FrAtlBA

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Atlantic Complex ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Western European Earlier Bronze Age; Bronze ancien; Bronze moyen; Bronze tardif; Channel North Sea Province ♥ Bronze ancien, moyen and tardif correspond to the French periodization of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age.[1] Western European Earlier Bronze Age. [2] "The west coast of France falls within the extensive cultural province referred to as 'Channel-North Sea', which also incorporates the south of England and Flanders." [3]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2200-1000 BCE ♥ 1800-1300 BCE [4]


Dates and periodizations for the Bronze Age in Atlantic Europe [5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Beaker Culture ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "Two major changes take place in the earlier Bronze Age to differentiate it from the preceding Bell Beaker and earlier traditions is (I) the use of bronze, primarily for weapons and ornaments; (2) the burial in single graves (i.e., noncom- munal), and in many areas under a small mound of earth; and (3) the construction of fortified settlements, particularly in central Europe." [6]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Hallstatt A-B1 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Bronze Age Europe ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ none ♥

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Early Bronze Age on the Atlantic seaboard of Western Europe lasted from around 1800 to 1300 BCE.[7] Several technological and social changes marked this period, taking place in an area expanding over what is now the south of England, west and central France, and Flanders,[8] but also Portugal and Spain.[9] Metals were used to craft new types of weapons and ornaments, beginning with copper and then bronze axes, used for working wood and individual defence,[10] and culminating in more complex forms of weaponry like swords, daggers and halberds.[11] However, most of the artefacts characterizing this period were items of personal jewellery such as torcs, anklets, and pins.[12] The trade of these materials formed a vast European network of exchange.[13]

Population and political organization

Over the course of the Early Bronze Age, several trends originating in the Beaker period were reinforced: political integration was one of them. Two tiers of social hierarchy can be inferred from burial patterns. While most of these differences were tied to individual achievements over one's lifetime, social status could also be inherited. Indeed, children have been found in elite burials containing prestigious items, contrasting with the much simpler tombs of commoners.[14]
The construction of fortified settlements intensified, following a two-tiered settlement hierarchy. Simple hamlets corresponded to one or more extended families. Elsewhere, small fortified towns were built on raised areas of land and surrounded by walls and ditches.[15]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ [1000-2000] ♥

"Settlements varied between two primary forms in the Earlier Bronze Age. One was a simple hamlet of several small, square structures, probably housing one or more extended family groups. The other was a fortified town, usually built on an easily defended prominence and surrounded by a series of walls and ditches." [16] - from this quote I estimate 1000-2000 on basis that we have already about 1000 for Beaker Culture.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [1000-2000] ♥

"Towns began to appear in the late first millennium over much of Europe, with considerable populations and large-scale industrial activity." [17] - from this quote I estimate 1000-2000 on basis that we have already about 1000 for Beaker Culture.


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. "Towns began to appear in the late first millennium over much of Europe, with considerable populations and large-scale industrial activity." [18] From this we can infer that most settlements before the 1st millennium BCE were villages or hamlets. "Settlements varied between two primary forms in the Earlier Bronze Age. One was a simple hamlet of several small, square structures, probably housing one or more extended family groups. The other was a fortified town, usually built on an easily defended prominence and surrounded by a series of walls and ditches." [19]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. "The production of bronze objects has suggested to many scholars that, just as trade became more complex, sociopolitical organization may have become more complex as well. This idea seems to be reinforced by the presence of fortified towns, suggesting some degree of political integration, at least at a local level. Unfortunately, there is little formal data on sociopolitical organization for the Earlier Bronze Age. Scholars analyzing the contents of burials have suggested a two-tiered division was present in Earlier Bronze Age society, with one tier being "elites" buried with considerable wealth, the other being commoners buried with very few goods. Most scholars believe that such differences were probably achieved during the life of the individual, particularly since many of the "elite" burials contain goods associated with warriors. However, both women and men, and even some children, were buried in the "elite" style, suggesting that ascribed status differences may have been present." [20]

