FrCarlE

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Carolingian Empire I ♥ Early phase 752 - 840 CE

♠ Alternative names ♣ Francia; Kingdom of the Franks; Regnum Francorum ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 811 CE ♥

811 CE was the year of the death of Charlemagne. After 811 CE the Carolingian Empire stopped expanding. 811 CE was also the start date of a gradual rise in sociopolitical instability which resulted ultimately in a complete split of the kingdom.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 752-840 CE ♥

The year 752 CE was the start year of the Carolingian dynasty. During the period 687 CE to 752 CE the Carolingians were already the effectual rulers, as mayors of the palace, yet there was still a Merovingian figurehead as king.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ ♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Proto-Carolingian ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ New dynasty composed of a different branch of elites, but no substantial population change, and no elite migration.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Carolingian Empire II ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latin Christendom ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 17,000,000 ♥ km squared. Latin Christendom was roughly equivalent to the maximum extent of the former Roman Empire? The rough limits of Christianity in this period: the area that is now northeastern Germany would be converted by force under Charlemagne, while the area south of Rome, in particular Calabria, Puglia, and Basilicata, was as much part of the Eastern Orthodox world as that of Latin Christendom, although these distinctions did not exist then.


♠ Capital ♣ Aachen; Aix la Chapelle ♥ Aachen was the capital city for the full period.

♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥ Administrative and military affairs were all conducted in Latin. A multitude of other languages were also spoken, including Old French, Old German, dialects of Gaelic, dialects of Old Latin, Breton, Italian dialects, ... .

General Description

Members of the Carolingian Dynasty had served as mayors of the palace under the Merovingian kings from the late 7th century CE onwards, wielding substantial power behind the throne. In 752 CE, however, Childeric III (last of the Merovingian rulers) was deposed and they seized outright control of the Frankish realm.[1][2] With the new dynasty the capital moved east: Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, became the main royal residence of the Carolingian monarchs until the empire began to disintegrate in the 9th century.[3]
Charlemagne was the most powerful Carolingian king, but after his death in 811 CE, the empire stopped expanding. The year 811 also marked the beginning of a rise in sociopolitical instability that resulted ultimately in a complete split of the kingdom. After the 843 CE Treaty of Verdun, the Carolingian lands were partitioned among Louis the Pious' sons: Charles took the west, Louis the German the east, and Lothair took the Frankish territory between these two regions.[4] The Treaty of Meerssen (870 CE) resulted in the absorption of the central Frankish realm into West and East Francia, forming a boundary that even now endures as the border between France and Germany.[5] The empire was briefly reunited from 884 to 887 under Charles the Fat,[6] but as a rule the Frankish lands remained politically fragmented from the mid-9th century to 987 CE, when power passed to the Capetian Dynasty.[7]
This polity represents the early period of Carolingian rule, from 752 to 840 CE.

Population and political organization

In the Carolingian era, the lands under Frankish control grew considerably and an administrative system was developed in order to govern this large territory.[8] One official position that first appeared in this period was the missus dominicus (king's representative), who could be sent out from the court to inspect the counties and pass on the king's decrees.[9] Decrees were sometimes set down in documents called capitularies.[10] However, capitularies post-dating 843 CE are only found in West Francia, and they stopped being produced there too after the death of Charles the Bald in 877.[11][12] This might suggest that the office of missus dominicus did not exist beyond that date and did not survive the rise in instability.
The Carolingian kings ruled in an essentially decentralized fashion like the Merovingians before them. Control over the regions was delegated to fief holders, often hereditary vassals of the king.[13] The king ruled by decree[14] and under Charlemagne (r. 800-814 CE) counties were established as the basic unit of governance.[15] Counts were responsible for enforcing local laws, dispensing justice and setting taxes.[16] By 850 CE, almost every county in West Francia also had a viscount, who assisted the count in his duties.[17]
During Charlemagne's reign, the population of Gaul probably reached 5 million[18] but levels of urbanization were low in these supposed 'dark ages' of medieval France: no town reached over 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and 1000 CE.[19]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,100,000 ♥ kilometers square


Lombardie774 + Duche Spanish March; 778 Bavaria 787 Papal States; 800 Saxony 777to797: 3 separate rebellions, if anything 777 Breton 770s DB will check Septomania (next to spanish marches) 759

The Alps is the border between Lombardia and Bavaria


♠ Polity Population ♣ {15,000,000; 20,000,000}: 811 CE ♥

The Gaul part of the kingdom counted around 811 CE 5,000,000 inhabitants.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [20,000-30,000] ♥

