EgThebH

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period ♥ "If we accept the evidence in favour of Seneb-Kay and the seven other similar tombs representing an independent kingdom, the "Abydos Dynasty," then we may plausibly suggest that this was a kingdom geographically flanked by a mosaic of potential political rivals. To the south lay the Theban kingdom ruled by the 16th Dynasty. To the nnorth the Hyksos 15th Dynasty and a possible array of vassal rulers would have dominated the Nile Delta. At the beginning of this era the vestiges of the 13th Dynasty may have still controlled the area around the Middle Kingdom royal capital at Itj-Tawy, even after secession of Upper Egypt (Ilin-Tomich 2014)."[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Hyksos Kingdom; 15th Dynasty; 16th Dynasty; 17th Dynasty; Second Intermediate Period ♥ Second Intermediate Period: c. 1650-1550 BCE [2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 1555 BCE ♥ Zenith of the Hyksos period: reign of Aauserra Apepi c.1555 BCE. [3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1720-1567 BCE ♥ {1720-1567 BCE; 1720-1420 BCE} or 1720-{1567-1420} BCE

Conquest of Avaris c1532-1528 BCE. [4]

"The late Second Intermediate Period, the final stage of the Middle Bronze Age in Egypt, was associated with the decline of the Middle Kingdom state system and the emergence of a fragmentary political situation in which Egypt was ultimately dominated by two rival kingdoms, the Thebans (Dynasties 16-17) in Upper Egypt, and the Hyksos (Dynasty 15) in the Nile Delta."[5]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; loose; quasi-polity ♥

EWA: this should be between nominal and loose

if Hyksos polity did not hold further south than el-Qusiya NGA region for the "Hyksos Period" must be a quasi-polity?

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

"Theban ruler Kamos rejected his status as vassal." [6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Middle Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Avaris; Tell el Daba; Thebes ♥

"The beginning of the Second Intermediate Period is marked by the abandonment of the Residence at Lisht, 32 km. south of Memphis, and the establishment of the royal court and seat of government at Thebes, the Southern City." [7]

Memphis: capital of the 12th Dynasty kings [8]

Itjtawy: capital of the 13th Dynasty kings [9]

16th and 17th Dynasty kings: "We cannot be certain that they all ruled from Thebes, and some may have been local rulers in important towns such as Abydos, Elkab, and Edfu." [10]

♠ Language ♣ Ancient Egyptian ♥ The Hyksos "adopted the language and customs of their subjects"[11]

General Description

During the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1720‒1567 BCE), or alternatively 'the Hyksos period and the Era of the Second Theban Petty State',[12] Egypt as a whole once again experienced a phase of political decentralization, split into regions controlled by competing dynasties. The Hyksos (Fifteenth Dynasty) occupied the north. The Hyksos were a non-native Egyptian ruling clan who invaded Egypt from the Levant, establishing a military and bureaucratic stronghold at Avaris in the Nile Delta.[13] The area subject to Hyksos authority spread west and east across the delta and, at the polity's peak in the mid-16th century BCE, probably reached as far south as Middle Egypt.[14] The Nile Valley south of Hermopolis was dominated by a rival power, the Theban kings of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties.[15][16]

Population and political organization

Political fragmentation characterizes Egypt after the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos invasion. In Upper Egypt, the Theban kingdom ruled by Egyptians (the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties) claimed a continuity with the Middle Kingdom, lasting about 100 years up to the end of the period.[17][18] Egyptian archaeologist Josef Wegner has proposed based on finds near Abydos that a short-lived independent kingdom, an 'Abydos Dynasty', existed alongside the Theban Sixteenth Dynasty but 'lost their independence as part of political events that led up to the Theban ascendancy' of the Seventeenth Dynasty.[19]
Unfortunately, due to the disjointed nature of Egyptian politics at the time and the inconsistent material,[20] very little can be said about the population of the region during this period. The provincial organization of Theban Egypt at this time saw the king employ garrison commanders side-by-side with governors, or sometimes combined into one office. This may suggest 'a general militarization of the provinces'.[21] The governors of the provinces were often married directly into the family of the Upper Egyptian king.[22] At this time Upper Egypt was relatively poor and weak in relation to Lower Egypt. Among the achievements of the Hyksos administration at Avaris was the copying of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, which required a scribe trained to the highest degree of skill and with access to a specialized mathematical archive, most likely at the Temple of Ptah at Memphis.[23] By contrast, although they carried out renovations of ancient Egyptian temples and portrayed themselves as restorers of order and harmony in the old pharaonic style, the Theban rulers and elite were cut off from the scholarly legacy of the Middle Kingdom because they lacked access to the centres of scribal learning at Memphis.[24] In order to maintain the crucial funerary rituals, they were obliged to create new compilations of texts (including one of the earliest known examples of the spell book we know as the Book of the Dead.[25]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [10,000-20,000] ♥ KM2.

