FrTeneA

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ La Tene A-B1 ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Early La Tene; La Tene Gaul; Celtic Gaul; Gaul; Iron Age Gaul; Celtic Empire; La Tene; La Tene culture; Galli; Celts; Gauls ♥ La Tene culture is named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. Hallstatt - La Tene was a major cultural transition in Gaul 5th Century BCE. Overlaps in time depending on region. [1]

"The term 'Celts' - Keltoi in Greek and Celtae in Latin - was first used by the Greek geographer Hecataeus of Miletus to describe the barbarian tribes living near the Greek colony of Massalia, the modern French city of Marseille ..." [2] The origin of the term Keltoi may be from the Celtic peoples themselves. [3] Galli "was used by the Romans from the beginning of the 4th century BC to describe the Celts who invaded Italy, and later those who lived beyond the Alps in present day France." [4]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 450 BCE ♥ Early Iron Age.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 475-325 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; confederated state ♥

In the early La Tene: "The import of exotic luxury items accentuated an already existing trend towards increased social stratification among Celtic-speaking communities, accelerating the development of centralized chiefdoms and the formation of an elite class which controlled and monopolized the flow of trade."[5]

Early Iron Age settlements had large towns[6] so there was some degree of centralization. However, after 400 CE there were no large towns on the scale of the Early Iron Age settlements. Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [7]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Tribes formed alliances with other tribes.

450-250 BCE Migration Period: "The migrations that these warrior societies undertook over the next 200 years effectively broke the bond between tribe and its ancestral territory. The institution of kingship declined among the continental Celts throughout the Migration Period as tribes split up and coalesced into new communities." [8]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt D ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity; population migration ♥ "That there was a significant degree of continuity between the Late Hallstatt and Early La Tène social systems is evident." [9] also population migration?
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ La Tene B2-C1 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ La Tene ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ No capitals.

♠ Language ♣ Gallic ♥ [10]

General Description

La Tene (A-B1) was an early Iron Age culture in Europe named after an archaeological site at Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland. [11]

The territory centered on ancient Gaul and at its height spanned areas in modern day France, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, Southern Germany, Czechia, parts of Northern Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and adjacent parts of the Netherlands, Slovakia, Croatia, western Romania, and western Ukraine.

Settlements during this period included larger towns (indicating a degree of centralization), villages and farmsteads spread throughout their territories.[12]

Population figures are difficult to trace, but according to our expert some estimates put the largest settlement areas during the beginning of this period at 5,000-7,000 people.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,250: 400 BCE ♥ in squared kilometers Around 400 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [13]) had a radius of about 20 km, which gives an area of about 1,250 sq kilometers. [14]

[15]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [5,000-7,000]: 475-400 BCE; 50: 399-325 BCE ♥ My own estimates. 50 based on quote from Wells about typical small communities, not offering estimate of large fortified settlement

475-400 BCE

Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [16] which collapsed c450-400 BCE.
For comparison: Oppida excavated Manching, Bavaria - Late Iron Age (2nd-3rd centuries BCE) Est. 3,000-10,000 people [17]

400-200 BCE

The distinctive large urban fortified settlements did not appear until the mid-second century. Between 400-200 BCE agricultural burials were smaller, less differentiated and there were no large towns on the scale of the Early Iron Age settlements. Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [18]


"By the Late Iron Age Europe’s population had risen to between 15 and 30 million, with Italy and Greece being the most densely settled regions. The majority of settlements in the rest of Europe still housed fewer than 50 people. Earlier Iron Age hillforts and other more substantial settlements may have had populations, in some cases, of as many as 1,000 people, and some of the oppida that emerged in the last centuries B.C. may have accommodated as many as 10,000 people, though others were smaller." [19]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Town (possibly becoming fortified later in time period)

Early Iron Age settlements had large towns [20] which then collapsed 450 - 400 BCE
"Small fortified cities became common in the fourth and third centuries BC." [21]
"All oppida are characterized by household units composed of individual houses plus ancillary structures (granary, cellar, pit) centered around a palisaded courtyard. This household cluster evokes, in reduced form, contemporary farms. Thus, the traditional architectural organization was still the structural basis of the later settlements." [22]

2. Hamlets and villages

Small communities predominated, hamlets and farmsteads typically had a population of about 50. [23]

3. Farmstead

"Agricultural complexes inhabited by single extended families (up to perhaps fifteen people)"[24]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.