The polity was largely de-urbanized and the two biggest cities (Rome and Paris) had a relatively low population level. " It is estimated that the population of Paris was 20,000-30,000 by the 8th century." [20]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥

1. Large town

"no town surpassed 10,000 inhabitants between the 8th century and the year 1000."[21]
2. Small town
3. Hamlet
90% population lived in rural settlements[22]

All urban settlements had very low population levels.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥


1. King


_Court institution_


Philip II (1180-1223 CE) had "a small group of close counsellers who held offices with particular, if not always specialized, functions. Philip also employed royal agents in the demesne, and outside, to carry on the routine work of government and to enforce the changes which he introduced./ We speak of departments, and we know of the existence of a chancery and a chamber, but we should be mistaken to see these as entirely separated organizations. Household departments do not emerge until the reign of St Louis, but they were in the process of formation in Philip's time. The close counsellors and the clerks could still move from one area of the administration to another, and often did.../ Central government was organized under a few major officials: the chancellor, the seneschal, the butler, the chamberlain and the constable. These originated as household officials with specific functions. By the beginning of the twelfth century these offices had been taken over by leading magnates. Under Philip, one or two magnates held such titles ... But the trend was to pass office, and sometimes title, to more humble men and their professional staff, for example marshals assisting the constables."[23]

2.
3.
4.


_Neustria and Austrasia_

2. Subkingdom / areas were ruled by an Archbishop
directly appointed by the king and non-hereditary position
Usually this extra level filled in as 'subkingdoms' and these positions were often held by family members, e.g. Italy, Acquitania, and Bavaria.
2. Missi Dominici/Vasi Dominici
3. Notables/lords/mayors/vicars.
DB: How do 'comes/count' fit into this story? Are they relevant?
4. Pagi
DB: How do 'pagus' fit into this story? Are they relevant?


♠ Religious levels ♣ [6-7] ♥

Note: hierarchy might need fine-tuning to conditions in Carolingian France


1. Pope

Pope is primus inter pares among the five patriarchs.[24]
2. Metropolitans and archbishops
"the term 'bishop' applies to patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops (both suffragan and assistant bishops or chorepiskopoi) throughout the Byzantine period. After the 'ecumenical' patriarch of Constantinople, who after the seventh century occupied the only remaining patriarchal seat under Byzantine rule, metropolitans held the second highest rank in the Orthodox Church."[25]
"The title 'archbishop' emerged in special cases, for example in important cities such as Athens which did not possess a metropolitan."[26]
3. Bishops and Chorepiskopoi
Bishops and Chorepiskopoi form one rank below the metropolitans and archbishops[27]
3. Priest
"In the early Church, priests or presbyters served as advisers, teachers, and ministers who assisted the bishops to whom they were assigned."[28]
4. Deacon
"Deacons assisted the priest or bishop at the Divine Liturgy, baptisms, and other sacraments. ... Various administrative and pastoral jobs were delegated to deacons from an early period; they helped bishops to dispense charity to the community, manage the diocese's finances and property, and to deal with other official business (Laodikeia, canons 21, 23, 25). Deacons were subject to the authority of both bishops and priests, but they came to exercise considerable power, especially in the patriarchate of Constantinople."[29]
4. Deaconess (diakonissa)
"The deaconess's chief liturgical role was to assist at the baptisms of women; she also acted as a mediator between women parishioners and their bishops, kept order among female members of the congregation, and ministered especially to women."[30]
5. Subdeacon
"The rank of subdeacon provided a stepping-stone to that of deacon; its duties were similar to those of the deacon."[31]
6. Reader (anagnostesj
"A reader is a member of the lower clergy with the responsibility of reading, usually from the ambo, passages from the Epistles and the Old Testament prescribed for offices and the Divine Liturgy."[32]
7. Minor orders
"Other members of the minor clerical orders included doorkeepers, exorcists, cantors, and widows. All of these officials helped in either liturgical, administrative, or pastoral functions. Most would have received payment from their dioceses, or, in the case of private foundations, from their donors, but it is likely that most would have been engaged in secular professions in order to supplement their incomes."[33]

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

Here too the two structures of the kingdom result in a different military hierarchy.

