FrMervM

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Middle Merovingian ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ regnum Francorum; Francia; Neustria; Franks; Frankish Kingdom; Frankish Kingdoms ♥ regnum Francorum [1] Francia [2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 584-629 CE ♥ "the reigns of Chlothar II (584-629 CE) and Dagobert I (623, 629-639 CE) can be seen as marking the apogee of Merovingian power, both at home and abroad. [3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 543-687 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; loose; confederated state; quasi-polity ♥

When divided kingdom more like a confederation. Division was not a governing structure.[4]

"There are two levels operating simultaneously... regnum and regna. A variable number of kingdoms within the Merovingian polity as a whole." [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Early Merovingian ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Proto-Carolingian ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Paris ♥

♠ Language ♣ Latin; Germanic ♥

General Description

During our second Merovingian period (543-687 CE), the kingdom was still a 'quasi-polity', consisting of numerous Frankish kingdoms under the nominal leadership of a king who had his primary residence in Paris.[6] Under the kings Chlothar II (r. 584-629 CE) and Dagobert I (r. 629-639 CE), the Merovingian kingdom reached the height of its power both internally and externally.[7][8]

Population and political organization

Merovingian France was a largely decentralized kingdom based on the pre-existing Roman administrative system, in which cities were the basic units.[9] The city rulers, known as counts or grafio, who sent the king his tax revenue and carried out judicial and administrative functions, had access to both administrative officials and city archives (gesta municipalia).[10][11] Groups of cities and counts could be placed under a duke for military and administrative purposes.[12]
In contrast, there was no elaborate central administration, the highest non-royal official being a figure known as the mayor of the palace.[13] The king's capital and main residence was at Paris, where the population may have reached 30,000 by the 8th century CE,[14] although the court was always a peripatetic institution.[15] The king consulted a group of magnates (obtimates) at an annual gathering around 1 March. Written references to royal edicts are known from 614 CE onwards, but earlier royal legislation has not survived.[16] Merovingian kings had the authority to appoint dukes and counts as well as bishops, who were often 'royal servants with no known connections with their sees'.[17]
From 622 CE onwards the basic territorial divisions of the Merovingian Kingdom were Neustria (centred on the Seine and Oise rivers and associated with the Pactus Legis Salicae law code),[18] Burgundy (where the Liber Constitutionum was developed), and Austrasia (by the Rhine and Meuse, which came to possess its own mayor of the palace[19] and followed the Lex Ribvaria).[20] A fourth area, Aquitaine, had a special status due to its distance from the royal centres and was under less direct Merovingian control.[21]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 230,000: 600 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. Merovingian kingdoms was a quasi-polity in terms of territory that could be militarily controlled. This figure represents the average sized kingdom within the polity.

Map: 600 CE [2]. Total area divided by six regions.

This figure is for the total area: 1,400,000: 540-680 CE

These numbers are based on the maps at Geacon [3] worked out from number of pixels (which you can find from image editor if you take a screen cap of the maps at the same scale) Scale: 200 km. 1 pixel = 20 km2. Figures rounded to memorable number (otherwise false precision).

Merovingians claimed over-lordship in Southern England 550s CE. [22]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [800,000-1,200,000]: 600 CE ♥ Merovingian kingdoms was a quasi-polity in terms of population that could be militarily controlled. This figure represents the average sized kingdom within the polity.

Total divided by six regions.


[5,000,000-7,000,000]

Estimated from below.

Population of France [23]

400 CE = 5
500 CE = 4.75
600 CE = 4.5
700 CE = 4.75
800 CE = 5

Population of Belgium and Luxembourg [24]

400 CE = 0.3
500 CE = 0.3
600 CE = 0.3
700 CE = 0.3
800 CE = 0.3

Population of Netherlands [25]

400 CE = 0.2
500 CE = 0.2
600 CE = 0.2
700 CE = 0.2
800 CE = 0.2

Population of Germany [26]