♠ Religious levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.♥

♠ Military levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.♥

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Coded as present for primitive irrigation systems on Beaker Culture.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "Clearly there must have been routeways along which people traveled, if only to move their animals or visit their neighbors. But were these ways formalized? Were their surfaces prepared to facilitate the passage of animals and vehicles? Only rarely is it possible to answer that question. The most famous cases are where wooden tracks were laid down across wet or boggy ground, as above all in the Somerset Levels of south-west England, but also in several other parts of Britain, in Ireland, Holland, and north-west Germany." [21]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "Quarry sites are linked with sites producing raw bronze ingots (which often resemble torcs)." [22]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "While trade in raw materials such as stone and shell had been in place for thousands of years before the Bronze Age, the bronze trade networks seem more substantial. Quarry sites are linked with sites producing raw bronze ingots (which often resemble torcs). Bronze ingots were traded to local artisans who worked them into objects, which were then traded to consumers." [23]
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ are these true tokens or do they come under articles? "While trade in raw materials such as stone and shell had been in place for thousands of years before the Bronze Age, the bronze trade networks seem more substantial. Quarry sites are linked with sites producing raw bronze ingots (which often resemble torcs). Bronze ingots were traded to local artisans who worked them into objects, which were then traded to consumers." [24]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ The first axes made of copper, and then bronze, appeared in the Early Bronze Age. They were not necessarily linked to warfare but could have had a mixed use, including woodworking and indidivual defence. The first daggers and halberds appeared soon after, and there is no doubt that these were used for warfare, even though they could also be ornaments. "Au Bronze ancien apparaissent les premières haches en cuivre puis en bronze (cat. 1 et 2). Celles-ci ne sont pas a priori liées à des activités belliqueuses, mais cela n’exclut pas une utilisation mixte, entre le travail du bois et la défense individuelle. Elles sont rapidement accompagnées de poignards (cat. 11) et de hallebardes dont l’usage ne laisse guère de doute quant à leur utilisation guerrière (même s’il peut s’agir d’armes d’apparat)." [25]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "Bronze was obviously used by the Earlier Bronze Age peoples, but its uses were surprisingly limited. Bronze was widely used for weapons, particularly swords, for axes, and for clothing pins, but otherwise the use of bronze was largely restricted to personal ornaments such as torcs, anklets, and the like. In many ways the Earlier Bronze Age saw no marked departure from earlier technology, despite the beginnings of bronze production." [26]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Spears were used from the Palaeolithic period for hunting, both handheld and as projectiles, and also served as weapons in early times, though it was not until the Middle Bronze Age when socketed metal spearheads began to be developed that spear superseded arrows as the preferred projectile. Their frequency in Bronze and Iron Age burials shows that they were used by all warriors and par- ticularly by fighters who did not own a sword." [27]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "The story of the Bronze Age is also to some extent the story of the inven- tions that occurred during it. High up on the list of these come the series of new weapons created during the period. The bow and arrow had existed since at least the Mesolithic, the dagger since the Neolithic." [28]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous quasi-polity.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Bronze was obviously used by the Earlier Bronze Age peoples, b u t its uses were surprisingly limited. Bronze was widely used for weapons, particularly swords, for axes, and for clothing pins, but otherwise the use of bronze was largely restricted to personal ornaments such as torcs, anklets, and the like. In many ways the Earlier Bronze Age saw no marked departure from earlier technology, despite the beginnings of bronze production." [29]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ The first axes made of copper, and then bronze, appeared in the Early Bronze Age. They were not necessarily linked to warfare but could have had a mixed use, including woodworking and indidivual defence. The first daggers and halberds appeared soon after, and there is no doubt that these were used for warfare, even though they could also be ornaments. "Au Bronze ancien apparaissent les premières haches en cuivre puis en bronze (cat. 1 et 2). Celles-ci ne sont pas a priori liées à des activités belliqueuses, mais cela n’exclut pas une utilisation mixte, entre le travail du bois et la défense individuelle. Elles sont rapidement accompagnées de poignards (cat. 11) et de hallebardes dont l’usage ne laisse guère de doute quant à leur utilisation guerrière (même s’il peut s’agir d’armes d’apparat)." [30]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "Bronze was obviously used by the Earlier Bronze Age peoples, but its uses were surprisingly limited. Bronze was widely used for weapons, particularly swords, for axes, and for clothing pins, but otherwise the use of bronze was largely restricted to personal ornaments such as torcs, anklets, and the like. In many ways the Earlier Bronze Age saw no marked departure from earlier technology, despite the beginnings of bronze production." [31] At the end of the Middle Bronze Age and especially in the Late Bronze Age, Normandy saw an evolution in war practices, which could have been linked to population growth. Spear heads and swords appeared and multiplied. They do not seem to have been used for hunting, but most likely for single combat or pitched battles. "À partir de la fin du Bronze moyen et surtout au Bronze final se dessine en Normandie une évolution des pratiques guerrières, peut-être liée à un accroissement démographique. Les pointes de lance et les épées qui apparaissent et se multiplient ne semblent guère avoir été utilisées pour la chasse (cat. 12-16), mais très probablement pour des combats singuliers ou en batailles rangées." [32] "Bronze age swords found by Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland, estimated to be 3,000 year old."[33]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ At the end of the Middle Bronze Age and especially in the Late Bronze Age, Normandy saw an evolution in war practices, which could have been linked to population growth. Spear heads and swords appeared and multiplied. They do not seem to have been used for hunting, but most likely for single combat or pitched battles. "À partir de la fin du Bronze moyen et surtout au Bronze final se dessine en Normandie une évolution des pratiques guerrières, peut-être liée à un accroissement démographique. Les pointes de lance et les épées qui apparaissent et se multiplient ne semblent guère avoir été utilisées pour la chasse (cat. 12-16), mais très probablement pour des combats singuliers ou en batailles rangées." [34] Reference is not specific to Paris Basin cultures so more research is needed.