For the area under direct rule, the structure is: King, vassals (dukes, marquises, lords, barons), sub-vassals (notables/nobles, lords, knights), infantrymen/cavalry

For the area under indirect rule, the structure is: King, Counts/sub-kings, vassals, sub-vassals, infantrymen/cavalry

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ absent but with the exception of bodyguards

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In the Carolingian era, the lands under Frankish control grew considerably and an administrative system was developed in order to govern this large territory.[34] One official position that first appeared in this period was the missus dominicus (king's representative), who could be sent out from the court to inspect the counties and pass on the king's decrees.[35] However, it is not clear whether this or other administrative positions were full-time.

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In the Carolingian era, the lands under Frankish control grew considerably and an administrative system was developed in order to govern this large territory.[36] One official position that first appeared in this period was the missus dominicus (king's representative), who could be sent out from the court to inspect the counties and pass on the king's decrees.[37] However, it is not clear how this or other administrative positions were obtained.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In the Carolingian era, the lands under Frankish control grew considerably and an administrative system was developed in order to govern this large territory.[38] One official position that first appeared in this period was the missus dominicus (king's representative), who could be sent out from the court to inspect the counties and pass on the king's decrees.[39] However, it is not clear how this or other administrative positions were obtained.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ King ruled by decree. His laws were often recorded in documents called capitularies but after division of Empire in 843 CE they were only found in West Francia and then not beyond 877 CE.[40]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ DB: can you provide details here in a short descriptive paragraph? DH: later period has inferred absent here -- | any clear indication of a change between periods?

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ There were definitely court buildings, but these were probably used for other purposes.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Self representation was common.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ although there were some private initiatives
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Water channels used for fresh water in Early Medieval Francia. Squatriti mentions an aqueduct built for Le Mans by Bishop Aldric: "From the fourth century onward, in fact, water evergetism in the peninsular survived by assuming new forms. Much as was the case in ninth-century Le Mans, in late antique Italy bishops replaced secular builders of aqueducts. Indeed, by Aldric's day, Italy had developed a distinguished tradition of episcopal involvement in urban water supply. [41]
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ unknown 620-625 CE repair work was undertaken on the reventments of the Corbulo canal at the Roman castellum of Leiden-Room-burg (Matilo).[42]
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "France possesses no precious metal resources and little copper. Iron ores are abundant, and there are regional deposits of lead, zinc, and coal. All of these were exploited during the Middle Ages. Evidence for ironworking exists from Merovingian France onward." [43]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ For example, the works of Saint Augustine. DB: is 'Josephus Scottus' another good example?
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Rule books, manuals.
♠ History ♣ present ♥ These works were mostly editions of classical authors. DB: are Einhard's 'Life of Charlemagne' and Paul the Deacon good examples? Can you add additional examples?
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ These works were mostly editions of classical authors
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ These works were mostly editions of classical authors
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ These works were mostly editions of classical authors, although there were also some new poems and fables. DB: can you provide examples?