400 CE = 3.5
500 CE = 3.25
600 CE = 3.0
700 CE = 3.0
800 CE = 3.25


Merovingian South West Germany. "activity radius of about 1km around early Neolithic settlements. This gives an area of slightly over 3 km2, of which 10 percent were fields and gardens. It was exploited by about 100 individuals (Kuster 1995:76-7). This implied a population density of about 30 inhabitants per km2. If we assume one settlement with about 200 inhabitants and some smaller settlements in one Gemarkung, we obtain a figure of 50-60 inhabitants per km2 for the Merovingian period." [27]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [20,000-30,000] ♥

Paris 20,000-30,000 by 8th Century.[28]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. City

2. Town
3. Village or Gemarkungen settlement
4. Hamlet or Farmstead


Possible settlement levels [29]

Estimated size of farmstead populations: 10-25 people.
Village
Gemarkungen settlement (idealised as 6km2 hexagon, 300-360 people - Lower Rhine area)
Towns
Cities

Chlother II created sub-kingdom for Dagobert I in 623 CE. This established division between west (Neustria and Burgundy) and East (Austrasia - Dagobert I). [30]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.


1. King

Basic territorial divisions (622 CE onwards 2 divisions East / West)
Neustria - centred on the Seine and Oise rivers.
Burgundy (ruled from Neustria, own laws)
Austrasia - based on the Rhine and Meuse
Acquitane - usually had unique status [31]


_Court institution_

It was a peripatetic institution [32]

2. Senior Palace official was known as "Mayor of the Palace" [33] maior domus [34]
3. Treasurer [35]
4. Notaries and scribes

640s CE and onwards Mayors of the Palace dominate the court. Kings lost control to mayors and magnates. [36]

Comes palatii [37]

Magnates known as Obtimates, consulted by king at annual gathering around March 1st. [38]


_Regional government_


2. Maior domus (Burgundy) / Mayor of the Palace (Autrasia)
Under Chlothar II (584-629 CE, reign from 613 CE) Burgundy had a maior domus (regional official). this official was at level below the court in Paris and in later years was alternately removed, then reinstated. also dux / duchy / districts [39]
The region of Austrasia had its own Mayor of the Palace [40]
2. Dukes and Bishops (directly appointed by king)
"Many bishops owed their position to the king" and "were royal servants with no known connections with their sees." [41]
Aristocrats dependent on patronage from king. [42]
Group of cities and counts could be placed under a duke (for military and administrative purposes). [43]
Magnates (dux?) and Church (bishops)
Individuals in charge of multiple civitates? called dux (pl. duces). [44]
Alternative ruling structures had been innovated such as dukedom (higher scale) and the pagi (lower scale).[45]
Aquitaine - duchy, dux/duces. Merovingians claimed over-lordship in Southern England 550s CE. [46]
3. Comes (count) of the Civitas (city-district)
4. local law-men called rachinburgi [47]
Merovingians maintained existing Roman administrative systems where possible. Gregory of Tours (538-594 CE) writings show cities are the basic units of the administrative system. [48]
City archives: defensor, curator, magister, militum. Known from Formularies from a few civitates but no evidence uniform across polity. Senior official of civitas was the comes (pl. comites) or count (lit. "companion). Heard law-suits, enforced justice, lead the military. In north graphiones instead of comes. [49] Civitas administration "provided dominant source of tax revenue" and some of the manpower for the army. [50]
In sixth century the role of the Roman curiales had been taken over by a single official appointed by the Merovingian king, the "count" or the "grafio" in the Frankish homelands. This official - where present the most important city official - had its origins in the Roman imperial comes civitatis. The first such official in Gaul is known from 471 CE. They executed judicial and administrative functions and sent the king his tax revenue. Rule through these city officials gradually spread across Gaul in the post-Roman period.
Gregory of Tours refers to "leading officials" who could be members of a local council.[51]
Gregory of Tours' region in central Gaul likely had longest persisting continuity with Roman structures of city-based rule. These were the "basic building-blocks of which the various Merovingian regna were composed." However, in Frankish regions the rule-through-city framework may have been less pervasive. [52]
Internal administrative regions due to the city based taxation system. The "guiding imperative behind the divisions would appear to be the sharing out of the profits from various forms of taxation" on the civitas [53]
5. City archives two levels? e.g. manager and assistant inferred level
4. Pagi
Sub-division of the civitates. Replaces civitates in some parts of Gaul [54]
Alternative ruling structures had been innovated such as dukedom (higher scale) and the pagi (lower scale).[55]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Pope

