EgTulIk

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Tulunid-Ikhshidid Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Egypt - Tulunid-Abbasid-Ikhshidid Period; Tulunid Dynasty; Ikhshidid Dynasty; Abbasid Caliphate ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 895 CE ♥ The twelve-year rule of Khumarawayh "saw peace and prosperity in Egypt, but the extravagance of his lifestyle and his lavish patronage of building projects, along with the expense of paying for a large standing army, overtaxed the state's resources. When Khumarawayh was murdered by one of his slaves in 896, the treasury was reportedly empty." [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 868-969 CE ♥

Ahmad ibn Tulun appointed prefect of Egypt 868 CE. Tulun was recruited from the military and had Turkish ancestry. [2] Egypt became independent when as Abbasid governor Ibn Tulun stopped sending taxes to the caliphate and established a new capital at al-Qatai.[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none; vassalage ♥

"Ibn Tulun never formally repudiated Abbasid authority, but with his new army and a distracted caliphate he was able to establish himself as virtually autonomous."[4]

Treaty of 886 CE Abbasids "granted the governorship of Egypt to Khumarawayh and his descendants for a period of thirty years."[5]

Raymond describes the following as rulers of "an autonomous state, albeit under Abbasid suzerainty."[6]

Ibn Tulun (868-884 CE)
Khumarawayh (884-896 CE)
Their successors (896-905)

Under Abbasid control again from 905-935 CE[7]

Treaty of 939 CE Abbasids "granted to the Ikshid and his heirs governorship over Egypt and Syria for thirty years, virtually the same arrangement the Tulunids had." [8]

De facto autonomy under Ikhshid rule (935-969 CE)[9]

Muhammad ibn Tughj (935-946 CE) was the first Ikshid ruler [10][11]
Two sons "raised under the tutelage of the regent Kafur, a black eunuch from Nubia." (946-966 CE)[12]
Kafur died 968 CE [13]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Abbasid Caliphate I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Fatimid Caliphate ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Islam ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Al-Qatai; Fustat ♥ Fustat was the seat of government. [14]

In 870 CE Ibn Tulunid founded al-Qatai as the capital. [15]

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

Egypt in the years between 868 and 969 CE is notable for frequent changes in rulers, including three separate regimes in just over a century: the Tulunid Dynasty, the Abbasid Restoration Period, and the Ikshidid Dynasty, which eventually gave way to the Fatimid Caliphate. The Tulunids were a Turkic Dynasty who established an independent rule over Egypt and parts of Syria during a time of instability caused by infighting in the Abbasid court in Damascus. There was a notable 'flowering' of the arts under the Tulunid rulers,[16] but the highs and lows of this era of instability are best encapsulated by the reign of Khumarawayh. Although Egypt saw 'peace and prosperity' under his rule, it has been argued that his extravagant lifestyle and 'lavish' spending on building projects and the maintenance of a large standing army 'overtaxed the state's resources'.[17] 'When Khumarawayh was murdered by one of his slaves in 896, the treasury was reportedly empty'.[18]

Population and political organization

Egypt during the Tulunid-Ikshidid period has been described as 'an autonomous state, albeit under Abbasid suzerainty'.[19] When Ahmad ibn Tulun was appointed prefect or governor of Egypt in 868 CE, it was a province of the Abbasid Caliphate. Tulun, who was of Turkish ancestry, was recruited from the military[20][21] and 'never formally repudiated Abbasid authority'.[22] He took advantage of a revolt in Palestine and Syria to build up a new Egyptian army of Turkish, Nubian, and Greek mercenaries and slaves, which he paid for by seizing control of the revenue of Egypt from the Abbasid-appointed financial director in 871 CE.[23] Ibn Tulun also annexed Syria.[24]
With his new army and the Abbasids distracted by unrest in the Levant, Ibn Tulun worked to increase Egyptian autonomy from the caliph in Baghdad;[25] he stopped sending taxes to the Abbasids and established a new capital at al-Qatai, at the neck of the Nile Delta near Fustat.[26] This de facto arrangement became official in 886 CE, when a treaty with the Abbasid Dynasty decreed that Khumarawayh and his successors would govern Egypt for a term of three decades[27] - although Egypt would in fact be under Abbasid control again from 905 to 935 CE.[28] After the Ikshidids gained control of Egypt under Muhammad ibn Tughj (935‒946 CE),[29] the Abbasids, in a similar treaty in 939 CE, granted the governorship of Egypt and Syria to 'the Ikshid and his heirs' for 30 years.[30]
The Tulunid governing apparatus included a vizier,[31] who, after the administrative reforms of Ibn Tulun,[32] apparently ran a competent bureaucracy that oversaw huge spending projects. Ibn Tulun built an aqueduct and a maristan (hospital), which cost 60,000 dinars.[33] Founded in 873 CE, the hospital was the first of its kind in Egypt. There was probably a functioning postal system (the Egyptian section of the Abbasid barid). Luxuries were never far away for the affluent elites, who spent their riches freely: Khumarawayh converted the maydan (city square) into a lush garden in the Mesopotamian tradition, while in the Ikshidid period Kafur's palace near the Birkat Qarun cost a monumental 100,000 dinars.[34]
The population of Egypt and the Levant at this time may have totalled 6.5 million,[35] and the largest city, Fustat in Egypt, had perhaps 150,000 residents.[36]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [800,000-1,000,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Ibn Tulun, the founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, annexed Syria. [37]