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Payment in kind likely widespread among commoners.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ At least in the Early Carolingian period the most common foreign coins in use were Byzantine and Arab coins.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The majority of the coins were made of silver. There were also some gold coins. "240 silver pence equalled one pound of silver."[44]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Likely only for the wealthy.
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets.[45]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets.[46]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets.[47]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Writing in the 14th century, Ibn Hudhayl "described Frankish swords as mudakkar with 'steel edges on an iron body, unlike those of India.'"[48] "The carbon content of Western blades is much lower, but their hardness can be increased by quenching (an easier process when only thin bands of steel along the edges are involved). Despite the evident superiority of crucible steels, Western blades offered a useful combination of properties, at presumably a much lower price, than Oriental ones, and there are references to their being exported to Muslim lands, for examples, Saracen pirates demanded 150 Carolingian swords as part of the ransom for Archbishop Rotland of Arles in 869."[49]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[50]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[51] Carolingian period: "Carolingian military organization was based primarily on that of their Merovingian predecessors, who had built on later Roman institutions ... Archers and slingers fighting on foot supported the battle line."[52]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "The bow was first used by the Franks in the 4th century but did not become a required arm of the Frankish infantry until the time of Charlemagne." [53] Cart-drivers given bow and arrow.[54] Wooden staffs were banned and bows were encouraged instead.[55] "The early Frankish bow was a very long (five- to six-foot) yew bow. By the ninth century, a shorter bow was more typical. Unlike the late Roman double-convex bow, which was very much like modern bows, the Frankish bow was straight and flat..."[56]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The bow was first used by the Franks in the 4th century but did not become a required arm of the Frankish infantry until the time of Charlemagne. These early archers generally were equipped with a short bow of simple wood construction. But in the following centuries bows were improved by the addition of horn, sinew, and glue in a composite construction complete with angled ears to give more pull to the bowstring." [57]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[58]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[59] Torsion catapults.[60]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[61]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Wooden staffs were banned and bows were encouraged instead.[62]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Axes were an infantry weapon.[63] "The seax was a cross between an ax and a short sword. It was single edged, made of iron, and was used for hacking rather than piercing."[64]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not common as not usually listed as a weapon.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Used by cavalry.[65] Short sword[66] used by infantry.
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Used by cavalry, though initially not with a charge.[67] Poor men used as infantry carried shield and spear.[68]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not common as not usually listed as a weapon.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[69]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[70]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry. Artists included the stirrup in their drawings of Carolingian cavalry from the late ninth century CE.[71]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ David Baker says absent.[72]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ David Baker says absent.[73]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Poor men used as infantry carried shield and spear.[74] ET: Presumably this shield would have to have been made out of wood?
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Bronze, leather and iron.[75]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Is a large round shield being carried by cavalry in the period art on this page (the authors used it to demonstrate the presence of the stirrup)?[76] Poor men used as infantry carried shield and spear.[77]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Bronze, leather and iron were used to make helmets but only the wealthy had them.[78]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ The few who could afford it used body armour.[79] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors."[80] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[81] David Baker says present.[82]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The few who could afford it used body armour.[83] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors."[84] David Baker says present.[85]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ The few who could afford it used body armour.[86] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors."[87] Wealthy expected to use mail armour.[88] David Baker says present.[89]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ The few who could afford it used body armour.[90] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors."[91] David Baker says present.[92]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ The few who could afford it used body armour.[93] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors."[94] David Baker says absent.[95]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ The few who could afford it used body armour.[96] The military retinue of kings and magnates (including clergy) "had the most complete equipment and were virtually professional warriors."[97] David Baker says absent.[98] c1250-1330 CE: "development of weapons capable of piercing mail: the gradual introduction of pieces of plate (at first of whalebone, horn, and boiled leather, as well as of the iron and steel that ultimately prevailed) to cover an ever larger part of the mail). By 1330, every part of the body of a knight was normally protected by one or several plates... By 1410, the various pieces of plate, including a breastplate and backplate instead of the earlier coat of plates, were all connected by straps and rivets in an articulated suit, or 'harness,' of polished steel."