EgThebL

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Third Intermediate Period; Bubastite dynasty; Libyan dynasty ♥ Third Intermediate Period 1069-664 BCE [1]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 924 BCE ♥

Reign of Seshong I was the "high point in the Third Intermediate Period."[2]

"expansionist foreign policy"[3]
"ambitious royal building programme" [4]
"attempt to exert direct control over the whole of Egypt involved curtailling the virtually independent status of Thebes."[5]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1069-747 BCE ♥ [6]

Libyan Period: 21st - 24th Dynasties[7] note that the 24th Dynasty is after 747 BCE

First Libyan ruler in Egypt was Osorkon the Elder (984-978 BCE), son of the Chief of the Meshwesh. [8]
A chief of the Meshwash was the first king of the 22nd Dynasty: Sheshong I (945-925 BCE). [9]
Last king in this period to rule significant territory was Sheshong III (827-773 BCE) and after him "numerous local rulers - particularly in the Delta - became virtually autonomous and several declared themselves kings."[10]
period ending with Shoshenq V in ~747 BCE

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity; nominal ♥

"In 21st-dynasty Egypt the northern royal house nominally ruled the entire country, but in reality allowed another branch of the family to run the south on the basis of its priestly office."[11]

Control High Priest of Amun had "over all sectors of government made him like a king and most high priests of Amun used royal titles, but only as local kings and they did not date their records with regnal years."[12]

Although technically second in authority, southern commanders had "supreme civil, military, and religious authority" in Upper Egypt. [13]

After Seshong I (945-924 BCE) monarchy weakened, power of provincial rulers increased and there was "fragmentation of the country." [14]

"The political picture that emerges as the Third Intermediate Period progresses is one of a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king." [15]

"Thebes and Tanis functioned as independent centers of power. They were the seats of parallel dynaties ... The official characterization of government in the two places was distinct - religious in Thebes and secular in Tanis - and the holders of power were related by blood and marriage and most often worked in unison in a system they both accepted. Scholars have likened the arrangement to a concordat, the division of power between popes and kings in European history."[16]

Third Intermediate Period was "an era of political decentralization in the Nile Valley".[17]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesside Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Kushite Period ♥ This could in future be changed for the short Hermopolis period in Upper Egypt. Last king in this period was Sheshong III (827-773 BCE) and after him "numerous local rulers - particularly in the Delta - became virtually autonomous and several declared themselves kings."[18]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Libyan tribes ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 350,000 ♥ km squared. Area including Cyrenacia to west of the Nile Delta?

♠ Capital ♣ Memphis ♥

Memphis was probably the "major administrative base" and "residence of the northern kings." [19]

Temples to the Theban triad were erected there and Tanis's role as a holy city was enhanced by the siting of the tombs of the 21st Dynasty kings within the temple precinct." [20]

♠ Language ♣ Ancient Egyptian ♥ Script evolved into two distinct types: Demotic hieratic in the north; abnormal hieratic at Thebes.[21]

General Description

The Theban-Libyan Period in Egypt (Twenty-first, Twenty-second and Twenty-third Dynasties, 1069-747 BCE)[22] represents another time of decentralization in Egypt and, together with the subsequent Kushite period, makes up the Third Intermediate Period.[23]

Population and political organization

The governments at Memphis and Thebes followed the traditional 'intermediate period' pattern of rulers (pharaoh at Memphis, high priest at Thebes) who ran a bureaucratic system managed by a vizier and overseers of departments.[24] However, the vizier and overseers of the treasury and granaries were unable to project their influence over the regions[25] and Egypt in this period is best characterised as 'a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king'.[26]
The Egyptian pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty (1077-943 BCE), based at Memphis near the Nile Delta,[27] served only as nominal heads of state for the whole of Egypt;[28] a formal agreement ceded control of Middle and Upper Egypt to priest-rulers at Thebes.[29][30] The priests, who doubled as military commanders, derived their right to rule from the oracles of the 'Theban triad' of gods, Amun, Mut and Khons.[31]
The Twenty-first Dynasty pharaohs, perhaps in an effort to provide greater legitimacy for their rule over Upper Egypt, turned Tanis in the delta into a 'holy city', building royal tombs within temples built for the Theban triad.[32] The most powerful pharaoh of this period, however, was the first Libyan ruler and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty, Shoshenq I (r. 945-924 BCE). He embarked on an 'ambitious royal building programme' and attempted to regain control of the entirety of Egypt, curtail Thebes' independence, and expand into the Levant.[33] The high point did not last long. The perennial problem of Upper Egyptian independence eventually led to the formal division of the state, an imaginative if drastic solution that created a parallel Twenty-third Dynasty based in Leontopolis, or perhaps Herakleopolis.[34] The new dynasty was enjoined to reassert control of the south, allowing the Twenty-second Dynasty rulers to concentrate on Lower Egypt.[35] This did not work: by the time of Shoshenq III (r. 827-773 CE), the Twenty-second Dynasty pharaohs could barely even control the north: 'numerous local rulers - particularly in the Delta - became virtually autonomous and several declared themselves kings'.[36]
Unfortunately, due to scant evidence, there are no reliable population estimates for this time.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [190,000-230,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Estimated area around that Delta that has control of Thebes and has influence as far south as Aswan.