♠ Polity Population ♣ 6,500,000 ♥ People.

McEvedy and Jones (1978) estimates for 900 CE: Egypt 4.5m; Palestine and Jordan 0.5m; Syria and the Lebanon 1.5m. Total: 6.5m. [38]

963-969 CE poor harvests and famine.[39]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 150,000 ♥ Inhabitants.

Fustat/Cairo: 150,000. [40]

Fustat, described in mid-10th century by traveller Ibn Hawqal as "one-third the size of Baghdad in area."[41]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥ levels. Six levels under later Fatimids and earlier Abbasids.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. Six for Abbasid Caliphate. Coding 5 as "placeholder."

Reference for Abbasid Caliphate: In Iraq and Egypt local government was divided into a hierarchy of districts with the subdivisions (Kura, Tassuj and rustag) used for assessing taxation which was passed to the governor.[42]

1. Governor (- 939 CE) al-Ikshid (939 CE -)

"In 939 the caliph even acceded to Muhammed Ibn Tughj's demand to be given the title al-Ikshid, held by rulers in the Farghana region of Central Asia whence his grandfather had come." [43]
Treaty of 886 CE Abbasids "granted the governorship of Egypt to Khumarawayh and his descendants for a period of thirty years."[44]
Treaty of 939 CE Abbasids "granted to the Ikshid and his heirs governorship over Egypt and Syria for thirty years" [45]


2. Vizier [46]
2. Financial director (until 871 CE)
"After becoming governor, Ibn Tulun had to struggle for several years with the power of Ibn al-Muddabir, financial director of Egypt since 861 and answerable only to the caliph."[47]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥ Coding same as Abbasid Caliphate.

1. Caliph as head of the Sunni Muslim umma.
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the muslim world.

In theory the Caliphate and governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) and aesthetics (Sufis) increasingly attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths were not clearly hierarchical and all were equal before Allah. [48]


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels. Coding same as Abbasid Caliphate as a "placeholder" although since the Abbasid Caliphate is a part of this period (Tulunids-Abbasids-Ikshidids) we could simply use the Abbasid code.

Abbasid hierarchy (note: may be oversimplified:

1. Amir al-mu' minin (official title of the Caliph)
2. Amir (commander or governor of a province or army)
3. Qa-id (military officer)
4. Arif (leader of a militay unit of ten to fifteen soldiers)
5. Muquatila(Muslim soldiers paid a salary); Malwa(rank and file Turkish soldier)
6. Arrarun (irregular volunteers) [49]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Large standing army. [50]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Large standing army. [51] Under Ibn Tulunid's early rule in Egypt: "A revolt that broke out in nearby Palestine and Syria, however, offered a pretext for building a new army in Egypt composed primarily of Turkish, Nubia, and Greek slaves and mercenaries. To pay for this army, Ibn Tulun took control of the revenue of the country, arranging for Ibn al-Muddabir's [financial director of Egypt] transfer to Syria in 871." [52]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥ Full-time specialists. [53] Islam did not have a professional priesthood.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, Ibn Tulunid, introduced administrative reforms. [54]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ The al-Madhara'i family were "financial officials in Fustat (Old Cairo) since the reign of Ibn Tulun" and they "would continue to play an important role in the country's administration well into the Ikshidid period."[55]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Note: This is the code for Abbasid Caliphate. [56]