Approximation of territory 16th Dynasty Egypt - in Upper Egypt.

"The late Second Intermediate Period, the final stage of the Middle Bronze Age in Egypt, was associated with the decline of the Middle Kingdom state system and the emergence of a fragmentary political situation in which Egypt was ultimately dominated by two rival kingdoms, the Thebans (Dynasties 16-17) in Upper Egypt, and the Hyksos (Dynasty 15) in the Nile Delta."[26] 1720-1567 BCE

"If we accept the evidence in favour of Seneb-Kay and the seven other similar tombs representing an independent kingdom, the "Abydos Dynasty," then we may plausibly suggest that this was a kingdom geographically flanked by a mosaic of potential political rivals. To the south lay the Theban kingdom ruled by the 16th Dynasty. To the north the Hyksos 15th Dynasty and a possible array of vassal rulers would have dominated the Nile Delta. At the beginning of this era the vestiges of the 13th Dynasty may have still controlled the area around the Middle Kingdom royal capital at Itj-Tawy, even after secession of Upper Egypt (Ilin-Tomich 2014)."[27]

Hyksos held Upper Egypt only for a short time. [28] Manetho implied Hyksos initially held the entire country. Delta was the stronghold. Carnarvon Tablet I suggests territory as far as "Middle Egypt" toward end of 17th Dynasty. There are Hyksos monuments south of Middle Egypt but not much evidence for occupation this region. Cusae possibly southern limit, as suggested by Newberry. Southern granite was used in the Hyksos realm, but this could have come from trade. [29] Khian's name not found south of Gebelein (40 km south of Thebes). Khian's rule before 1620 BCE. [30]


♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People. Estimate.

Need a figure for Upper Egypt under the 16th Dynasty.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [50,000-100,000] ♥ [50,000-100,000]: 1600 BCE Avaris.[31] When expelled from Egypt Josephus said 240,000 Hyksos households from the Avaris area had to relocate in Syria. [32]

Tell el-Dab'a covered almost 4 KM2 (400 ha) at its largest extent. [33] Using an estimate of [50-200] people per hectare, this would be equivalent to a population of 20,000-80,000.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥

EWA: 4 Memphis, 3 regional centres like Hierakonpolies and Abidos, 2 minor centre like Aswan/Naga-el-Deir, 1 villages. ref. Bard 2014, 2nd edition.

1. Memphis

2. Regional centres like Hierakonpolis and Abydos
3. Minor centres like Aswan and Naga-el-Deir
4. Villages
(5. Hamlets)

EWA final: this variable for early dynastic to Hyksos should be 4 to 5. The reason is that we can infer the existince of hamlets at the bottom end of the scale. This should be implemented for all the intermediate polities.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥


1. King

_13th Dynasty Royal Court_ [34] nb: this is a Middle Kingdom dynasty

2. Vizier
3. Royal sealer
including: treasurer, high steward, overseer of fields, overseer of troops, overseer of the compound, overseer of sealers
4. ... ? ...
5. ... ? ...