Christian state after baptism Clovis 508 CE. Catholic church. [56]

1. King ("Like Constantine, the Merovingian King was considered the reflection of God on Earth. The succession to the kingship could never been anything but the expression of a higher will" [57]

Kings involved in ecclesiastical legislation [58]
Kings gave money for shrines of saints. [59]
"Many bishops owed their position to the king" and "were royal servants with no known connections with their sees." [60]
2. Bishop in dioceses
Bishop in every civitas. Bishop's church called ecclesia, other churches were basilicae. City had complex of religious buildings, usually included a number of churches, a baptistery, and the bishop's home (domus ecclesiae). Other religious officials were the clergy. Outside the city were funerary basilicas, sacred sites (shrines called loca sancta), mausoleums, tombs and cemeteries. Authorities secular and often came into conflict with religious authorities. [61]
Dioceses provided basic structure of Merovingian Church, "the ecclesiastical counterparts of the civitates" and in the same place, except in the north and east. [62]
3. Subordinate bishops
Dioceses had provinces (like civitates) [63]
4. Priests
5. Lesser clergy


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

Military in era of Clovis's grandsons "confusing mosaic of heterogeneous elements" [64]


1. King

Kings usually lead the army at least until Sigibert III. After this Mayor of the Palace always involved. [65]
Forces usually lead by a commander. Sometimes by a king. [66]
2. Duke
Armies commanded by duces (dukes) [67]
At times of war Merovingian kings were supported by their leudes and aristocrats.[68]
Leudes: "military followers apparently of considerable social status and influence, though probably to be distinguished from the greatest magnates of the realm, many of whom had military followings of their own, and might be expected to fight for the king both inside and outside his kingdom." [69]
3. Comes
Local levy usually commanded by count of civitas [70]
Garrisons in cities not the same source as the local levy. [71]
Garrison commander and local levy commander were two different people. [72]
There are "indications of city-based system of military service" similar to Roman one. For example, in 578 CE Chilperic took the men of Tours, Poitiers, Bayeux, Le Mans and Angers to war in Brittany.[73]
4. Individual Solider

1. Tribunus

Garrison commander
Milites at Tours served under a tribunus, not a count [74]
Milites - garrisoned fortifications [75]
Laeti - protected fortresses and served as antrustiones in centenae [76]


640s CE and onwards the main forces were personal armed followings (bodyguards). Mayors of the Palace dominate the court. Kings lost control to mayors and magnates. [77]

Bodyguard was the core military force.[78]

Kings
antrustiones - Merovingian royal body guards
puer regis - lower lever bodyguards
sent to punish people of Limoges for revolting against tax collectors. March 579 CE. [79]
leudes - soldiers in attendance intermittently
spathani - ?
Dukes / Magnates
also had bodyguards
Counts
also had bodyguards
Troops raised from city
Bishops
also had bodyguards

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥

Milites at Tours served under a tribunus, not a count. [80]


♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥

Garrisoned forces.


♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Christianity


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥

6th century Merovingian Kingdom "de facto local aristocrats, a service aristocracy (defined by its tenure of posts within the administration) and an hereditary nobility." [81]


♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥

Positions hereditary.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Mints, local archives.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

King and royal court
letters, precepts, edicts, decrees, pacts.
Merovingian law books: Pactus Legis Salicae and Lex Ribvaria. [82]
Pactus pro tenore pacis on theft[83]
Patriae (kings?) [84]


Pactus legis Salicae territorial law-code. [85]

First Merovingian law code can be dated before 511 CE. First sixty five titles of Pactus Legis Salicae "antedates the Liber Constitutionum of the Burgundians by at least a decade." Pagan elements within original work suggest Frankish origin in addition to some Christian Roman involvement. Pactus Legis Salicae most associated in with Neustria region, Lex Ribvaria with Austrasia and Liber Constitutionum (or Lex Gundobada) with Burgundy. [86]

