FrHallD

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Hallstatt D ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Senones; Early Celts; Western Hallstatt; Hallstatt D ♥

"In European archaeology today the term "early Celts" refers to late Hallstatt culture, part of early La Tene culture, Hallstatt D and La Tene A of Paul Reinecke's nomenclature, or the time of the sixth and fifth centuries BC." [1]

Senones in Champagne: "From the beginning of the fourth century, numerous Celtic groups, organized under the authority of aristocratic chiefs, were established in northern Italy. The first, the Senones, probably came from Champagne."[2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 600-475 BCE ♥ Later Hallstatt culture (600-475 BCE) based in France, in the Massalia border region. Extended as far as Vix / Mount Lassois (Châtillon-sur-Seine), the northwest edge of what archaeologists consider the Western Hallstatt zone.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥

"late Hallstatt society was in a liminal phase, on the threshold between a chiefdom and a state." [3]

While from 900-600 "a north-south axis of exchange gradually superseded all other axes" it involved mainly "the eastern part of the North-Alpine Complex." During the sixth century BC, the founding of the Greek colony at Massalia introduced exotic products to "chiefs that were located directly on the principal communication routes." Thus "In the framework of a prestige economy, they gained in power, reinforcing their control of exchange with the Mediterranean civilizations, monopolizing redistribution, and finally subjugating neighbouring chiefs. In this manner, centralized political units of a scale previously unknown in Europe were formed." [4]

The princedoms "disintegrated in the fifth century BC" when other communities "situated at the north-western periphery of the area held by the princedoms" became more powerful: the Tessin community; Hunsruck-Eifel region; Aisne-Marne region; Berry region." [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ vassalage ♥ Consequence of the "intensification of Greek-led trade" in the 6th century passing through Massalia: "hillforts became fewer in number but more massive in size. The number of elite burials also fell, but those which have survived intact display extraordinary riches. The term 'Halstatt Princedoms' has been coined to describe these communities whose elites were able to control the flow of the exotic Mediterranean products..."[6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt C ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ La Tene A-B1 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Hallstatt ♥ "During Hallstatt D times ... contact with the Graeco-Etruscan world was instrumental in bringing about important changes in the social organization of west central Europe." [7]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ [Mont Lassois; Heuneburg] ♥ "The appearance of urban ‘central places’ was one of the major innovations in Europe of the first millennium BC. Even if we reject centres such as the Heuneburg as truly urban, despite the concentration of wealth, trade and industry on them (the social structure would have prevented the full de- velopment of exchange as we know it on later sites), we still have a number of different urban types; administrative centres, market centres, colonies, and entrepôts for long-distance trade including ports-of-trade. Each of these classes would have its own characteristics in terms of who was resident, what public amenities were present, and in the spatial layout of the town." [8] "In less developed forms we may detect centralised control on the sites of the late Hallstatt period of the sixth century BC, sites such as the Heuneburg and Mont Lassois in western Europe." [9]


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Hallstatt culture, named after an archaeological site in Austria and traditionally divided into four phases, was the main cultural complex in Western Europe during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. It coincides with the North Alpine complex, extending over modern-day central and southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland.[10]

Population and political organization

The Hallstatt D period (c. 600-475 BCE)[11] saw the intensification of processes that had been occurring throughout the Hallstatt era. Some polities disintegrated while others gained power. Thus, the number of hillforts decreased but they grew in size;[12] Mont Lassois is a prime example.[13] Chiefs controlled the prestige economy at the local level, trading with their Mediterranean counterparts. Extreme social differentiation can be observed in burials;[14] the lavish Vix Burial, a cairn 42 metres wide and 6 metres high associated with the site of Mont Lassois,[15] includes gold and bronze objects as well as prestigious imports.
This period was also marked by the rise of urban centres specializing in administrative and mercantile activities, including colonies and entrepôts established for the purpose of long-distance trade.[16] Population estimates are more easily accessible for the Hallstatt D period. The Heuneburg, a hillfort reaching c. 100 hectares in the mid-6th century BCE, may have been home to about 5000 inhabitants.[17]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [7,000-8,000] ♥ in squared kilometers Around 500 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [18]) had a radius of about 50 km, which gives an area of about 7,854 sq kilometers. [19]

[20]

Territorial scale: "The economic foundations put in place in the ninth and eighth centuries BC were ... incapable of supporting a political scale of integration greater than tens of square kilometers." [21]

"The primacy of this site was short-lived, but by Hallstatt D2 Asperg and the Heuneburg had become centres of ‘complex chiefdoms.’ Within a 5- 10km radius of a central defended site is a cluster of rich burials, characterised by massive mounds, timber-lined graves, wagons, gold objects, bronze vessels, and imported Mediterranean goods." [22]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 5,000 ♥ Inhabitants. "Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [23]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

"The period between 600 and 500 BC in west central Europe was characterized by rapid, regionally specific changes in social organization which are documented directly in the burial record and indirectly in the settlement evidence ... The increase in social complexity does not seem to have survived the late Hallstatt/early La Tene transition, although the late La Tene Viereckschanzen and relatively rapid appearance of many Late Lat Tene oppida from a dispersed settlement base (Murray forthcoming) indicate that continuity was maintained throughout this time."[24]

relationship between small dispersed settlements and hilltop settlements unclear [25]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