21st Dynasty

"control was divided between a line of kings in the north and a sequence of army commanders who held the post of high priest of Amun, at Thebes." [37]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

There is a lot of disagreement over the correct figure for the late New Kingdom. In the absence of evidence for this period, estimate for the Libyan Dynasties Period will largely depend on the resolution of that discussion.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 120,000: 1070-951 BCE; 100,000: 950-761 BCE ♥ Inhabitants.

Modelski (2003)

Memphis: 100,000: 1000 BCE; 100,000: 900 BCE; 100,000: 800 BCE [38]
Thebes: 120,000: 1000 BCE; 100,000: 900 BCE; 100,000: 800 BCE [39]

Population estimates for the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BCE) [40]

Tanis 105 ha 31,000 persons 295 per ha
Luxor 280 ha 85,000 persons 305 per ha
Memphis 79 ha
Some of these cities might have had similar occupation patterns in the Libyan period.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels. AD: uncoded, so replaced by a code.

1. Memphis, capital.

2. Town
3. Village
(4. Hamlet)


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ levels.

1. King

"The political picture that emerges as the Third Intermediate Period progresses is one of a federation of semi-autonomous rulers, nominally subject (and often related) to an overlord-king." [41]

_ King's own administration _

2. Vizier
"Officials of traditional centralised government, such as the vizier and overseers of the treasury and granaries ... now wielded only local influence." [42]
3. Treasury / granary head official
4. Treasury / granary sub official (inferred)
5. Scribe within treasury / granary (inferred)
6. Other workers (inferred)

_ Provincial government _

2. Commander and governor at Thebes
at Thebes, highest offices (chief general and high priest of Amun) held by Herihor then passed to the family of General Piankh. They "derived their executive powers from the oracles of Amun, Mut, Khons, by whom clerical appointments and major policy decisions of the rulers were sanctioned." [43]
Upper Egypt "retained greater territorial cohesion than the north" with Thebes predominent [44]
3. Vizier
"Officials of traditional centralised government, such as the vizier and overseers of the treasury and granaries ... now wielded only local influence." [45]
4. Treasury / granary head official
5. Treasury / granary sub official (inferred)
6. Scribe within treasury / granary (inferred)
7. Other workers (inferred)
2. Commander and governor elsewhere
Most provincial governors were also army commanders. [46]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-5] ♥ levels. AD: estimated as a range based on previous polities with a minimum of 3: ruler, priest of a major temple and local priest.

1. ruler of the theocracy

(2. priest of a major temple)
(3. local priest)

Under Smendes (1069-1043 BCE) "the government of Egypt was in effect a theocracy, supreme political authority being vested in the god Amun himself." Decisions of the gods were "communicated via oracles. The workings of the theocratic government are explicitly documented at Thebes, where oracular consultations were formalized by the institution of a regular Festival of the Divine Audience, held at Karnak." [47]


_ Cult of Amun _

1.

2.
3.
4.


_ Oracles _

Oracles of Amun, Mut, and Khons at times were very influential in government. [48]


♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels. AD: was left uncoded, coded as a range to allow for flexibility.