No royal legislation survives beyond 614 CE. However there are literature references to royal edicts after this date. [87]

"The Lombards made no effort to repeat Ostrogothic parallelism in Italy. They recast the civil and juridicial system of the country in the regions which they occupied, promulgating a new legal code based on traditional Germanic norms, but drafted in Latin, which soon predominated over Roman law. The Merovingian kings retained a double legal system, but with the growing anarchy of their rule, Latin memories and norms progressively faded. Germanic law became progressively dominant, while the land taxes inherited from Rome broke down administ the resistance of the population and Church to a fiscality which no longer corresponded to any public services or integrated State. Taxation progressively lapsed altogether in the Frankish kingdoms."[88]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Edict of Chlothar II among other things limited power of secular judges over clerics [89]

Bishops could act as judges [90] -- on its own this would be non-specialist judge so not present


♠ Courts ♣ present ♥

Legal procedure known from Formularies and case records. Courts. Used Roman tradition of written evidence. Law not homogeneous "each person was entitled to be judged according to the law of his or her place of birth or ethnic group." Royal Court was the highest court, settled disputes between magnates. [91]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Bishops dug irrigation canals. [92] The king was Christian and many bishops owed their position to the king. If bishops dug irrigation canals then they are partly working on behalf of the king.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Bishops (non-state) took an interest in water-supply. [93] Gregory of Tours mentions one aqueduct, not certain whether current or from 500 CE. [94] "The political collapse of the Western Roman Empire did not coincided with a parallel collapse of Roman traditions of engineering. The technology did not disappear - it was adapted to new ends in late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Even before the "Fall of Rome" hydraulic patronage was shifting away from secular munificence of large-scale aqueducts and luxurious public baths to more modest ecclesiastical structures such as baptistery fonts, charitable baths and atrium fountains. These new Christian waterworks helped to preserve the knowledge of subterranean pipes, hydraulic cement, and even inverted siphons. Some classical aqueducts were restored or remained in use during the Early Middle Ages, often thanks to episcopal patronage."[95]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ In Paris there was a merchant's quarter. "... in the cities of Provence, the curator or defensor civitatis was also responsible for the supervision of the market."[96] Large annual market of St. Denis, near Paris "founded and granted with toll privileges by King Dagobert I". 9th October, after religious celebration of St. Denis. [97] Dagobert I (603-639 CE).
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Merovingian and Carolingian period, there were granaries on manor complexes. [98]


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Via Belgica "Still, it is possible -perhaps even likely- that the Merovingian kings and queens repaired the roads. It is due to these maintenance efforts of later rulers that the road is still recognizable on many places and is usually still in use. It has been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage." [99] Via Regia "After the Thuringian kingdom’s fall in 531/534, the territory through which the road passed was under Merovingian domination". [100]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Roman era bridges. Gregory of Tours mentions the Grand pont over the Seine at Paris. [101]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ 620-625 CE repair work was undertaken on the reventments of the Corbulo canal at the Roman castellum of Leiden-Room-burg (Matilo).[102]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Port at Marseille. [103][104] Francia-England-Frisia trading network [105] Domberg - another trade centre in north [106] Quentovic: trade centre/port in north [107] Dorestad: 240 ha site 80 wells[108] trade centre/port in north


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [109]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [110]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Merovingian latin script. [111]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [112]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ [113]


