FrHallC

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Hallstatt C ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Hallstatt culture; Hallstatt; Western Hallstatt; Atlantic Complex; North-Alpine Complex ♥ Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 700-600 BCE ♥ Early Hallstatt culture (900-600) based in Austria


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ vassalage ♥

Point against: the Paris Basin region was very much on the periphery of the Hallstatt zone and their local chiefs might not have been close enough to the important trade center (Austria) to have been vassals at any time.


Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)

"The Mediterranean world-economy integrated the North-Alpine complex during Hallstatt B2-3/C. The Greek and Etruscan towns experienced an increasing demand for raw materials which led them to enlarge their supply areas until they embraced a large part of the continent. In this vast exchange system, certain well-positioned local chiefs played the role of privileged intermediaries. They were able to monopolize trade and exchange, and controlled the supply of Mediterranean prestigue goods, ultimately extending their influence into neighbouring territories. They reduced local rulers to vassal status. " [2]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt B2-3 ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt D ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Hallstatt ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ "The most prominent signature of these earlier, archaeological polities of the Hallstatt period are the sizeable elevated fortified settlements, the Furstensitze. These settlements advertise their likely role as former political capitals by virtue of their size (1-11 ha), their strategic location at the confluence of major water-ways, architectural features such as large enclosing earthworks or walls, and the remains of buildings located both within and outside the walls, as well as by the proximity of these sites to groupings of large burial mounds."[3]

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Hallstatt culture, named after an archaeological site in Austria and traditionally divided into four phases, was the main cultural complex in Western Europe during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. It coincides with the North Alpine complex, extending over modern-day central and southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland.[4]

Population and political organization

In the Hallstatt C period, which lasted from around 700 to 600 BCE,[5] Hallstatt polities became increasingly integrated into the Mediterranean economy. Although the settlement pattern was still rather decentralized,[6] this period saw the proliferation of fortified sites.[7] These elevated settlements, covering between one and ten hectares, sprang up at strategic locations such as the confluence of rivers. They were often enclosed by earthworks and walls and associated with burial mounds and tumuli.[8]
Another important development of the Hallstatt C period was an increasing diversity in material culture, especially in ceramic and metal objects, as seen in the elaborate bronze hoards dating to this period.[9] The variability of artefact types may indicate the fragmentation of cultural zones and the creation of myriad princely territories with an average radius of c. 30 kilometres.[10] It is possible that a four-tiered administrative hierarchy developed during the Hallstatt C period.[11]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2500-3000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Around 700-600 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [12]) had a radius of about 30 km, which gives an area of about 2,827 sq kilometers. [13]

[14]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [3,000-5,000] ♥ People.

There was a fortified center which was possibly "the seat of the local aristocracy." [15]

Estimate of 5,000 for just after end of this period.

"Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [16]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [3,000-5,000] ♥ Inhabitants.

There was a fortified center which was possibly "the seat of the local aristocracy." [17]

Estimate of 5,000 for just after end of this period.

"Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [18]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.


1. Fortified center

Includes cemeteries of tumuli and is "the seat of the local aristocracy." [19]
2. Village
3. Farmstead


Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)

"the settlement pattern changes markedly. There is a great increase in the number of fortified sites. Small cemeteries of tumuli appear, often close to the fortifications. Typologies of ceramic and metal objects indicate the fragmentation of previous cultural units. Bronze hoards become more numerous - they are larger and their composition is more varied. Iron working becomes widespread. Rare earlier, iron objects increase rapidly in number during the ninth and eighth centuries BC. ... A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory."[20]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

"In their influential paper, Frankenstein and Rowlands [propose] the existence of a four-tiered hierarchy of chieftains, consisting of a paramount chieftain, "vassal chiefs," "sub-chiefs," and "village chiefs." Bintliff (1984) agreed with this suggesting "the spacing of centres suggests large territories and even "proto-state" structures, to be linked perhaps to the emergence of paramount chiefs or princes from an aristocratic stratum scattered throughout the region. The paramounts associated with the major putative centres and their particularly impressive burials, seem to have dominated numerous district chiefs whose rich tumuli are found at various points around the suggested territory of each princedom."[21]


1. Paramount chieftain

2. Vassal chief
3. Sub-chief
4. Village chief


Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)

A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory."[22]

1. Aristocratic chief

2. Local chief

3. Village head


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Same as earlier period as no new information to code higher.


♠ Military levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

Warrior society implies at least 2 levels of military hierarchy.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Warrior aristocracy probably lived on own resources?