In the Abbasid Caliphate formal the law was promulgated by a body known as the Fuqaha. The law code was heavily influenced by Sharia law. Sharia was based on the Sunna, which were teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, and the Quran, the holy book of Islam. Legal thought was also influenced by Ijma’, which were a body of rulings on legal issues based on the consensus of scholars who had met to discuss specific cases. Despite the Caliphate’s claims to religious authority based on their links to the Prophet Muhammed, it was rare for direct rulings on legal matters to originate from the caliphal authorities. Alongside a developing legal code was the development of the Qudis, who were full time judiciary officials.[57]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ In the Abbasid Caliphate formal the law was promulgated by a body known as the Fuqaha. The law code was heavily influenced by Sharia law. Sharia was based on the Sunna, which were teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, and the Quran, the holy book of Islam. Legal thought was also influenced by Ijma’, which were a body of rulings on legal issues based on the consensus of scholars who had met to discuss specific cases. Despite the Caliphate’s claims to religious authority based on their links to the Prophet Muhammed, it was rare for direct rulings on legal matters to originate from the caliphal authorities. Alongside a developing legal code was the development of the Qudis, who were full time judiciary officials.[58] Judges were appointed and were called Qadi.[59]

At least in the Umayyad period judges were "multicompetent state officials dealing with justice, police, tax, and finance issues." [60]
previous code: {absent; present} (refs below suggest presence, no clear indication of argument for absence) | Note: This is the code for Abbasid Caliphate. We code present for specialist judges. If judges were "multicompetent state officials" it does not appear they are specialists who only judge law. For similar case e.g. the Roman Principate. On the other hand, the source below suggests that qadis were "full time judiciary officials'.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Note: This is the code for Abbasid Caliphate. Court proceedings took place either in a Judge's own residence, the main mosque of the city or in the palace.[61]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ "In legal matters, Patricia Crone points out, "there is no trace of the Prophetic tradition until about 770" and it was the lawyers in particular who created the stories about Mohammed simply to back up their own arguments in law. "Numerous Prophetic traditions can be shown to have originated as statements made by the lawyers themselves ... it was the lawyers who determined what the Prophet said, not the other way around." Bukhari is said to have accumulated as many as 600,000 traditions, of which he only accepted as authentic 7,000, or just over one per cent!" [62] -- these are religious scholars not lawyers as this variable codes? lawyers do "red tape", defend, prosecute, submit claims etc.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Ibn Tulun, the founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, introduced agrarian reforms. [63] Irrigation systems would have pre-existed the Tulunid period.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present♥ Ibn Tulun built an aqueduct for his palatine city, cost 40,000 dinars. [64]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ In ibn Tulun's palatine city "markets evolved to supply the needs of the court and the military, with the various trades groups in different areas." [65]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Fustat was a port. A contemporary traveller suggested "No other river port has as many ships as Fustat's." [66]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calendar.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Not sure which location or period this refers to: "A fully developed 'theory of warfare' appeared, with books written on all aspects. [67]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Not sure which location or period this refers to: "A fully developed 'theory of warfare' appeared, with books written on all aspects. [68]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Not sure which location or period this refers to: "A fully developed 'theory of warfare' appeared, with books written on all aspects. [69]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Abbasid Caliphate.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ "the flowering of their arts" in reference to Tulunid period rulers.[70] Ibn Tulun, the founder of the Tulunid Dynasty, "supported cultural activities." [71]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ [72]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ dinar [73]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ [74] Royal couriers carried messages and directives of the court. a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [75]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ Note: This is the code for Abbasid Caliphate. Simple postal stations in use as stopping point for couriers. [76] The Abbasid had a department of state running the post office, called the Barim. [77] For an detailed portrayal of Postal systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic world, see Adam J. Silverstein's work on the subject. [78]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ [79] a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [80]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Stephen Dean ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ [81]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [82]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ [83]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: "In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers. I attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added. Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[84]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Poem about a siege mentions "the evil man that loads the sling". [85] However, this does not prove whether the sling had a military use.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: 'Arab' and Persian' bows mentioned in sources, both composite bows. [86] Unlike Medieval Europe, archery was seen as a noble pursuit. Compound bows and Crossbows were present, as well as more esoteric weaponry such as fire arrows, were used on some occasions. Volunteers and informal levies were reported to have used slings, makeshift spears and other unconventional weapons. [87]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: present: 820 CE Inferred, compound bows being used in this period in the region.[88] [89]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: Abbasid refered to the crossbow as the qaws al-rijl, first mentioned in 881 CE. [90]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: Torsion engines in use in Arabic warfare in this period. [91] "A fragment of a wall painting depicting the use of a traction trebuchet at the siege of Penjikent (700-725) in modern Tajikistan. This unique painting is contemporary with Tang China, displaying how the traction trebuchet was used along the Silk Road."[92]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: The manjaniq, a swing beam engine similiar to the Western Trebuchet. [93]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 14th century. [94]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until the 15th century. [95]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate:"In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers. I attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added. Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[96]
