FrHallB

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Hallstatt B2-3 ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Hallstatt culture; Hallstatt; Western Hallstatt; Atlantic Complex; North-Alpine Complex ♥ Paris Basin straddles the "North-Alpine Complex" and the "Atlantic Complex" cultural region [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 900-700 BCE ♥ Early Hallstatt culture (900-600) based in Austria


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [2]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ vassalage ♥

Point against: the Paris Basin region was very much on the periphery of the Hallstatt zone and their local chiefs might not have been close enough to the important trade center (Austria) to have been vassals at any time.


Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)

"The Mediterranean world-economy integrated the North-Alpine complex during Hallstatt B2-3/C. The Greek and Etruscan towns experienced an increasing demand for raw materials which led them to enlarge their supply areas until they embraced a large part of the continent. In this vast exchange system, certain well-positioned local chiefs played the role of privileged intermediaries. They were able to monopolize trade and exchange, and controlled the supply of Mediterranean prestigue goods, ultimately extending their influence into neighbouring territories. They reduced local rulers to vassal status. " [3]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt A-B1 ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt C ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Hallstatt ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Hallstatt culture, named after an archaeological site in Austria and traditionally divided into four phases, was the main cultural complex in Western Europe during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age. It coincides with the North Alpine complex, extending over modern-day central and southern Germany, northern Italy, and Switzerland.[4]

Population and political organization

In the Hallstatt B period (c. 1000-800 BCE),[5] the North Alpine cultural complex gradually became incorporated in trade networks dominated by Greek and Etruscan settlements. Hallstatt chiefs mediated the supply of Mediterranean prestige goods in their own spheres of exchange.[6]
The average scale of integration of Hallstatt B polities extended to include land within a roughly 25-kilometre radius.[7] The maximal territorial extent of polities could be as much as 1000 square kilometres, as in the case of Wessex.[8]
In this period, a three-tiered settlement hierarchy can be discerned archaeologically. Previous units fragmented: new autonomous communities polarized around fortified sites, the proportion of which increased. Tumuli became a more noticeable feature in the Hallstatt B landscape, and iron-working activity became much more prevalent.[9]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,500-2,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Around 900-700 BCE, politically independent polities in the northern alpine region (which includes central France [10]) had a radius of about 25 km, which gives an area of about 1,964 sq kilometers. [11]

[12]

Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC) -- these quotes reflects disagreement from same author. However, since it is an earlier publication will ignore and code the most recent research. In 1995 he does note that Wessex communities reached 1000 km2 in extent.

Territorial scale: "The economic foundations put in place in the ninth and eighth centuries BC were ... incapable of supporting a political scale of integration greater than tens of square kilometers." [13]
2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)
"Each politically autonomous territory measured from 7 to 15 km in diameter during the whole period, except during periods of temporary expansion." [14]
"The Wessex communities seem to have succeeded in organizing polities 1000 km2 in extent" however "Evidence of similar polities is very rare in Europe during the same period." [15]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [250-500]: 900 BCE; [500-1000]: 800 BCE ♥ Inhabitants.

Estimate assumes fortified center that was significantly smaller than those in 6th Century but much more numerous than a small settlement that applied to a very general 2500-800 BCE period.

There was a fortified center which was possibly "the seat of the local aristocracy." [16]

Estimate of 5,000 for fortified center around 600 BCE

"Rather than a small hillfort of just a few hectares, as once believed, we can now see that in the first half of the 6th century BC Heuneburg was an enormous settlement of 100 ha and at least 5,000 inhabitants." [17]

However, 2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age) very low estimate of 100 - but this does cover a long time period

"Each autonomous political community consisted of around a hundred people on average, distributed in five to eight small settlements." [18]

"Estimates for population in different areas of Europe vary considerably, but many authors work on a figure for the Late Bronze Age of three people per square kilometre on average (Ostoja-Zagórski 1982). In particular areas this may be more or less accurate, but even allowing for low densities in those areas where the carrying capacity of the land was relatively low (for instance in high mountains or dense scrubland) the implications for Europe as a whole are enormous." [19]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.


1. Fortified center

Includes cemeteries of tumuli and is "the seat of the local aristocracy." [20]

2. Village

3. Farmstead


Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)

"the settlement pattern changes markedly. There is a great increase in the number of fortified sites. Small cemeteries of tumuli appear, often close to the fortifications. Typologies of ceramic and metal objects indicate the fragmentation of previous cultural units. Bronze hoards become more numerous - they are larger and their composition is more varied. Iron working becomes widespread. Rare earlier, iron objects increase rapidly in number during the ninth and eighth centuries BC. ... A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory."[21]

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [22]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Regional aristocratic chief

2. Local chief

3. Headman


Hallstatt B2/3-C(900-600 BC)

A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory."[23]

2500-800 BCE (European Bronze Age)

"centralization of power but only at a restricted scale and in three forms (Brun and Pion 1992): 1. A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms. 2. A cluster of farmsteads polarized by a village, near which is found the territorial sanctuary. ... 3. Identical in organization to #2, but the central role of the village is held by a fortification. It appears that this type of settlement owes its existence to the control it exerted over long-distance exchange, especially over exchange in metal." [24]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Same as earlier period as no new information to code higher.