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥ no clear evidence found
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [114]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Manuscript production at Luxeuil and Corbie important to Merovingian culture. However, no "great scholar" equivalent to Bede. [115]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Rule books? Books on maintenance? Letters of Desiderius of Cahors [116] Epistulae Austrasiacae - collection of 48 letters, 460-c590 CE [117]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Gregory of Tours "Decem Libri Historiarum" (Ten Books of Histories)" [118] Born 538/9 CE. [119] Chronicler Fredegar.[120] Chronicler Marius of Avenches.[121] Hagiography[122] 12 vitae between 670-700 CE in "Barbarous Latin": Gregory of Tours; Venatius Fortunatus; Jonas of Bobbio (Columbonus and disciples); John of Reome; Vedast (bishop of Arras p.313); Many anonymous works
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "Especially illustrative of this period is the dispute between Pope Gregory the Great (ca. 540-604) and Desiderius (Didier) of Vienne (fl. 596-601) on the love for and merits of pagan classical, particularly Greek, literature, grammar, and rhetoric. Gregory set the stage for medieval intellectual life by claiming that the liberal arts and what we today would call philosophical methodology are indispensable for the correct interpretation of the written Word of God but that they should be used for that purpose alone. Elements of the classical tradition were, however, preserved in the works of men like Gregory of Tours (d. 594) and Venantius Fortunatus (540-600), who died as bishop of Poitiers." [123]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poems. Ansbert bishop of Rouen 684 CE. [124]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Non-monetary economy at local level.[125] Money was used to pay tax in Merovingian period. However, tax also known to have been paid in exchange, such as with wine. Laws contain "list of equivalences to solidus." [126]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Non-monetary economy at local level. Bullion not coin used on eastern frontiers. West = coin archaeology. East = scales for weighing bullion found. [127]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Roman coinage finds in Merovingian burials suggests use of late Roman coins, perhaps as bullion due to high metal content. [128]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ c570 CE gold coins. Solidus. coins bear name of mint, moneyer and sometimes a king, saint or church (i.e. not all royal issue). debased with silver until 660s CE when new silver denarius created. [129] Proportion of gold in coins fell rapidly from 630s CE. Officially replaced by silver in late seventh century. [130] Quentovic: Coin mint centre; 7th century gold trientes until c670 CE; 8th century silver sceattas or pennies. trading coinage. no fiscal role. high value and consistent in quality. [131]

Dorestad [132]: Coin mint centre; gold trientes until c650 CE; 8th century silver sceattas or pennies. trading coinage. no fiscal role. high value and consistent in quality. In Frisia and Quentovic (Frankish port) silver sceattas. Mercantile coin. [133]

♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Metal girdle of iron or bronze 6 inches in breadth worn around the waist.[134]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Metal girdle of iron or bronze 6 inches in breadth worn around the waist.[135]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [136]
♠ Steel ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Need evidence for high-quality steel. One of Charlemagne's vassals left an Indian sword (spatha indica) in his will[137], which suggests it was far superior to the steel sword the Franks possessed. Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[138] Two-edged steel sword used by cavalry.[139]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ [140] [141]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Carolingian period: "Carolingian military organization was based primarily on that of their Merovingian predecessors, who had built on later Roman institutions ... Archers and slingers fighting on foot supported the battle line."[142]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Bows and quivers [143] Merovingians and Carolingians used a "short, simple bow" which was "gradually replaced, beginning in the ninth century, by the composite bow." [144]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Merovingians and Carolingians used a "short, simple bow" which was "gradually replaced, beginning in the ninth century, by the composite bow." [145]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ "The crossbow, or arbaleste, was reintroduced into France ca. 950 and was commonly used thereafter to ca. 1550, primarily by special infantry units placed from ca. 1200 to 1534 under the overall authority of a grand master of the crossbowmen (arbalest[r]iers)." [146]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Various types of siege engines were used in Merovingian warfare. [147]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Various types of siege engines were used in Merovingian warfare. [148]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ One-handed battle axe. 6th century Franks used it a lot. [149]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ scramasax [150]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sword (long-straight for mounted use, steel, two-edged) [151] Short sword. [152]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Most common weapon. [153]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ This source suggests donkeys were introduced sometime in the Celtic period: "There seems no trace of the use of donkeys and mules before contact with the Italian peninsula."[154]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [155] Beginning of sixth century Merovingians had cavalry.[156] 507 CE cavalry recorded [157]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ Gundovald used camels to carry treasure. While this is not a military use, it does seem that these camels were accompanying the military albeit as a vehicle to transport goods. [158]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Shield [159]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Leather cuirass with pteruges.[160] Padded armour. [161]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [162]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [163] "Few appear to have had helmets, or indeed any covering for the head; but their hair was allowed to grow sufficiently long in front to be tied over the crown of the head, so as to deaden considerably the force of a blow from a weapon."[164]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ [165]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail-shirt [166]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Iron. [167]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ River craft.[168]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature - RA.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Naval forces - in 515 CE used vs Danes.[169] Imperial naval base in the 5th century. Ships not Frankish in origin.[170] "Roman vessels utilized the rivers and coastal waters to transport merchandise and military personnel. The early Franks developed fleets for use in trade and war. Their vessels were propelled by oars and probably a single square sail. Charlemagne used a fleet against the Slavs, Saxons, Avars, and others. Because of their Italian interests, the Franks also maintained a small Mediterranean fleet in the 9th century."[171]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[172] Since palisades are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[173] Since earth ramparts are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[174] Since ditches are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used). Thuringians dug ditches in the fields against Merovingian horses.[175]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ Includes moats dug with deep pits inside for the wader to sink into.[176]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Walled cities. [177] City walls present in sixth century. [178]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not discussed in consulted literature RA.