1. King

Had a retinue of military/legal assistants
2. Tribal chief
Tribes
3. Clan chief
Pagus (Clan) / Family group [25]


Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, also provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings. The chieftains "were assisted by three military advisers and a judge."[26]

"At its lowest level, Celtic society was made up of extended families or clans that were grouped together to form territorially based tribes." If Ireland is representative, 3 levels of hierarchy: 1. family unit = fine. 2. five family units = clan. A number of clans in the same region = 3. tuath (tribe) ruled by a king." [27]


♠ Religious levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

"The Halstatt Princedoms of continental Europe were brought down during the 5th century BC by the rise of groups of Celtic peoples whose social structure was dominated by a warrior aristocracy." [28]

Lead into battle by chieftains such as Brennas at the Battle of the Allia (390 BCE) against Rome.[29]

Military: "Deployment would probably have been by tribal contingents. Within these contingents, clans would deploy as separate bodies ... To identify each grouping in the battle line and to act as rallying points, the guardian deities of tribe and clan were carried into battle as standards topped with carved or cast figures of their animal forms." [30]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Druids.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred present | Indigenous coins are present, so we can infer that mints are present?

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥

Customary law?

Honour price was "the equivalent of the Anglo-Saxon custom of wergild, the amount payable by a third party in the event of unlawful injury or death." "The concept of honour price was fundamental to the legal system of the Celts. It dictated the conduct of all judicial cases, since the value of an individual's oath or evidence was determined by his honour price. To bring a lawsuit against someone with a higher honour price required the intervention of a patron of higher rank, creating an environment in which the support of the richest and most influential members of the elite was constantly sought after." [31]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [32] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems. DH: is there evidence or reason to believe Beaker irrigation, if existed, remained?
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "The late Hallstatt hillforts were probably functionally analogous to early Irish sites, such as Tara or Tailtiu, which hosted the regional "fairs" or oenachs. These gatherings served more than the secular purpose of exchanging goods." [33]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Silo" present during this time period. [34] Does this refer to food storage?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Roads present close to Paris Basin region between 475-400 BCE. [35]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Brittany had trading links to Ireland and Britain.[36] c600 BCE the Phoencians had founded trading colony/port at Massilia.[37] However, this wasn't directly owned/controlled by the Gauls.


