaves were not widely used and warriors preferred to wore linen or leather leggings. [28] Metal graves again made their appearance in the late 12th century BCE.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣present♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣present♥ Settlements in high elevations, in well defensible sites, are very common during this period. Many of these were surrounded by a cyclopean fortification wall. [29] Other sites have the character of acropolis and are more easily accessible; most would form the center of historic cities (e.g. Prinias, Dreros, Gortyn). The Late Minoan IIIC and Subminoan periods are eras of significant stress and uncertainty and this is reflected in the distribution of sites. To quote Hallager "There is no doubt that this question must be seen in relation to what was going on in Europe and especially the eastern Mediterranean around 1200 BC, with the fall of the great powers - the Hittites, the Assyrian, the weakening of Egypt, the Sea Peoples, possibly migrations from central Europe, and so on. These events, which have been discussed in the scholarly world for more than a century, clearly affected Crete in that the coast was no longer a safe place to live." [30]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ ♥
♠ Moat ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣absent♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣absent♥
♠ Long walls ♣ absent♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ The following refers to Mycenaean culture, which almost certainly exerted a strong influence on Crete at the time--and, indeed, it is possible that Mycenaean elites controlled the island at this time. "In addition to his political and economic power, then, the wanax was also a religious leader, in the tradition of his Early Mycenaean predecessors, who gained authority through their control of organized religion and through emphasis on their own powerful ancestors (Chs. 10, pp. 244-6, 248-9; 13, pp. 339-40). Like the gods themselves he sometimes received offerings, for example of perfumed oil; but this association does not require us to believe that he had divine status himself, or that the term wanax referred to deities as well as human rulers in the Mycenaean period, as it did in the Homeric epics." [31]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ [32] The following refers to Mycenaean culture, which almost certainly exerted a strong influence on Crete at the time--and, indeed, it is possible that Mycenaean elites controlled the island at this time. "In addition to his political and economic power, then, the wanax was also a religious leader, in the tradition of his Early Mycenaean predecessors, who gained authority through their control of organized religion and through emphasis on their own powerful ancestors (Chs. 10, pp. 244-6, 248-9; 13, pp. 339-40). Like the gods themselves he sometimes received offerings, for example of perfumed oil; but this association does not require us to believe that he had divine status himself, or that the term wanax referred to deities as well as human rulers in the Mycenaean period, as it did in the Homeric epics." [33]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following refers to Mycenaean culture, which almost certainly exerted a strong influence on Crete at the time--and, indeed, it is possible that Mycenaean elites controlled the island at this time. "In addition to his political and economic power, then, the wanax was also a religious leader, in the tradition of his Early Mycenaean predecessors, who gained authority through their control of organized religion and through emphasis on their own powerful ancestors (Chs. 10, pp. 244-6, 248-9; 13, pp. 339-40). Like the gods themselves he sometimes received offerings, for example of perfumed oil; but this association does not require us to believe that he had divine status himself, or that the term wanax referred to deities as well as human rulers in the Mycenaean period, as it did in the Homeric epics." [34]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following refers to Mycenaean culture, which almost certainly exerted a strong influence on Crete at the time--and, indeed, it is possible that Mycenaean elites controlled the island at this time. "In addition to his political and economic power, then, the wanax was also a religious leader, in the tradition of his Early Mycenaean predecessors, who gained authority through their control of organized religion and through emphasis on their own powerful ancestors (Chs. 10, pp. 244-6, 248-9; 13, pp. 339-40). Like the gods themselves he sometimes received offerings, for example of perfumed oil; but this association does not require us to believe that he had divine status himself, or that the term wanax referred to deities as well as human rulers in the Mycenaean period, as it did in the Homeric epics." [35]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

References

  1. Shelmerdine, C. W. 2008. "Background, sources, and methods," in Shelmerdine, C. W. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, Cambridge, 4.
  2. Borgna, E. 2003. "Regional settlement patterns, exchange systems and sources of power in Crete at the ends of the Late Bronze Age: establishing a connection," SMEA 45, 153-83.
  3. Driessen, J. and Frankel, D. 2012."Minds and mines: settlement networks and the diachronic use of space on Cyprus and Crete," in Cadogan, G.,Iacovou, M., Kopaka, K. and Whitley, J. (eds), Parallel Lives: Ancient Island Societies in Crete and Cyprus (BSA Studies 20), London, 76-7.
  4. (Hallager 2010, 157-158) Erik Hallager. 2010. 'Crete' in The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, edited by E.H. Cline. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. (Firth 1995, 33-55) R. Firth. 1995. 'Estimating the population of Crete during LM IIIA/B'. Minos 29-30: 33-55.
  6. (Rehak and Younger 2001, 458) P. Rehak and J.G. and Younger. 2001. 'Neopalatial, Final palatial, and Postpalatial Crete', in Aegean Prehistory. A Review, edited by Tracey Cullen. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America.
  7. (Borgna 2003, 153-183) Elisabetta Borgna. 2003. 'Regional settlement patterns in Crete at the end of LBA'. SMEA 45: 153-83.
  8. K. Christakis, pers. comm., May 2016
  9. Borgna, E. 2003. "Regional settlement patterns, exchange systems and sources of power in Crete at the ends of the Late Bronze Age: establishing a connection," SMEA 45, 153-83.
  10. Firth, R. 1995."Estimating the population of Crete during LM IIIA/B," Minos 29-30, 33-55.
  11. Rehak, P. and Younger, J. G. 2001. "Neopalatial, Final palatial, and Postpalatial Crete," in Cullen, T. (ed.), Aegean Prehistory. A Review, Boston, 458; Borgna, E. 2003. "Regional settlement patterns in Crete at the end of LBA," SMEA 45, 153-83.