_16th and 17th Dynasty Palace and Central Administration_

2. Vizier
"The vizier and overseers of sealed things continue to represent the highest civil and palace authorities attested during the 16th and 17th Dynasties." King's sons increased importance during 17th Dynasty. [35]
 ??. Overseer of the Sealers [36] - a level above the Overseer of Sealed Things?
3. Overseer of Sealed Things[37]
4. Deputy Overseer of Sealed Things[38]
5. Great scribe of the overseer of sealed things [39]
6. Scribe / Scribe of the document [40]
2. King's council?
"Saying things in the presence of His Majesty in his 'h by the council of the great ones who attend him." (Stele and tablet of King Kamose).[41]
2. King's Sons
"During the late 13th Dynasty the king's son title began to be used for officials given particular duties, principally military officials stationed at forts and garrisons, indicating both the level of their connection to the king, and presumably that they were responsible directly to him. This function seems to have carried over into the 16th and 17th Dynasties, when this title is attested with great frequency for individuals who were not likely to have been actual princes. The officials who bear it come from a variety of administrative areas: priests, governors, overseers of the gs-pr, and especially garrison commanders and other memebers of the military." [42]


_ Central government line _ [43]

2. Central elite
3. "Overseer of works" title in Theban Egypt [44]
4. Scribes


_ Provincial line _

2. Provincial governors (Theban region) (EWA: Local potentates)[45]
Governors [46] often garrison commanders during late 16th and 17th Dynasties. [47]
In Theban Egypt "At several towns the installation of garrison commanders in addition to governors, or one official holding both titles, indicates a general militarization of the provinces." Provincial court was closely connected to King's court at Thebes, with governors marrying princesses and often assigned specific duties. [48]
Mayor of Elephantine (16th Dynasty Theban Egypt). Neferhotep responsible to king for the region Thebes to Elephantine. [49]
3. maybe "Sons of the king" (=City governors)
Mayor was the highest local administrator in Theban Egypt. Could also hold position of garrison commander. [50]
4. Scribes


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥

AD: possibly this hierarchy?

1. Ruler

2. High priest
3. Priest
3. Temple scribes
4. Scribes

EWA: Kim Ryholt. The political situation in Egypt ... 1997. might have relevant data.

Official religion modelled on Egyptian. State god Seth of Avaris. [51]

Reference to Horemkhauef, a chief inspector of priests (late 13th Dynasty?). Lector priests. Scribes. [52]

Temple overseers, temple scribes, scribes, cultivators of divine offerings, scribes of the divine seal, masters of foodbearers, high priests, overseer of singers, w'b priests, and hm-ntr, hry-hbt, wnwt, and sm3. [53]


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥

In Theban Egypt:

"The continuing military ethos of the time is illustrated by the popularity of military titles such as "commander of the crew of the ruler" and "commander of the town regiment." They show a defensive grouping of military resources around the king and confirm the importance of local militias based on towns." [54]
Garrison commander at Abydos "no later - though probably also earlier - than soon after Rahotep's reign." "The same man was also the "mayor", that is, the highest local administrator" [55]
At the rank of "royal sealer" there was an "overseer of troops." [56]

1. King

2. King's Sons - military officials "presumably" responsible directly to the king. Often garrison commanders, but also other military officials. [57]
2. Vizier
3. Overseer of troops [58]
4. Commander of the garrison crew of the ruler [59]
5. soldier/officer of the ruler's crew [60]
6. soldier/officer of a town regiment [61]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

In Theban Egypt:

"The continuing military ethos of the time is illustrated by the popularity of military titles such as "commander of the crew of the ruler" and "commander of the town regiment." They show a defensive grouping of military resources around the king and confirm the importance of local militias based on towns." [62]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥

In Theban Egypt:

"The continuing military ethos of the time is illustrated by the popularity of military titles such as "commander of the crew of the ruler" and "commander of the town regiment." They show a defensive grouping of military resources around the king and confirm the importance of local militias based on towns." [63]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Official religion modelled on Egyptian. State god Seth of Avaris. [64]

Reference to Horemkhauef, a chief inspector of priests (late 13th Dynasty?). Lector priests. Scribes. [65]

Temple overseers, temple scribes, scribes, cultivators of divine offerings, scribes of the divine seal, masters of foodbearers, high priests, overseer of singers, w'b priests, and hm-ntr, hry-hbt, wnwt, and sm3. [66]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Administrators of the royal court. [67]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Evidence of father-son successions among 13th dynasty Viziers. Succession "well attested for governors and at lower levels of the administration."[68]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ "The vizier and overseers of sealed things continue to represent the highest civil and palace authorities attested during the 16th and 17th Dynasties." King's sons increased importance during 17th Dynasty. [69]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Likely that there were different legal systems in different regions. I.e. Delta region where Hyksos were congregated and the more southerly vassal regions, such as Thebes.