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [38]
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [39]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [40]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [41]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [42]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [43]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [44]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [45]
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [46]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [47]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [48]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ " Druids did not commit their philosophy to writing, no record exists to explain how the Celts perceived their world." [49]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Barter economy before coinage. [50]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No Greek, Roman or Other coins currently present on chronocarto database until 250-175 BCE period. [51]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ [absent; inferred present] ♥ monnaie gauloise [52] This site does not offer clear evidence of indigenous coin production Some possible indication of 4th century coin production[53], though many suggest indigenous coins in area not appear until mid-3rd c BCE [54]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not implausible, but not mentioned by sources.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [55]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "Bronze Italo-Celtic helmet with elaborate crest fitting for plumes or feathers, mid-4th century BC."[56] "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [57]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [58]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The Hallstatt civilisation knew case-hardening only, but the Celts had various methods of 'steeling' such as the false-damascening which consisted in welding harder and weaker strips together. Some of the natural steel quite free of of sulphur and phosphorus must have been difficult to forge as it was liable to form cracks."[59] "The general impression of the Celtic swords, here covering a period from roughly 650 to 100 B.C., is that the blade was normally manufactured from a single iron bar of no particularly good quality. The same material could as well have been utilized for nails. ... Common to all the Celtic swords is the extensive coldwork that has taken place. ... evidently the finishing part of the blacksmith's usual hotwork, only that he continued hammering in the temperature range 800-600C ... Significant coldwork at room temperature must also have taken place, since the metal is work-hardened to high hardness and displays slip lines and Neumann bands. ... The 24 swords do not show any metallurgical development with time, except for one, the oldest, from Hallstatt. That one seems to be a rather mediocre sword based on an improper ore and an inexperienced blacksmith. ... three of them ... of superior quality, being pearlitic-ferritic and probably representing the famous Noric steel. If this argument, based on slag composition and structure - and an inscription on No. 510 - holds true, the manufacture of Noric steel began as early as 300 B.C."[60] "Almost all the Celtic swords here examined were of good quality and would undoubtedly have yielded good service."[61] Not sure of the reason for the contradiction between "no particularly good quality" and "of good quality" but we have the 300 BCE date for Noric steel.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters."[62]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Spears are described, but not spear-throwers.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Stockpiles of sling stones found at hillforts in Britain. Archers may have been used to defend fortified sites. [63]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [64]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Hache / axe. [65]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Iron dagger "from a Halstatt tomb, mid-5th century BC" [66]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ 400-200 BCE: warrior culture, burials with iron swords, helmets, spears, shields. [67] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [68]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [69] "The Greek writer Strabo commented that the Celtic warrior carried two types of spear: a larger, heavier one for thrusting, and a smaller, lighter javelin that could be thrown and used at close quarters."[70]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "There seems no trace of the use of donkeys and mules before contact with the Italian peninsula."[71] Does this source say when this contact considered to have begun? My guess of the meaning is the Roman invasion but I don't know the context the sentence was written in.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ First documented war-chariot Battle of Sentinum (295 BCE).[72] Pulled a two-wheeled chariot which replaced the Hallstatt era four-wheeled wagon. [73]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ "Celtic shields were generally oval in shape or sometimes and elongated hexagon. They were made of thin planks of oak or lime wood covered in leather." [74]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [75] Warrior statue from Glauburg shows armor "reminiscent of Greek or Etruscan styles." [76] The photograph shows an oval-shaped shield and what appears to be a fabric?/leather body armor.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ 400-200 BCE: warrior culture, burials with iron swords, helmets, spears, shields. [77] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt."[78]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [79] "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [80]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Glauberg, Germany c400 BCE. [81] "Bronze statuette of a warrior from Liechtenstein dated to the 5th century BC. Note the Greek/Etruscan-style cuirass." [82] Diodorus Siculus mentions iron breastplates. [83]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The basic equipment of the Celtic warrior was spear and shield. To this could be added a sword, a helmet and a mailshirt." [84] Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples.[85]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [86]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [87]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ The only mention of armour is chainmail. "Diodorus also mentions that some warriors wear iron breast plates of chain mail. Seated figures of stone from the sanctuary of Roquepertuse (Fig.163) and a stone statue of a Gaul from Vachères (Basse-Alpes) (Pl. VI), dating to the late first century BC, are shown wearing chain mail, and actual examples have been found in a few burials, including that of the warrior provided with the bird-crested helmet, who was buried at Ciumesti. One of the features of Celtic warfare which impressed itself upon the Classical mind was the fact that some warriors fought naked except for the sword belt and a gold neck torc." [88]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Similarities between the logboats and plank boats of the period 600 BC to AD 600 and those of earlier times suggest that the roots of Celtic boatbuilding lie in the second millennium BC or earlier." [89] However there is no geographical or temporal resolution in this statement, even if the term 'Celtic' implies La Tène and Hallstatt.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ [90]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ There possibly was an hereditary kingship in this period but not as centralized as La Tene C. Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) originally lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes and they together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings.[91]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "In fact a large part of religion was in the hands of kings and princes, who themselves performed the rites. [92]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "In fact a large part of religion was in the hands of kings and princes, who themselves performed the rites. [93]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [94] [95] [96]

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