"In their influential paper, Frankenstein and Rowlands [propose] the existence of a four-tiered hierarchy of chieftains, consisting of a paramount chieftain, "vassal chiefs," "sub-chiefs," and "village chiefs." Bintliff (1984) agreed with this suggesting "the spacing of centres suggests large territories and even "proto-state" structures, to be linked perhaps to the emergence of paramount chiefs or princes from an aristocratic stratum scattered throughout the region. The paramounts associated with the major putative centres and their particularly impressive burials, seem to have dominated numerous district chiefs whose rich tumuli are found at various points around the suggested territory of each princedom."[26]


1. Paramount chieftain

2. Vassal chief
3. Sub-chief
4. Village chief


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Same as earlier period as no new information to code higher.


♠ Military levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

Warrior society implies at least 2 levels of military hierarchy.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Warrior aristocracy probably lived on own resources?

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ When did druids appear?

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [27] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "The late Hallstatt hillforts were probably functionally analogous to early Irish sites, such as Tara or Tailtiu, which hosted the regional "fairs" or oenachs. These gatherings served more than the secular purpose of exchanging goods." [28]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ "Silo" present during this time period. [29] Does this refer to food storage?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Voire" or road is known in France in this period [30] but the two cases are far from the Paris basin region, apparently associated with the Mediterranean and Alps trade.
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ See reference [31]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ monnaie de Marsaille and monnaie gauloise finds within France 560-500 BCE but not close to Paris Bain region. [32]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not implausible, but not mentioned by sources.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [33]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [34]
' ♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ <'ref>(Buchwald 2005, 122-124) Vagn Fabritius Buchwald. 2005. Iron and steel in ancient times. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.</ref>
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "The general impression of the Celtic swords, here covering a period from roughly 650 to 100 B.C., is that the blade was normally manufactured from a single iron bar of no particularly good quality. The same material could as well have been utilized for nails. ... Common to all the Celtic swords is the extensive coldwork that has taken place. ... evidently the finishing part of the blacksmith's usual hotwork, only that he continued hammering in the temperature range 800-600C ... Significant coldwork at room temperature must also have taken place, since the metal is work-hardened to high hardness and displays slip lines and Neumann bands. ... The 24 swords do not show any metallurgical development with time, except for one, the oldest, from Hallstatt. That one seems to be a rather mediocre sword based on an improper ore and an inexperienced blacksmith. ... three of them ... of superior quality, being pearlitic-ferritic and probably representing the famous Noric steel. If this argument, based on slag composition and structure - and an inscription on No. 510 - holds true, the manufacture of Noric steel began as early as 300 B.C."[35] "Almost all the Celtic swords here examined were of good quality and would undoubtedly have yielded good service."[36] Not sure of the reason for the contradiction between "no particularly good quality" and "of good quality" but we have the 300 BCE date for Noric steel.


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [37] Javelins used on the continent.[38]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Mainly used in the British Isles at this time.[39]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [40] Bows used on the continent.[41]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [42]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [43] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[44]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [45] "long slashing swords representative of the aristocratic warrior" from 8th century onwards. [46] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[47]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ 6th century scabbard illustration shows Hallstatt warriors with spears and shields [48]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.'
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "From the 8th century BC onwards, the graves of the Halstatt aristocracy are characterized by four-wheeled vehicles together with bits and other items of horse harness" [49]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Wicker-work likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[50]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Leather likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[51]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ No finds within France until 620-560 BCE. ("Umbo" = shield boss?) [52] 6th century scabbard illustration shows Hallstatt warriors with spears and shields [53] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[54]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [55] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[56]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "Early Halstatt bronze cuirass from Marmesse, northern France, dated to the 8th century BC. The style is reminiscent of the early Greek 'bell' cuirass." [57]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Chaîne de suspension" present. Is this chainmail? [58] Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples.[59]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Mediterranean amphore close to Paris Bain shows long-distant trade.[60]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Villeneuve-Saint Germaine[61] is an oppidium just outside (NE) of the Paris basin NGA. 70 ha area. From medium-late Hallstatt (Ha D).[1]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [62]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "Mur terre" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [63] Hillforts: "large fortified hilltop sites often enclosed by an intricate system of earth banks and ditches." [64] NOTE: undated reference - does the code apply to this time period?
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Hillforts: "large fortified hilltop sites often enclosed by an intricate system of earth banks and ditches." [65]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ "Rempart en pierres seches" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [66]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Possibly hereditary kingship but uncertain. Also possible that paramount chiefs were elected by the tribes. "In their influential paper, Frankenstein and Rowlands [propose] the existence of a four-tiered hierarchy of chieftains, consisting of a paramount chieftain, "vassal chiefs," "sub-chiefs," and "village chiefs." Bintliff (1984) agreed with this suggesting "the spacing of centres suggests large territories and even "proto-state" structures, to be linked perhaps to the emergence of paramount chiefs or princes from an aristocratic stratum scattered throughout the region. The paramounts associated with the major putative centres and their particularly impressive burials, seem to have dominated numerous district chiefs whose rich tumuli are found at various points around the suggested territory of each princedom." [67] Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) originally lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes and they together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings.[68]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [69] [70] [71]

References

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