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Merovingian dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ absent ♥ The following quote suggests that French kings were officially legitimated by god starting with the Carolingian dynasty. “With the advent of the Carolingian Empire, the situation changes. Kingship was seen as no less sacred than the papacy. The Holy Roman Emperor is God’s anointed, compared to David and Solomon and Christ himself. Indeed, the anointing of kings is numbered by some among the sacraments, and seen as investing the king with responsibility for, and power over, the Church. For a theorist of royal power like Jonas of Orléans (c.780-842/43), the task of the king was “to govern the people of God,” a term that now referred, not to a group who have been called by God out of a larger social whole (1 Peter 2:9-10; Revelation 8:14), but simply to the people of Europe (The Institution of the King §4, in O’Donovan and O’Donovan, 1999: 218).” [179]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ French kings at this time were simply believed to be good Christians--or, at least, the ideal king was a good Christian [180].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [181] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [182][183].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [184]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [185]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Love, even more than considerations of justice, has inspired Catholics and other Christians to care for the socially marginalized and any man or woman in need. Christianity inherited from the OT a healthy message of concern for widows, orphans, and strangers (e.g. Deut. 24: 17-21), along with prophetic opposition to those who used their wealth and power to oppress the economically and socially weak. The very early post‐NT codes on which we have already drawn maintained the Jewish moral message by attributing to ‘the way of death’ the actions of those who ‘attend not to the widow and orphan’, ‘turn away the needy’, and ‘oppress the afflicted’ (Epistle of Barnabas, 20. 2; see Didache, 5. 2). The denunciation bears on sins of omission (failures to help widows and orphans) and those of commission (in positively turning away the needy and oppressing those who are already afflicted).// Those whom Jesus expected his followers to help included the hungry, the thirsty, strangers, the naked, the sick, and prisoners (Matt. 25: 31-46). The list of the suffering with whom he identified did not explicitly include widows and orphans, but the list was obviously open‐ended. His parable of ‘the Good Samaritan’ powerfully illustrates what he wants from all: the willingness to reach across religious and cultural divides to help any human being in distress (Luke 10: 30-7). He left no room for a self‐absorption that may not even notice the pain of others. [...] This moral message provided an important stimulus for the development of hospitals. St Basil of Caesarea (d. 379) founded what was perhaps the first Christian hospital. Innumerable doctors, nurses, and administrators have followed his lead, not least Catholic women who belonged to religious institutes founded specifically to care for the sick and the terminally ill. They have ‘come to the help’ of the sick as enjoined by Jesus' message (Matt. 25: 36). Many others have realized that one should add to the list in Matthew's text those who are ignorant and in need of education. Part at least of the astonishing commitment by Catholics and other Christians to the work of educating children and older persons has been fired by the sense of Jesus saying to them: ‘I was ignorant and you taught me.’ [186]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ "Jacques Le Maho, for example, has mined episcopal vitae for the diocese of Rouen from the sixth to the ninth centuries and concludes that Merovingian bishops, as they toured their dioceses, established hospices along public roads, particularly along their diocesan frontiers, in order to welcome new visitors." [187] "Yet, as in the high Middle Ages, nonecclesiastics also established hospitals and maintained control over their governance. In 543, for example, the Merovingian monarch, Childebert[...]." [188]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [189] [190] [191]

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