[99] David Baker says absent.[100]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[101]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[102]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ For example galleys. The navy was very small. The Mediterranean Sea was dominated by the Arabs and the Byzantines.[103]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[104] "Forts and Castles Castles were not terribly common in the Carolingian age. The great age of castle construction was the eleventh and twelfth centuries during the social, economic, and political revolution that strengthened the aristocracy and handed control of the lands to its members. Castles became essential to maintain this inequitable structure, but in the Carolingian age there were some castles and heavily defended towns that required siege methods to overcome."[105]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[106] Since palisades are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used). David Baker says present.[107]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[108] Since earth ramparts are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used). David Baker says present.[109]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[110] Since ditches are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ A monastery in a region of recently pacified Saxons had "an encircling moat and a strong wall, which extended to the River Weser. Towers fortified the four corners and gate towers secured the entrance into the monastery precinct. The site was originally the location of a Roman castelllum."[111]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[112] Carolingian castles "used the standard building techniques employed by all since the Romans ... built in stone with crenellation ... round and square tower construction, and interior battlements, often built of wood."[113]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ David Baker says present.[114]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ David Baker says absent.[115] "Forts and Castles Castles were not terribly common in the Carolingian age. The great age of castle construction was the eleventh and twelfth centuries during the social, economic, and political revolution that strengthened the aristocracy and handed control of the lands to its members. Castles became essential to maintain this inequitable structure, but in the Carolingian age there were some castles and heavily defended towns that required siege methods to overcome."[116] Carolingians built both Roman and Saxon style fortresses.[117]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ There is no usage of larger remains of the Roman limes. [118]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ David Baker says absent.[119]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Throne was inherited within the Carolingian dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “With the advent of the Carolingian Empire, the situation changes. Kingship was seen as no less sacred than the papacy. The Holy Roman Emperor is God’s anointed, compared to David and Solomon and Christ himself. Indeed, the anointing of kings is numbered by some among the sacraments, and seen as investing the king with responsibility for, and power over, the Church. For a theorist of royal power like Jonas of Orleans (c.780-842/43), the task of the king was “to govern the people of God,” a term that now referred, not to a group who have been called by God out of a larger social whole (1 Peter 2:9-10; Revelation 8:14), but simply to the people of Europe (The Institution of the King §4, in O’Donovan and O’Donovan, 1999: 218).” [120]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ The emperor was God's anointed, not God himself. “With the advent of the Carolingian Empire, the situation changes. Kingship was seen as no less sacred than the papacy. The Holy Roman Emperor is God’s anointed, compared to David and Solomon and Christ himself. Indeed, the anointing of kings is numbered by some among the sacraments, and seen as investing the king with responsibility for, and power over, the Church. For a theorist of royal power like Jonas of Orleans (c.780-842/43), the task of the king was “to govern the people of God,” a term that now referred, not to a group who have been called by God out of a larger social whole (1 Peter 2:9-10; Revelation 8:14), but simply to the people of Europe (The Institution of the King §4, in O’Donovan and O’Donovan, 1999: 218).” [121]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [122] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [123][124].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [125]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [126]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "For all Christians, lay, clerk, or monk, alms-giving was a duty, for alms were more efficacious than fasts in erasing sins. Great folk could never forget the poor who haunted the doors of their dining halls and packed themselves into church porticos. To assure themselves a welcome from the Great Judge, aristocrats prepared for distributions of alms at their deaths to individuals or establishments who could share them out more efficiently." [127]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ "Hospitality was also a form of alms-giving. As Charlemagne wrote in 789: 'Let there be hospices in different places for travelers, places in monasteries and clerical communities to welcome the poor. For the Lord said, 'Reward will come on the great day; I was a guest, and you gave me welcome.' In the ninth century, Hincmar wrote: 'Priests of the diocese ought to take care of guests, particularly the poor and infirm as well as orphans and travelers. They should admit as many as possible to table every day and provide them with a place to stay in a proper manner.' [...] The maintenance of hostelries was a heavy charge. Bishops and abbots budgeted regularly designated resources for that purpose. In 817, Louis the Pious reminded bishops that they were to reserve part of the Church's goods and the tithe from their domains for that purpose. [...] Anyone who knocked at the door of the monastery was to be not only fed but nursed. [...] Abbey doctors could not refuse care to those who asked for it. But above all monks were spiritual doctors. They knew that maladies were caused by vice and sent as salutary chastisement. If human remedies failed to relieve the illness, they appealed to the bounty of God with prayer and visits to the tombs of saints to ask their intercession." [128]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [129] [130] [131]