  12. Borgna, E. 2003. "Regional settlement patterns, exchange systems and sources of power in Crete at the ends of the Late Bronze Age: establishing a connection," SMEA 45, 153-83.
  13. Whitelaw, T. 2004. "Estimating the population of Neopalatial Knossos," in Cadogan, G., Hatzaki, E. and Vasilakis, A. (eds), Knossos: Palace, City, State: Proceedings of the Conference in Herakleion organized by the British School at Athens and the 23rd Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities of Herakleion, in November 2000, for the Centenary of Sir Arthur Evans's Excavations at Knossos (BSA Studies 12), London, 147-58.
  14. These estimates are based on a figure of 150 individuals per ha and of five individuals as the typical size of a nuclear family. See Whitelaw, T. 2001. "From sites to communities: defining the human dimensions of Minoan urbanism," in Branigan, K. (ed.), Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age (SSAA 4), Sheffield, 18; Branigan, K. 2001. "Aspects of Minoan urbanism," in Branigan, K. (ed.), Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age (SSAA 4), Sheffield, 48.
  15. Nowicki estimated the population of the site at 627 to 1200 souls based on the figure of five to eight individuals as the size of a typical family. Nowicki, K. 1999. "Economy of refugees: life in the Cretan mountains at the turn of the Bronze and Iron Ages," in Chaniotis, A. (ed.), From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders. Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete, Stuttgart, 158.
  16. (Basilevsky 2016, 25) Basilevsky, Alexander. 2016. Early Ukraine: A Military and Social History to the Mid-19th Century. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Jefferson.
  17. e.g. Hayden, B. J. 2004. "Vrokastro and the settlement pattern of the LM IIIA-Geometric periods," in Day, L. P., Mook, M. S., and Muhly, J. D. (eds), Crete Beyond the Palaces: Proceedings of the Crete 2000 Conference (Prehistory Monographs 10), Philadelphia, 240.
  18. Borgna, E. 2003. "Regional settlement patterns in Crete at the end of LBA," SMEA 45, 153-83.; Driessen, J. and Frankel, D. 2012."Minds and mines: settlement networks and the diachronic use of space on Cyprus and Crete," in Cadogan, G., Iacovou, M., Kopaka, K. and Whitley, J. (eds), Parallel Lives: Ancient Island Societies in Crete and Cyprus (BSA Studies 20), London, 76-7; Nowicki, K. 2000. Defensible Sites in Crete c. 1200-800 B.C. (LM IIIB/IIIC Through Early Geometric) (Aegeaum 21), Liège.
  19. e.g. Chadwick, J. 1976. The Mycenaean World, Cambridge, 78.
  20. Christakis, K. S. 2008. The Politics of the Storage. Storage and Sociopolitical Complexity in Neopalatial Crete (Prehistory Monographs 25), Philadelphia, 138-39; Parkinson, W., Nakassis, D., and Galaty, M. L. 2013. "Crafts, Specialists, and Markets in Mycenaean Greece: Introduction," American Journal of Archaeology 117, 413-22.
  21. e.g. Chadwick, J. 1976. The Mycenaean World, Cambridge, 78.
  22. Christakis, K. S. 2008. The Politics of the Storage. Storage and Sociopolitical Complexity in Neopalatial Crete (Prehistory Monographs 25), Philadelphia, 138-39; Parkinson, W., Nakassis, D., and Galaty, M. L. 2013. "Crafts, Specialists, and Markets in Mycenaean Greece: Introduction," American Journal of Archaeology 117, 413-22.
  23. Georganas, I. "Weapons and warfare," in Cline, E. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-1000 BC), Oxford, 306.
  24. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 5; Dimopoulou-Rethemiotaki, N. 2005. The Archaeological Museum of Heraklion, Athens, 207. For the online version see http://www.latsis-foundation.org/eng/electronic-library/the-museum-cycle/the-archaeological-museum-of-herakleio.
  25. Ventris, M. and Chawick, J. 1973. Documents in Mycenaean Greek, Cambridge, 291-381.
  26. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 37.
  27. Everson, T. 2004. Warfare in Ancient Greece: Arms and Armour from the Heroes of Homer to Alexander the Great, Stroud, Gloucestershire, 22.
  28. Georganas,I. "Weapons and warfare," in Cline, E. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean (ca. 3000-1000 BC), Oxford, 311.
  29. Nowicki, K. 2000. Defensible Sites in Crete c. 1200-800 B.C. (LM IIIB/IIIC Through Early Geometric) (Aegeaum 21, Liège, 223-41; Kanta, A. 2001."Cretan refuge settlements:problems and historical implications within the wider context of the Eastern Mediterranean towards the end of the Bronze Age," in Karageorgis, V. and Morri, C. E. (eds), Defensible Settlements of the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean after c. 1200 B.C., Nicosia, 13-21.
  30. Hallager, E. 2010. "Crete," in Cline, E. H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean, Oxford, 157-58.
  31. Shelmerdine, C.W. and J. Bennet. 2008. Mycenean States: Economy and Administration. In Shelmerdine, C.W. (ed) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age pp. 289-309. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  32. (Jennifer Larson, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  33. Shelmerdine, C.W. and J. Bennet. 2008. Mycenean States: Economy and Administration. In Shelmerdine, C.W. (ed) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age pp. 289-309. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  34. Shelmerdine, C.W. and J. Bennet. 2008. Mycenean States: Economy and Administration. In Shelmerdine, C.W. (ed) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age pp. 289-309. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  35. Shelmerdine, C.W. and J. Bennet. 2008. Mycenean States: Economy and Administration. In Shelmerdine, C.W. (ed) The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age pp. 289-309. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.