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
previous code: inferred present | primitive irrigation system known from Beaker culture. "Silo" present during this time period. [23] Does this refer to food storage? Surplus production might also indicate irrigation systems.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ "Silo" present during this time period. [24] Does this refer to food storage?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Voire" or road is known in France in this period [25] but the two cases are far from the Paris basin region, apparently associated with the Mediterranean and Alps trade.
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ See reference [26]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not implausible, but not mentioned by sources.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [27]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [28]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [29] Javelins used on the continent.[30]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Mainly used in the British Isles at this time.[31]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [32] Bows used on the continent.[33]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of crossbows in past and future polities in Paris Basin
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [34] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[35]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [36] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[37]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [38] "long slashing swords representative of the aristocratic warrior" from 8th century onwards. [39] "Bronze age swords found by Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, estimated to be 3,000 year old."[40] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[41]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and particularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [42]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequent (quasi)polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.'
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "From the 8th century BC onwards, the graves of the Halstatt aristocracy are characterized by four-wheeled vehicles together with bits and other items of horse harness" [43]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Wicker-work likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[44]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Leather likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[45]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ No finds within France until 620-560 BCE. ("Umbo" = shield boss?) [46] "Miniature bronze cult wagon from the Halstatt period, 7th century BC"[47] - in this sculpture the warriors are holding shields.
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [48] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[49] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[50]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "Early Halstatt bronze cuirass from Marmesse, northern France, dated to the 8th century BC. The style is reminiscent of the early Greek 'bell' cuirass." [51]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Chaîne de suspension" present. Is this chainmail? [52] Organic chain mail suits appear in iron age.[53]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Some fortified villages that appear to be associated with long-distance exchange networks. [54]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [55]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "Mur terre" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [56] Hillforts: "large fortified hilltop sites often enclosed by an intricate system of earth banks and ditches." [57] NOTE: undated reference - does the code apply to this time period?
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Hillforts: "large fortified hilltop sites often enclosed by an intricate system of earth banks and ditches." [58] NOTE: undated reference - does the code apply to this time period?
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Rempart en pierres seches" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [59]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Possibly hereditary kingship but uncertain. Also possible that paramount chiefs were elected by the tribes. "In their influential paper, Frankenstein and Rowlands [propose] the existence of a four-tiered hierarchy of chieftains, consisting of a paramount chieftain, "vassal chiefs," "sub-chiefs," and "village chiefs." Bintliff (1984) agreed with this suggesting "the spacing of centres suggests large territories and even "proto-state" structures, to be linked perhaps to the emergence of paramount chiefs or princes from an aristocratic stratum scattered throughout the region. The paramounts associated with the major putative centres and their particularly impressive burials, seem to have dominated numerous district chiefs whose rich tumuli are found at various points around the suggested territory of each princedom." [60] Galatians, who migrated to Asia minor 279 BCE, provide a possible insight into Gaulish social structure as they were closely observed by the Greeks. Chieftains (called a tetrach by the Greeks) originally lead each of the tribes each of which were divided into clans. Supra-tribal level of cooperation: the clans of all the tribes and they together appointed 300 senators "to attend an annual assembly at a shrine." However they were rarely unified and eventually the chieftains became kings.[61]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [62] [63] [64]

References

  1. (Brun 1995, 14)
  2. (Brun 1995, 22-23)
  3. (Arnold and Gibson 1995, 7)
  4. (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  5. (Collis 1995, 75) Collis, John. 1995. “States without Centers? The Middle La Tène Period in Temperate Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, 75-80. Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QFU68CIQ.
  6. (Collis 1995, 75) Collis, John. 1995. “States without Centers? The Middle La Tène Period in Temperate Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, 75-80. Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QFU68CIQ.
  7. (Brun 1995, 15) Brun, Patrice. 1995. "From chiefdom to state organization in Celtic Europe." In Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, 13-25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  8. (Arnold and Gibson 1995, 7) Arnold, Bettina, and D. Blair Gibson. 1995. “Introduction: Beyond the Mists: Forging an Ethnological Approach to Celtic Studies.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and Gibson, 1-7. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/583XXU9Z.
  9. (Brun 1995, 15) Brun, Patrice. 1995. "From chiefdom to state organization in Celtic Europe." In Celtic chiefdom, Celtic state. New Directions in Archaeology, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, 13-25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  10. (Brun 2007, 381) Brun, Patrice. 2007. “Une Période de Transition Majeure En Europe: De La Fin Du IVe Au Début Du IIe s. Av. J.-C.(La Tène B2 et C).” In La Gaule Dans Son Contexte Européen Aux IV e et III e Siècle Avant Notre Ère, edited by Christine Mennessier-Jouannet, Anne-Marie Adam, and Pierre-Yves Milcent, 377-84. Lattes: Edition de l’Association pour le Développement de l’Archéologie en Languedoc-Roussillon. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D2ET47FZ.
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  40. (https://twitter.com/europeshistory/status/630725341313548288)
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  62. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
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