♠ Battle axes ♣ ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate:"In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers. I attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added. Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[97]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate:"In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers. I attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added. Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[98]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: "In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers. I attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added. Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[99] Present for Abbasid Caliphate.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: "In defence the abna were trained to maintain ranks behind their long pikes and broadswords however hard the enemy pressed, and then to fight hand-to-hand with short-swords and daggers. I attack, a short spear or javelin seems to have replaced the pike, and a mace might also have been added. Although abna were often armoured, they would also fight without cuirass or even shield."[100]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Donkeys were used in a logistical capacity. [101]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Used for cavalry. Horses and Camels were used extensively. Donkeys were used in a logistical capacity. The use of elephants is reported, but it seems to be in a purely ceremonial capacity. [102]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Used extensively in caliphate armies. [103]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Imported from the Kachi plains region and used in processions and ceremony.[104] - but were elephants used in fighting?
♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Used for shields. [105] Reconstructing the exact military equipment of Muslim armies during the Abbasid Caliphate is problematic due to lack of artefactural evidence. As such, sources are primarily literary and focus largely on notable equipment of unusual rarity or value. In Muslim armies, a full equipage was rare, and body armour even more so. Coats of mail was available to the Caliphate armies, but only to a small number of elite military members. Besides mail there is some evidence of lamellar leggings and breastplates. Helmets and shields were more widely available. Shields were smaller than their European counterparts and made of leather and wood.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Used for shields. [106]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Widely available for soldiers. [107]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Widely available for soldiers. [108]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Some evidence of breastplates in the sources. [109]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [110]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Coats of mail for elite soldiers. [111]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate. [112]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ For Abbasid Caliphate: Some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [113]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Absent for Abbasid Caliphate. [114]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ [115]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred present ♥ present for Abbasid Caliphate: [116]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ The Abbasid Caliphate was not a naval power in the Mediterranean. The Umayyad Caliphate had faced substantial losses at sea with Greek crewed ships, and the Abbasid never attempted to blockade Constantinople from the sea. Furthermore, while the Caliphs controlled the coastlines and had freedom of movement along this territory, it lacked both the facilities to build military ships and the raw materials to facilitate this endeavor. The situation in the Persian gulf was different, as large trade fleets plied the waters between Iraq and India, and down the Horn of Africa. [117] Territorial losses outside of the core territories in Egypt and Syria further weakened the capacity of the Abassid Caliphs capacity to wage naval warfare. [118]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: e.g. use of spiked wooden barriers. [119]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: Abbasid siege of Al-Wasit, last Umayyad stronghold in Iraq: "In the first such encounter Umayyad forces were defeated, and they retreated to the moat that surrounded the western section of the city."[120]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: As used around Baghdad. [121] The technology to create fortifications was present, but in the case of large cities not implemented as the Caliphs preferred battles over sieges, and because of concerns that citizens would use them for protection during revolts. The Arabic word for castle or fortress was Hisn, with the Qasr more often used for a fortress. The use of fortifications depended on local tradition. In Syria, pre-existing walls were maintained. In other areas of conquest or after rebellions fortifications were torn down. Baghdad stands out as an exception in terms of a fortified urban centre. Baghdad was surrounded by large walls, and fortified gates were secured with two sets of iron covered doors and large numbers of guards. [122]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Present for Abbasid Caliphate: As with the walls and gates around Baghdad. [123]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ KM.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Tulunids and Ikhshidids were dynastic. The al-Madhara'i family were "financial officials in Fustat (Old Cairo) since the reign of Ibn Tulun" and they "would continue to play an important role in the country's administration well into the Ikshidid period."[124]

Religion and Normative Ideology

'♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [125]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [126]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[127]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[128]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[129]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [130] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [131]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [132]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [133] [134] [135]

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