EgRegns

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Period of the Regions ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ First Intermediate Period ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 2063 BCE ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2150-2016 BCE ♥ First Intermediate Period: c.2160-2055 BCE [2]

Theban king Nebhepta Mentuotep II united Egypt under Theban rule auguring the Middle Kingdom. [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal; loose; unitary state ♥

Unitary state created by Theban King Wahankh Intef II 2112-2063 BCE?[4] although expansion outwards from Thebes probably begun by his predecessors. [5]

King Wahankh Intef II: "The newly founded state was organized not as a loose knit network of semi-independent magnates, as the Old Kingdom had become toward its end, but as a powerful system relying on strong bonds of personal loyalty and on tight control."[6]

"We know less about his adversaries, although it seems that the cause of the Herakleopolitan Kings was prosecuted by the nomarchs of Asyut." [7]

Mentuhotep/Nebhepetre reunited Egypt under one ruler. "Egyptologists usually cautiously put the reunification of Egypt as taking place in or about Mentuhotep's regnal year 39, c.2007 BC." [8]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal; vassalage ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Late Old Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Middle Kingdom ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Abydos; Thebes ♥ No single capital in Upper Egypt. There were important provincial centres which vied for control, until a monarchy based at Thebes was established in the 11th Dynasty. [9]

In lower Egypt the Herakleopolitan Kingdom had its capital at Herakleopolis Magna (in northern Middle Egypt near the Faiyyum), but the "Herakeopolitans never had control over southern Upper Egypt." [10]


♠ Language ♣ Ancient Egyptian ♥

General Description

The Period of the Regions, or the First Intermediate Period of Egypt, refers to the interval between the Old and the Middle Kingdoms. There was no single capital at this time. Instead, there were several powerful hereditary rulers scattered throughout the region, including the Herakleopolitan kings in the north and the Theban Eleventh Dynasty in the south.[11][12]

Population and political organization

During the Period of the Regions, different local rulers vied for control of the former provinces (the nomes of the Late Old Kingdom). In Upper Egypt, around Thebes, the Eleventh Dynasty was able to establish a centralized system of regional administration. Interestingly, this dynasty lacked the powerful provincial nomarchs that characterized the Late Old Kingdom, which perhaps presages the unitary state of the Middle Kingdom.[13][14][15]
At this early date, however, the Theban Kingdom was relatively unimportant and removed from developments elsewhere in Egypt.[16] Further south along the Nile river, a local governor at Mo'alla, Ankhtifi, waged war on his own behalf without deferring to royal power and claimed authority over multiple southern nomes.[17] The political fragmentation of the period is further illustrated by the 'glaring gap' in monument-building across Egypt.[18] Nevertheless, provincial rulers did command sufficient resources to build monumental mastaba tombs and the Theban Kingdom is notable for its rock-cut saff tombs.[19]
Although the Intermediate Periods of Egypt are popularly thought of as being synonymous with disruption and a downturn in fortunes for the Egyptian people, several Egyptologists now argue that this assumption is misleading, at least for the First period: they instead contend that economic productivity was generally high during the late Old Kingdom and remained so through the Period of the Regions.[20] The main difference was that the king and his court lost power and access to much of this wealth, as the power of local rulers grew vis-à-vis the central state. In fact, despite its portrayal in Middle Kingdom literature as a time of depression, the First Intermediate Period was characterized by dynamism and creativity.[21] Popular culture flourished and evidence from burials shows that local populations enjoyed 'conspicuous, if modest, wealth'.[22][23]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [20,000-40,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Estimate for Theban Kingdom that controlled a rectangle in Southern Egypt based around the Nile from Aswan to Thebes, or just a bit north.

"... the Theban Kingdom occupied only a small, remote, and relatively unimportant part of Egypt as a whole ... Most of the country, during the First Intermediate Period, was in the hands of the Herakleopolitan successors to the ancient Memphite monarchy."[24]

"A well known stela showing the king with a number of his dogs (Cairo CG 20512) is dated to year 50 of the king's reign (c.2053 BC), and indicates that at that time his southern boundary was at Elephantine (Aswan), and his northern in the tenth Upper Egyptian nome (north of Abydos)." [25]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 30,000 ♥ Inhabitants.

Thebes

Over 10,000 by 1800 BCE [26]

Memphis

30,000: 2200 BCE. No estimate for the next centuries after 2200 BCE [27]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels. (1) Memphis (capital); (2) Regional centres (e.g. Abydos, Hierakonpolis); (3) Minor centres (e.g. Aswan, Naga-el-deir); (4) Villages; (5) Hamlets (inferred)[28]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.


1. King

documented instances of officials who were responsible for a territory larger than a nome. Abihu governed: Abydos; Diospolis Parva; Dendera. [29]
had courtiers, known from their saff-tombs at el-Tarif [30]


_Centralized administrative system_

2a. High official such as Djari who was as a high official of King Wahankh Intef II. [31]
3a. "the fledgling Theban state created a centralized administrative system"[32]
4a. Scribes


_ Administration centers _

2a. Chief temple administrator (Priest?)
"over-powering influence of court-culture had faded" [33]
"great weakening of central government" [34]
Provincial temples were administration centres and "foci of loyalty" of the people. [35]


_ Local government _


2b. ... ? ...
Theban king Wahankh Intef II had a military officer called Djary who "managed the southern most nomes for the king." [36]
"The late Old Kingdom kings had transformed provincial rule ... by creating a new class of provincial administrators, i.e. the nomarchs ... Although these functionaries are not attested everywhere, they existed in most Upper Egyptian provinces and continue to appear throughout Upper Egypt in early First Intermediate Period documents. However, in the areas conquered by the Theban rulers ... the evidence for their existence gradually stops." [37]
3b. Village head?
End 3rd millennium: "contemporary priests and scribes proudly proclaim that they worked for simple village governors (hq3w), chiefs (hrjw-tp), and administrators (jmjw-r pr), they reveal the real importance of these authorities, usually hidden under the stereotypical iconography of the punished or bowing chief of a village."[38]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.