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ No specialised judges can be confirmed for the Middle Kingdom.

♠ Courts ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Courts were inferred present for Middle Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Hyksos introduced the well-sweep. [70] Not enough to be considered an irrigation system (significant infrastructure such as pipes, cisterns, channels that constitute a working system, that requires more than one person to maintain.)
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Trading was a daily activity. [71] "lack of evidence of state 'control' of crafts or of the economy; ... absence of evidence of 'redistribution' ... increasingly widespread evidence of commercial activity ... exaggerated attention to titles has paid neither sufficient attention to their absence, nor to the lack of evidence for an administrative role of titles when they are documented. Together these points suggest that the Ancient Egyptian economy was a pre-capitalist market economy in which administration played a relatively unimportant role in itself."[72]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

built and maintained by the state.

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Earliest reference to small bridge is for the new kingdom. Bridges over wide expanse of water unknown.[73] However, it is highly probable that small bridges were necessary before this time and Egyptians would have been more than capable of building and maintaining them.
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Excavations at Tell el Dab'a uncovered major harbour site. [74] "[E]ntire length of the Syrian and Palestinian coast was dotted with seaports which were open to traffic."[75] Probably a harbour at Tell el-Dab'a. The people of this town were likely "engaged in foreign trade, sea travel and boat production." [76]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Galena was mined at Gebel-el-Zeit.[77]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Hieroglyphs.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.[78]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "records of administration, public and private"[79]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "Such centres, with their archives, were not destroyed and may even have flourished under the Hyksos, but the Thebans would have been unable to consult them, thus perhaps necessitating the creation of a new compilation of texts needed for the all-important funerary rituals. One of the first collection of spells that we know as the Book of the Dead dates to the 16th Dynasty and comes from a coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, wife of King Djehuty." [80]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Inscriptions of "funerary biographies" [81]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Treatise on mathematics dated to the 23rd year of the reign of Apophis Ra-aa-user. [82] "literary and scientific texts such as Papyrus Sallier I and the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. [83]
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Hyksos imported gold and silver. [84]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Messengers. [85]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ bronze includes copper. Hyksos introduced bronze metallurgy. [86] Hyksos imported bronze. [87]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Hyksos introduced bronze metallurgy. [88] Hyksos imported bronze. [89]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ not in use at this time period
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ not in use at this time period

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of slings in previous and subsequent polities in Upper Egypt.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [90] Stave bow "did not disappear from the battlefield in the New Kingdom."[91] So presumably was used before the New Kingdom.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[92] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[93] Composite bows in the Old Akkadian style. [94]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not invented at this time
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not invented at this time
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not invented at this time
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not invented at this time
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not invented at this time