References

  1. (Wood 1994, 292) Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. London: Longman. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/ARUIRN35.
  2. (Morby and Rozier 2014) Morby, John E., and Charlie Rozier. 2014. Dynasties of the World. 2nd ed., online edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780191780073.001.0001. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3C5IVS6E.
  3. (Chazelle 1995, 31) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Aix-La-Chapelle.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 31-32. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/J93C7T3S.
  4. (Chazelle 1995, 332) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  5. (Chazelle 1995, 332-33) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  6. (Chazelle 1995, 333) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  7. (Bouchard 1995, 312) Bouchard, Constance B. 1995. “Capetian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 312-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2SNRCJVG.
  8. (Chazelle 1995, 329-30) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  9. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  10. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  11. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  12. (Chazelle 1995, 318) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Capitulary.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 318-19. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/K3U2V585.
  13. (Nicolle 1995, 18) Nicolle, David. 2005. Carolingian Cavalryman AD 768-987. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QHXZFXS3.
  14. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  15. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  16. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  17. (Boulton 1995, 1822) Boulton, D’A. Jonathan D. 1995. “Viscount/Viscounty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1822-23. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IZK522AK.
  18. (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1415) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Population and Demography.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1415-17. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QI73FMSM.
  19. (Percy, Jr. 1995, 1739) Percy, Jr., William A. 1995. “Towns.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 1739-40. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Z3F9HKUJ.
  20. (Kibler 1995, 1316)
  21. (Percy Jr 1995, 1739-1740 CE)
  22. (Percy Jr 1995)
  23. (Bradbury 2013, 249) Jim Bradbury. 2015. Philip Augustus: King of France 1180-1223. Routledge.
  24. (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)
  25. (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  26. (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  27. (Preiser-Kapeller 2015, Personal Communication)
  28. (Cunningham 2008, 529) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  29. (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  30. (Cunningham 2008, 531) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  31. (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  32. (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  33. (Cunningham 2008, 532) Jeffreys E, Haldon J and Cormack R eds. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  34. (Chazelle 1995, 329-30) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  35. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  36. (Chazelle 1995, 329-30) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  37. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  38. (Chazelle 1995, 329-30) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  39. (Chazelle 1995, 330) Chazelle, Celia. 1995. “Carolingian Dynasty.” In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn, Lawrence Earp, and John Bell Henneman, Jr., 328-34. New York: Garland Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/F3ZBDZSD.
  40. (Chazelle 1995, 330, 318)
  41. (Squatriti 2002, 13) Paolo Squatriti. 2002. Water and Society in Early Medieval Italy, AD 400-1000. Cambridge University Press.
  42. (Lodewijckx ed. 2004, 19) Lodewijckx, M ed. 2004. Bruc ealles well: archaeological essays concerning the peoples of North-West Europe in the first millennium AD. Leuven University Press. Leuven.
  43. (Hall in Kibler et al 1995, 1177)
  44. (Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)
  45. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  46. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  47. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  48. (Williams 2012, 35) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  49. (Williams 2012, 36) Alan Williams. 2012. The Sword and the Crucible: A History of the Metallurgy of European Swords Up to the 16th Century. BRILL. Leiden.
  50. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  51. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  52. (Bachrach 2001, x) Barnard S Bachrach. 2001. Early Carolingian Warfare: Prelude to Empire. University of Pennsylvania Press. Philadelphia.
  53. (De Vries in Kibler et al 1995, 114)
  54. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  55. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  56. (Butt 2002, 43) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  57. (De Vries in Kibler et al 1995, 114)
  58. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  59. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  60. (Butt 2002, 38-39) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  61. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  62. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  63. (Butt 2002, 42) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  64. (Butt 2002, 43) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  65. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  66. (Butt 2002, 40) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  67. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  68. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  69. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  70. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  71. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  72. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  73. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  74. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  75. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  76. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  77. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 13) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  78. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  79. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  80. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  81. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  82. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  83. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  84. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  85. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  86. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  87. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  88. (Butt 2002, 40) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  89. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  90. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  91. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  92. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  93. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  94. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  95. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  96. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 12) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  97. (Hooper and Bennett 1996, 14) Nicholas Hooper. Matthew Bennett. 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages, 768-1487. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  98. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  99. (Boulton 1995 67-68) Jonathan D Boulton. Armor And Weapons. William W Kibler. Grover A Zinn. Lawrence Earp. John Bell Henneman Jr. 1995. Routledge Revivals: Medieval France (1995): An Encyclopedia. Routledge. Abingdon.
  100. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  101. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  102. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  103. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  104. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  105. (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  106. (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  107. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  108. (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  109. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  110. (Jones 1999, 171-172) Richard L C Jones. Fortifications and Sieges in Western Europe, c.800-1450. Maurice Keen. ed. 1999. Medieval Warfare: A History. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  111. (Schutz 2004, 354) Herbert Schutz. 2004. The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts, and Architecture: A Cultural History of Central Europe, 750-900. BRILL. Leiden.
  112. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  113. (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  114. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  115. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  116. (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  117. (Butt 2002, 38) John J Butt. 2002. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne. Greenwood Publishing Group. Westport.
  118. (Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. April 2020. Email)
  119. David Baker. Personal communication to Seshat Databank.
  120. Bauerschmidt, F.C. 2007. The Middle Ages. In Pomplun, T., F.C. Bauerschmidt and J.J. Buckley (eds) ‘’The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism’’ pp. 49-62. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  121. Bauerschmidt, F.C. 2007. The Middle Ages. In Pomplun, T., F.C. Bauerschmidt and J.J. Buckley (eds) ‘’The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism’’ pp. 49-62. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  122. Woodhead, L. 2014. Christianity: A Short introduction p. 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  123. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  124. James, L. 2008. The Role of Women. In Jeffries, E., J. Haldon and R. Cormack (eds) ‘’The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies’’ pp. 643-651. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  125. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  126. Evans, G.R. 2007. ‘’The Church in the Early Middle Ages’’ p. 65. London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
  127. Riche, P. 1978. Daily Life in the World of Charlemagne p. 270. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  128. Riche, P. 1978. Daily Life in the World of Charlemagne pp. 270-272. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  129. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  130. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  131. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html


Nelson, J. L. 2000. Carolingian royal funerals. In Theuws, F. and J. Laughland Nelson (eds.) Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. pp 131-184. Brill: Leiden.