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ The first axes made of copper, and then bronze, appeared in the Early Bronze Age. They were not necessarily linked to warfare but could have had a mixed use, including woodworking and individual defence. The first daggers and halberds appeared soon after, and there is no doubt that these were used for warfare, even though they could also be ornaments. "Au Bronze ancien apparaissent les premières haches en cuivre puis en bronze (cat. 1 et 2). Celles-ci ne sont pas a priori liées à des activités belliqueuses, mais cela n’exclut pas une utilisation mixte, entre le travail du bois et la défense individuelle. Elles sont rapidement accompagnées de poignards (cat. 11) et de hallebardes dont l’usage ne laisse guère de doute quant à leur utilisation guerrière (même s’il peut s’agir d’armes d’apparat)." [35]Reference is not specific to Paris Basin cultures so more research is needed.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses were widespread in Normandy in the Bronze Age, as seen in faunal evidence and the presence of horse bits. Horses were probably used for warfare and facilitated the emergence of a warrior class. "À l’âge du Bronze, son usage est généralisé et il est présent dans tous les assemblages fauniques* conséquents. [...] Par ailleurs, la découverte des éléments de mors (cat. 94) ou d’éléments de harnachement suggère un usage monté, avec un rôle qui peut se décliner entre moyen de déplacement, communication et échange, et arme de guerre. [...] Sa probable généralisation durant l’âge du Bronze a pu bouleverser de manière importante l’art de la guerre (chars de combat, cavalerie) et assurer la suprématie d’une petite élite guerrière, en même temps que permettre un accès rapide à des secteurs géographiques jusqu’alors isolés du réseau maritime et fluvial. " [36]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [37]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [38]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "Until recently, this was an isolated example at such an early date, but a recently obtained radiocarbon date for the wooden shield mould from Kilmahamogue, Co. Antrim, was 3445 ± 70 BP (1950-1540 cal BC).42 Perhaps the only surprising thing about this result is that it is still unique at so early a date. It appears to indicate that shields of organic materials were present in the Early Bronze Age, which need not in itself be surprising; its form - with concentric ribs interrupted by a V-shaped notch - is, however, otherwise only known in the Late Bronze Age (the Herzsprung type)." [39]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ "With greaves, too, the earliest exam- ples date to the early Urnfield period, as with the hoards from Cannes-Ecluse (Seine-et-Marne) and Rinyaszentkiraly (Somogy), as well as a number in the Sava valley of Croatia.50 And the same story may also be told for helmets." [40]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from previous quasi-polity.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ "With greaves, too, the earliest examples date to the early Urnfield period, as with the hoards from Cannes-Ecluse (Seine-et-Marne) and Rinyaszentkiraly (Somogy), as well as a number in the Sava valley of Croatia."
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail was introduced in the third century BCE, probably by the Celtic peoples.[41] The French Chronocarto database mentions "Chaîne de suspension" for the later Hallstatt periods. Either way, the technology was not present at this time.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [42]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [43]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The indications are therefore clear that sheet-metal armour started its life with the Urnfield period and had an earlier history in organic materials." [44]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ "Clearly identifiable but often not well dated, upland settlements are regarded as central sites in the pattern of land occupation. This is true of sites such as Fort-Harrouard on the Eure, or St-Pierre-en-Chastres, at the confluence of the Oise and the Aisne, Carsac on the Aude, and Camp Allaric on the Clain. [45]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Hill forts were common throughout much of central and western Europe in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age..." France is mentioned in text no earlier than a sixth century BCE context. "In Scotland and northern Wales the earliest forts were built in the Late Bronze Age with timber palisades constructed on hilltop sites from ca. the eighth century BC onwards".[46] Text is not conclusive. Data for Mediterranean France: "Massive defensive ramparts that have left archaeological traces were extremely rare throughout Mediterranean France during the period immediately preceding the colonial encounter. One cannot rule out the possible presence of wooden palisades surrounding settlements, although these have yet to be detected."[47]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "Excavations have shed much light on the ramparts, the first of which are established during the Middle Neolithic, with successive rebuilding taking place during the Late Neolithic, the Early Bronze Age, the Late Bronze Age, and finally the Iron Age. Etaules is a good example of such a sequence, with houses built for the most part along the inside of the house." [48] Data for Mediterranean France: "Massive defensive ramparts that have left archaeological traces were extremely rare throughout Mediterranean France during the period immediately preceding the colonial encounter. One cannot rule out the possible presence of wooden palisades surrounding settlements, although these have yet to be detected. Aside from a few sides with impressive ditches (such as Carsac in western Languedoc), the Late Bronze Age settlements at Le Baou Roux (in Provence), La Joufee (at Montmirat in eastern Languedoc), and Le Cros (in western Languedoc) are among the very few examples known with geniune ramparts during this early period."[49]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature. "Settlements varied between two primary forms in the Earlier Bronze Age. One was a simple hamlet of several small, square structures, probably housing one or more extended family groups. The other was a fortified town, usually built on an easily defended prominence and surrounded by a series of walls and ditches." [50] However, this description comes from a description of Western Europe as a whole and might not correspond to the Atlantic zone specifically. Data for Mediterranean France: "Massive defensive ramparts that have left archaeological traces were extremely rare throughout Mediterranean France during the period immediately preceding the colonial encounter. One cannot rule out the possible presence of wooden palisades surrounding settlements, although these have yet to be detected. Aside from a few sides with impressive ditches (such as Carsac in western Languedoc), the Late Bronze Age settlements at Le Baou Roux (in Provence), La Joufee (at Montmirat in eastern Languedoc), and Le Cros (in western Languedoc) are among the very few examples known with geniune ramparts during this early period."[51]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ In Mediterranean France ramparts of stone or stone/mud appear to date with the arrival of colonialists (i.e. Greeks) and were close to Massalia.[52]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ In Mediterranean France ramparts of stone or stone/mud appear to date with the arrival of colonialists (i.e. Greeks) and were close to Massalia.[53]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous quasi-polity.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in the literature.