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Mace was the dominant weapon of war between 4000-2500 BCE in Sumer and until the Hyksos invasions (1700 BCE) in Egypt after which time Egyptians began to use the helmet. From 1700 BCE the kopesh, sickle-sword, rather than the mace, became the symbolic weapon of the Egyptian Pharoah.[95] Present but used less frequently?
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Hyksos imported axes "without number" i.e. a lot.[96] "While in Sumer the sickle-sword quickly gave way to the penetrating axe, in Egypt it remained a major weapon until the seventeenth century B.C." when the socket axe was introduced by the Hyksos.[97]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Hyksos used daggers. [98]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Mace was the dominant weapon of war between 4000-2500 BCE in Sumer and until the Hyksos invasions (1700 BCE) in Egypt after which time Egyptians began to use the helmet. From 1700 BCE the kopesh, sickle-sword, rather than the mace, became the symbolic weapon of the Egyptian Pharoah.[99] Sobekemsaf II's (17th Dynasty) burial contained a sword[100]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ [101]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "During the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians depended upon the donkey's back for land transport. ... Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads."[102] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[103] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer). Ramses II revolutionized Egyptian logistics by introducing the ox-drawn cart, which quickly became the standard mode of military logistical transport for almost a thousand years."[104]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horse and chariot. [105] Hyksos imported horses and chariots. [106] Injuries to the body of king Senab-Kay, early ruler Abydos region, parallel to 16th Dynasty kings, suggest he was attacked on horseback.[107]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Non-expert reference suggesting that elephants were not used until Kushite military - this needs to be confirmed.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Full body armor. [108]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ [109]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [110]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Present.[111] What description accompanied this code of present? No helmets until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[112] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[113] These sources are in contradiction. Egypt was close enough to Sumer to possibly be influenced by technological developments there so a code of inferred present seems reasonable.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ [114]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[115]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Technology not yet available. "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[116] Coding this as scale armor. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[117] 18th Dynasty: mid-late 2nd millennium BCE.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[118]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[119] 18th Dynasty: mid-late 2nd millennium BCE.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Battle fleet. [120] In context of riverine attack.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Tell el-Dab'a covered almost 4 KM2 at its largest extent. Citadel on western edge on the river, watchtower to the southeast over the land, around them an "enclosure wall" 6.2 meters wide (later 8.5m) and "buttressed at intervals." [121]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "The type of town defense most characteristic of the Hyksos was a sloping revetment or rampart above which a town wall itself was often built. For added protection a moat or fosse was frequently dug. The materials which went into the construction of the revetment... sand, mud, mud-brick, stone, and plaster." Many Hyksos fortifications were "rectangular or even square where the ground contour permitted... the sides or corners of these structures tend to face the cardinal points. Such fortifications have been uncovered in Lower Egypt, Palestine, and Syria... best known rectangular camp... at Tell el-Yahudiyyah in the Delta. The structure was about 1100 feet square on the inside, with rounded corners. An embankment of sand was faced with plaster and properly braced on the inside by a retaining wall."[122]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ "The type of town defense most characteristic of the Hyksos was a sloping revetment or rampart above which a town wall itself was often built. For added protection a moat or fosse was frequently dug."[123]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ "The type of town defense most characteristic of the Hyksos was a sloping revetment or rampart above which a town wall itself was often built. For added protection a moat or fosse was frequently dug."[124]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ Tell el-Dab'a covered almost 4 KM2 at its largest extent. Citadel on western edge on the river, watchtower to the southeast over the land, around them an "enclosure wall" 6.2 meters wide (later 8.5m) and "buttressed at intervals." [125] Wall built at Buhen (perhaps renewal of existing fortifications) under Theban control in the third year of Kamose. [126]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Multiple lines of fortification not described by sources. Tell el-Dab'a covered almost 4 KM2 at its largest extent. Citadel on western edge on the river, watchtower to the southeast over the land, around them an "enclosure wall" 6.2 meters wide (later 8.5m) and "buttressed at intervals." [127] In Upper Egypt there were "forts guarding the second Nile cataract" at Elephantine. [128] Fort at Buhen. [129]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. "The traditional borders of Egypt comprised the Western Desert, the Sinai Desert, the Mediterranean coast and the Forst Nile Cataract at Aswan. Such natural physical barriers were sufficient to protect the Egyptians from outside interference for the many centuries during which their distinctive civilisation developed."[130]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred present ♥ Some of the Upper Egypt "kings" listed on the Turin Cannon "may have been local rulers in important towns such as Abydos, Elkab, and Edfu."