♠ Military levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

Warrior society implies at least 2 levels of military hierarchy.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Warrior society that had smithing specialists who produced armor. Probably warriors were aristocrats who were sustained by own resources. If, however, they received resources or land from king in exchange for service at any time, and they trained, then code present.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Silo" present during this time period. [25] Does this refer to food storage?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Voire" or road is known in France in this period [26] but the two cases are far from the Paris basin region, apparently associated with the Mediterranean and Alps trade.
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ See reference [27]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Is it reasonable to infer from the warrior society the presence of messengers?
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [28]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "In the Halstatt and early La Tene periods, helmets were made of bronze. Iron helmets first appeared in the 4th century BC and gradually replaced the softer alloy, possibly in response to the development of the long slashing sword." [29]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [30] Javelins used on the continent.[31]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Mainly used in the British Isles at this time.[32]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [33] Bows used on the continent.[34]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of composite bows in past and future polities in Paris Basin
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the absence of crossbows in past and future polities in Paris Basin
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequenct (quasi)polities.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [35] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[36]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [37] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[38]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [39] "long slashing swords representative of the aristocratic warrior" from 8th century onwards. [40] "Bronze age swords found by Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, estimated to be 3,000 year old."[41] Battle axe more common in the East Hallstatt area while in the Western Hallstatt region use of the dagger and sword was more common.[42]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and particularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [43]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequenct (quasi)polities.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ "From the 8th century BC onwards, the graves of the Halstatt aristocracy are characterized by four-wheeled vehicles together with bits and other items of horse harness" [44] A cart wheel found at the archaeological site at Must Farm in the United Kingdom, and a horse's spine found nearby, might suggest Britons of this time used domesticated horses to pull wheeled vehicles. This British village over water would have been unlikely to possess a chariot but it shows that the functional use of horses was widespread in northwest Europe at this time.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Wicker-work likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[45]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Leather likely. Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[46]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ No finds within France until 620-560 BCE. ("Umbo" = shield boss?) [47] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[48]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Finds within France during this time period but not close to Paris Basin region. [49] Organic/metal armour, shields, helmets.[50]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "Early Halstatt bronze cuirass from Marmesse, northern France, dated to the 8th century BC. The style is reminiscent of the early Greek 'bell' cuirass." [51]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous and subsequenct (quasi)polities.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Chaîne de suspension" present. Is this chainmail? [52] Organic chain mail suits appear in iron age.[53] Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples.[54]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Some fortified villages that appear to be associated with long-distance exchange networks. [55]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Finds close to Paris Basin region. [56]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ "Mur terre" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [57]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Rempart en pierres seches" finds within France but not close to the Paris Basin region. [58]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Hallstatt 900-600 BCE: "A small fortification, the seat of the local aristocracy, polarizes each politically autonomous territory."[59] 2500-800 BCE European Bronze Age: "A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms."[60]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [61] [62] [63]

References

  1. (Brun 1995, 14)
  2. (Brun 1995, 15)
  3. (Brun 1995, 22-23)
  4. (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  5. (CNRS-ENS 2017) CNRS-ENS. 2017. “Atlas de L’âge Du Fer.” Accessed July 7. http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/patlas. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/HUKZMF9J.
  6. (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  7. (Brun 2007, 381) Brun, Patrice. 2007. “Une Période de Transition Majeure En Europe: De La Fin Du IVe Au Début Du IIe s. Av. J.-C.(La Tène B2 et C).” In La Gaule Dans Son Contexte Européen Aux IV e et III e Siècle Avant Notre Ère, edited by Christine Mennessier-Jouannet, Anne-Marie Adam, and Pierre-Yves Milcent, 377-84. Lattes: Edition de l’Association pour le Développement de l’Archéologie en Languedoc-Roussillon. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/D2ET47FZ.
  8. (Brun 1995, 14) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
  9. (Brun 1995, 15) Brun, Patrice. 1995. “From Chiefdom to State Organization in Celtic Europe.” In Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, edited by Bettina Arnold and D. Blair Gibson, Cambridge University Press, 13-25. Cambridge. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RZWRCEPH.
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  33. (http://www.chronocarto.ens.fr/gcserver/atlas#)
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  41. (https://twitter.com/europeshistory/status/630725341313548288)
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