1. Ruler

2. Provincial governors/ army commanders
(3. Captains)
4. Individual soldiers

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Provincial governors were army commanders. [49]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Nubian mercenaries would have been paid.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from previous periods.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥ A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ There were government positions for overseer of granaries in this period. [50]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "the residence-city of Piramesse cited in the Gebel elSilsilah stele no. 100 (C.I.2) should have been used by king Seshonq I for a certain period of time, being the passage in question a commemoration of local quarry work carried out or the king's building project in Karnak."[51]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Evolved into two distinct types of hieratic: Demotic in the north; abnormal at Thebes.[52]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Hieroglyphs.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.[53]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ archival buildings?
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ "regular Festival of the Divine Audience, held at Karnak." [54]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ Libraries in temples.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Hymn to Amun on papyrus from Deir el-Bahri. [55]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Libraries in temples. Literature Egyptian priests had libraries in temples.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside period.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside Period Egypt and there were libraries in temples.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in the later New Kingdom. "The wealth of some farmers is also expressed in private documents, like a late 2nd millennium letter from Elephantine stating that several nemeh-cultivators paid their taxes to the treasury in gold." [56]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ bronze is made with copper. In the New Kingdom bronze plates were added to leather armor.[57] and mail coats were made out of bronze. [58]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ In the New Kingdom bronze plates were added to leather armor.[59] and mail coats were made out of bronze. [60]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ "The sling is shown being used in assault on towns in the early Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan. Examples found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were made of linen. Despite its rare appearance in battle scenes, it was probably widely used. [...] A sling shot from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods could be made of lead, and carried inscribed messages for the unfortunate recipient."[61]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "In western Asia, [the self bow] was replaced by the composite bow. In Egypt, the self-bow continued to be widely used, especially by Nubian troops."[62]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present but used less frequently? Preiser-Kapeller (2015) suggests next data for war clubs for an Upper Egypt NGA polity may be East Roman Empire 395-631 CE.[63]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of fashion.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ first recorded use in Egypt 312 BCE [64]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horse-driven chariots. [65]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred from presence in previous polities [66]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Shields covered with hide. [67] Leather armor used for horses and warriors. [68]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Certainly present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[69]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used."[70]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used."[71] Jerkins do not have sleeves.
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [72] Is Hoffmeier referring to chainmail or coats with scales? Code assumes the latter. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[73]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[74] Present in the New Kingdom (Bronze scale armor on short-sleeved, knee length shirt made out of linen or leather. [75])
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[76]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ major navy base during Ramesside period [77]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "civilian settlements also appeared to have acquired the character of military strongholds in the Third Intermediate Period." Memphis and Hermopolis were fortified and were "sufficiently strong to withstand a siege."[78]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Was enough timber available in Egypt to make wooden palisades a realistic option for a fortification system?
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No data.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Enclosure walls non-mortared?
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ [absent; present] ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ "civilian settlements also appeared to have acquired the character of military strongholds in the Third Intermediate Period." Memphis and Hermopolis were fortified and were "sufficiently strong to withstand a siege."[79]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Despite textual descriptions and iconographic depictions of sieged warfare in the first millennium BCE, there is little evidence for walls surrounding entire settlements; indeed, the norm seems to have been for walls to surround temple complexes, and for the rest of the settlement to remain exposed, though it is possible that the settlement's inhabitants could expect to find reguge within the temple enclosure in the event of an attack.[80] Fortresses on Nile south of Faiyum. [81]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. "The traditional borders of Egypt comprised the Western Desert, the Sinai Desert, the Mediterranean coast and the Forst Nile Cataract at Aswan. Such natural physical barriers were sufficient to protect the Egyptians from outside interference for the many centuries during which their distinctive civilisation developed."[82]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ "For the first 124 years of the Thurd Intermediate Period (Twenty-first Dynasty) ... the concordate whereby a unique royal dynasty (of Smendes) receieved formal recognition throughout Egypt, in return for ceding effective control of Middle and Upper Egypt to a line (descended from Herihor) of 'great army commanders' who were simultaneously High Priests of Amen at Karnak."[83]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ "Thebes was dominated throughout the Libyan period by a group of elite families, some of which could trace their ancestries back to Ramesside times. Shoshenq I appointed his son as High Priest of Amun, and the office remained in the royal family. Both high priests and kings allied themselves to the Theban elite through marriage, and by the late Libyan period, many families could trace one or more royal lines of descent."[84] "internal dynastic tensions and powerful elements amongst the Egyptian provincial nobility became more pressing."[85] "High officials of central government (e.g. the viziers), formerly influential and powerful, were now, in the case of Tanis ... effective only within the immediate territory of their residence city".[86]
♠ Impeachment ♣suspected unknown ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "Thebes was dominated throughout the Libyan period by a group of elite families, some of which could trace their ancestries back to Ramesside times. Shoshenq I appointed his son as High Priest of Amun, and the office remained in the royal family. Both high priests and kings allied themselves to the Theban elite through marriage, and by the late Libyan period, many families could trace one or more royal lines of descent."[87] "For the first 124 years of the Thurd Intermediate Period (Twenty-first Dynasty) ... the concordate whereby a unique royal dynasty (of Smendes) receieved formal recognition throughout Egypt, in return for ceding effective control of Middle and Upper Egypt to a line (descended from Herihor) of 'great army commanders' who were simultaneously High Priests of Amen at Karnak. Potential conflict was avoided because the two lines were branches of the same family (fig. 3.13) and had different preoccupations."[88] The 22nd Dynasty "attempted to enchance royal power by ending the hereditary principle in the rule of Middle and Upper Egypt" but like the 21st Dynasty relied upon "royal relatives in government."[89] "Royal relatives were now assigned unprecedented administrative power, collateral dynasties were inadvertantly or deliberately created by royal policies and a variety of local hereditary bureaucrats, priests and military chieftains of provincial origin became more firmly entrenched in their positions."[90]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The subordination of the temporal ruler to Amun, which was a key aspect of the theocracy, may have recommended itself to the Libyan rulers of the 21st Dynasty as a politically expedient means of securing divine section for the new regime." [91]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "The god Amun was the real king in Theban ideology ... the priests were his temporary representatives and appointees. Thebes was thus a theocracy: the god ruled."[92] Inferred b/c no clear evidence that rulers during this 'intermediate' period ceased claiming divine rulership.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Ideology/cosmology holds all humans as equal, though in practice acknowledged and accepted that there were stark social/political/economic differences [93]. "Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[94] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[95] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [96] "Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[97] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[98] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ No strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [99] "Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[100] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[101] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Festivals were community affairs, a time for the residents of a village or town to abandon their daily tasks and come together in celebration.” [102] "instructions of Amenemope give positive images of attitudes toward human limits. It also teaches that care for the old, sick, and malformed is a moral duty, because 'Man is clay and straw, the God is his builder. The Wise Man should respect people affected by reversal of fortune' [Simpson, 1973]."[103] perhaps in marriage: "In literary texts, extramarital liaisons were punishable by death (Eyre 1984: 97; Johnson 2003: 150 - 151). In non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina dating to the New Kingdom, erring individuals of both sexes face less dramatic repercussions (Toivari-Viitala 2001: 153 - 157; see also Galpaz-Feller 2004; Lorton 1977: 14 - 15, 38 - 39)."[104] "Ancient Egyptian ethical thought and action revolved around the notion of maat. Although there are no traces of a standard moral code surviving from ancient Egypt, moral principles are often reflected in the literature - especially works of wisdom literature, funerary books and songs, tomb biographies, and literary narratives. ... Through the study of these sources one can observe the occurrence of a major change in ancient Egyptian ethical thought during the New Kingdom, when piety and religiosity became significant criteria for the judgment of the individual."[105] "The gods explicitly sanctioned attention to the problems of the less fortunate, and government was aware of the importance of both the appearance and reality of correct behaviour. ... Periodic reforms of abuses are well documented, and officials' biographies frequently refer to their aid to the disadvantaged."[106] "The existence of institutional doctors and of a certain paternalism, shown by employers, resulting from their fear of offending the Gods and their beliefs in an after-life, played a role in softening the bleak scene of the Egyptian world of work."[107]

♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ Texts from later periods make clear elites and ruler provided public goods (famine relief water works); inferred ideology existed from early on [108] Declaration of virtues for Intef "herald and governor under Thutmose III (Urk IV, 964-975)" that might suggest "both a reaffirmation of moral values held in the Middle Kingdom and a clear expansion of moral ideals in the 18th Dynasty" (includes): free of evil; without falsehood; hearer of his petition; not (neglectful) concerning Maat; turning his back to the liar; free from partiality; vindicating the just; punishing the guilty for his guilt; servant of the needy; father of the poor; guide of the orphan; mother of the timid; shelter for the battered; guardian of the sick; husband of the widow; refuge for the orphan. [109]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [110] [111] [112]

References

  1. (Taylor 2000, 324)
  2. (Taylor 2000, 329)
  3. (Taylor 2000, 329)
  4. (Taylor 2000, 329)
  5. (Taylor 2000, 329)
  6. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  7. (Taylor 2000, 332)
  8. (Taylor 2000, 328)
  9. (Taylor 2000, 329)
  10. (Taylor 2000, 330)
  11. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 270) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  12. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 265) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  13. (Taylor 2000, 327)
  14. (Taylor 2000, 330)
  15. (Taylor 2000, 338)
  16. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 265) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  17. (Pagliari 2012, 183) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  18. (Taylor 2000, 330)
  19. (Taylor 2000, 327)
  20. (Taylor 2000, 327)
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