[131]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ The kings of Upper Egypt "behaved as successors of the 13th dynasty, and indeed in many respects they carried on ancient Egyptian traditions."[132]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ continuity with other period of Ancient Egyptian history.Early in the New Kingdom period queen Hatshepsut "claims that the Hyksos ruled without Ra" - implying at that time the Egyptians did - "the god whom she invoked in the rest of the inscription as the one who ordained her to rule the land."(However, no earlier source mentioned this as a fact of Hyksos rule in the Delta).[133] Pharaoh equally 'god-king' throughout pharaonic period [134]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ No evidence that religious culture or divinity of rulers was contested during the upheavals of the intermediate periods. Pharaoh equally 'god-king' throughout pharaonic period [135]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Ideology/cosmology holds all humans as equal, though in practice acknowledged and accepted that there were stark social/political/economic differences [136]. "the association between ma'at and the just society finds expression in the Instructions of the vizier Ptah-hetep of the Fifth Dynasy: 'Justice (ma'at) is great, its value enduring. It has not been disturbed since the days of him who created it. He who transgresses the laws is punished."[137] Senusret III set up the "bureau of the people's giving".[138] title sounds prosocial, need to check if more is known about it. "There was a paramount expectation that the Pharaoh protected, and provided for, his subjects and secured social justice, an ideal rooted in the concept of Maat, which implied truth, righteousness and order among humans and between them and their gods (Hart, 1986; Lichtheinm, 1992; Watterson, 1996)."[139]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [140] Peak of equality under Mid Kingdom seems to have vanished by second half of 2nd milenium [141] "The growth of the Osirian cult was accompanied by a cultural phenomenon sometimes described as the 'democratization of the afterlife': the extension of once-royal funerary priveleges to ordinary people. ... thus receiving blessings that had once been restricted to kings."[142] "Another religious development of the Middle Kingdom was the idea that all people (not just the king) had a ba, or spiritual force."[143] Popularity of the cult of Osiris: "People from a surprising social range built chapels in order to receive mortuary offerings, in which they set up steles engraved with representations of themselves and sometimes accounts of their lives."[144] Coffin Texts "magical and liturgical spells inscribed principally onto the sides of wooden coffins." Majority Middle Kingdom, had begun in First Intermediate Period. [145] "Another interesting development in the Coffin Texts is that all deceased people can be identified with Osiris."[146]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ No strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [147] "The growth of the Osirian cult was accompanied by a cultural phenomenon sometimes described as the 'democratization of the afterlife': the extension of once-royal funerary priveleges to ordinary people. ... thus receiving blessings that had once been restricted to kings."[148] "Another religious development of the Middle Kingdom was the idea that all people (not just the king) had a ba, or spiritual force."[149]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred continuity with other period of Ancient Egyptian history.“ Festivals were community affairs, a time for the residents of a village or town to abandon their daily tasks and come together in celebration.” [150] "instructions of Amenemope give positive images of attitudes toward human limits. It also teaches that care for the old, sick, and malformed is a moral duty, because 'Man is clay and straw, the God is his builder. The Wise Man should respect people affected by reversal of fortune' [Simpson, 1973]."[151] perhaps in marriage: "In literary texts, extramarital liaisons were punishable by death (Eyre 1984: 97; Johnson 2003: 150 - 151). In non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina dating to the New Kingdom, erring individuals of both sexes face less dramatic repercussions (Toivari-Viitala 2001: 153 - 157; see also Galpaz-Feller 2004; Lorton 1977: 14 - 15, 38 - 39)."[152] "Ancient Egyptian ethical thought and action revolved around the notion of maat. Although there are no traces of a standard moral code surviving from ancient Egypt, moral principles are often reflected in the literature - especially works of wisdom literature, funerary books and songs, tomb biographies, and literary narratives. ... Through the study of these sources one can observe the occurrence of a major change in ancient Egyptian ethical thought during the New Kingdom, when piety and religiosity became significant criteria for the judgment of the individual."[153] "The gods explicitly sanctioned attention to the problems of the less fortunate, and government was aware of the importance of both the appearance and reality of correct behaviour. ... Periodic reforms of abuses are well documented, and officials' biographies frequently refer to their aid to the disadvantaged."[154] "The existence of institutional doctors and of a certain paternalism, shown by employers, resulting from their fear of offending the Gods and their beliefs in an after-life, played a role in softening the bleak scene of the Egyptian world of work."[155]

♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ Texts from later periods make clear elites and ruler provided public goods (famine relief water works); inferred ideology existed from early on [156] Declaration of virtues for Intef "herald and governor under Thutmose III (Urk IV, 964-975)" that might suggest "both a reaffirmation of moral values held in the Middle Kingdom and a clear expansion of moral ideals in the 18th Dynasty" (includes): free of evil; without falsehood; hearer of his petition; not (neglectful) concerning Maat; turning his back to the liar; free from partiality; vindicating the just; punishing the guilty for his guilt; servant of the needy; father of the poor; guide of the orphan; mother of the timid; shelter for the battered; guardian of the sick; husband of the widow; refuge for the orphan. [157]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [158] [159] [160]

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