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ 2500-800 BCE European Bronze Age: "A cluster of dispersed farms gravitate around a monument, a sort of tomb-sanctuary, which symbolizes the unity of the territorial community. This community is ruled by a chief who occupies one of the farms."[54] "Scholars analyzing the contents of burials have suggested a two-tiered division was present in Earlier Bronze Age society, with one tier being "elites" buried with considerable wealth, the other being commoners buried with very few goods. Most scholars believe that such differences were probably achieved during the life of the individual, particularly since many of the "elite" burials contain goods associated with warriors. However, both women and men, and even some children, were buried in the "elite" style, suggesting that ascribed status differences may have been present."[55]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in sources so far.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [56] [57] [58]

References

  1. (McIntosh 2006, 354)
  2. (Peregrine 2001, 412)
  3. (Mordant 2013, 573)
  4. (Peregrine 2001, 412)
  5. (Harding 2000, 15)
  6. (Peregrine 2001, 412)
  7. (Peregrine 2001, 412) Peregrine, P. N. 2001. Western European Earlier Bronze Age. In Peregrine, P.N. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Volume 4: Europe, pp.412-414. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XHZC4QMJ.
  8. (Mordant 2013, 573) Mordant, Claude. 2013. The Bronze Age in France. In Fokkens, H. and A. Harding (eds) The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age, pp. 571-593. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/QX9UG55P.
  9. (Otte 2008, 276) Otte, Marcel. 2008. La protohistoire, 2è édition. Bruxelles: de Boeck. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2PQEDZ2I.
  10. (Ghesquière in Macigny et al. 2005, 23) Cyril Marcigny, Cécile Colonna, Emmanuel Ghesquière, Guy Verron (eds) 2005. La Normandie à l'aube de l'Histoire. Les découvertes archéologiques de l’âge du Bronze 2300-800 av. J.C. Somogy, Paris. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3ZA57Q27
  11. (Ghesquière in Macigny et al 2005, 23) Marcigny, Cyril, Cécile Colonna, Emmanuel Ghesquière, and Guy Verron. 2005. La Normandie à L’aube de L'histoire : Les Découvertes Archéologiques de L'âge Du Bronze 2300-800 Av. J.-C. Paris: Somogy éd. d’art. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/3ZA57Q27.
  12. (Peregrine 2001, 413) Peregrine, P. N. 2001. Western European Earlier Bronze Age. In Peregrine, P.N. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Volume 4: Europe, pp.412-414. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/XHZC4QMJ.
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