_Mortuary cults_

"full-blown, society-wide investment in the mortuary cult did not come into fruition until the First Intermediate Period - when the central state had for all intents and purposes collapsed." [39]

1. Overseers of priests [40]

local rulers usually acted as "overseers of priests" [41]
2. Priests
3. Scribes?


♠ Military levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

Nomarch, top military officer (such as Djary under Intef II) and inferred ranks below.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Theban king Wahankh Intef II had a military officer called Djary. [42]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ There were local mercenaries. [43]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ "the fledgling Theban state created a centralized administrative system"[44]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown? "the fledgling Theban state created a centralized administrative system"[45] Inferred present for preceding Old Kingdom.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ "The late Old Kingdom kings had transformed provincial rule ... by creating a new class of provincial administrators, i.e. the nomarchs ... Although these functionaries are not attested everywhere, they existed in most Upper Egyptian provinces and continue to appear throughout Upper Egypt in early First Intermediate Period documents. However, in the areas conquered by the Theban rulers ... the evidence for their existence gradually stops." [46]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present Middle Kingdom, inferred present Old Kingdom.

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred absent Middle Kingdom. disagreement Old Kingdom.

♠ Courts ♣ [present; absent] ♥ not present Middle Kingdom. present Old Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ [present; absent] ♥ not present Middle Kingdom. inferred present Old Kingdom.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Irrigation systems from Menes who began construction of basins to retain flood waters, dug canals and irrigation ditches to reclaim marshland. By 2500 BCE, a system of dikes, canals and sluices had been constructed. Irrigation system was communal. [47][48]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥ Earliest wells date to the el Napta/Al Jerar Early Neolithic (c6000-5250 BC) at Napta Playa in the Western Desert. There is written evidence for wells from 4th dynasty Old Kingdom. "Most of the inscriptions seem to be connected to mining or quarrying activities in the Eastern Desert or travel routes from the Nile Valley towards the Red Sea." [49] A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥ "lack of evidence of state 'control' of crafts or of the economy; ... absence of evidence of 'redistribution' ... increasingly widespread evidence of commercial activity ... exaggerated attention to titles has paid neither sufficient attention to their absence, nor to the lack of evidence for an administrative role of titles when they are documented. Together these points suggest that the Ancient Egyptian economy was a pre-capitalist market economy in which administration played a relatively unimportant role in itself."[50]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ During famine rulers were able to distribute food. [51]


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Polities would have maintained infrastructure that first appeared in earlier periods?
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Earliest reference to small bridge is for the new kingdom. Bridges over wide expanse of water unknown.[52] However, it is highly probable that small bridges were necessary before this time and Egyptians would have been more than capable of building and maintaining them.
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Polities would have maintained infrastructure that first appeared in earlier periods?
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Present after the reunification of Egypt. Did the Theban Kings conduct any trade via Red Sea ports?

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Script and writing materials developed in late fourth millennium BCE. [53]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Hieroglyphs.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.[54]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Coffin Texts "magical and liturgical spells inscribed principally onto the sides of wooden coffins." Majority Middle Kingdom, had begun in First Intermediate Period. [55]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "Texts"[56] presumably bureaucratic? "as early as 3000 BCE official reference standards of length, volume, and weight were being maintained in temples and royal palaces in Egypt" [57]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Ankhtifi's inscription. Not strictly a "document", yet a noteworthy autobiographical text on pillars of rock tomb near el-Mo'alla, a little south of Thebes. [58] Also, historical texts were produced in the Old Kingdom.
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ medical texts still in existence? literate elite. the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE): "attempting to salvage content from an older script dating back to 3000 B.C."[59] "as early as 3000 BCE official reference standards of length, volume, and weight were being maintained in temples and royal palaces in Egypt" [60]
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥ literate elite.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Payment in agricultural goods. [61]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Centralized Theban state and high officials likely to have communicated using individuals to carry personal messages.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [62]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [63] Evidence for bronze arrowheads and spearheads. Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, then replaced by bronze. [64]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Meteoritic Iron, present, not used in military capacity.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The weaponry being used by the Egyptians and their opponents--a combination of bows and arrows, shields, spears and axes--remained virtually unchanged from the Sixth to Thirteenth Dynasties".[65]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in the Old Kingdom [66]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "By the Dynastic Period, archers were most commonly depicted using a 'self' (or simple) bow"[67]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[68] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[69]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in previous periods, though no longer one of the main weapons: "the weaponry being used by the Egyptians and their opponents--a combination of bows and arrows, shields, spears and axes--remained virtually unchanged from the Sixth to Thirteenth Dynasties."[70]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Throughout the Dynastic Period of the most commonly used weapon was the axe. In the Old and Middle Kingdoms the conventional axe usually consisted of a semicircular copper head (see figures 23a and 24) tied to a wooden handle by cords, threaded through perforations in the copper and wrapped around lugs. At this stage there was little difference between the battleaxe and the woodworker's axe. In the Middle Kingdom, however, some battleaxes had longer blades with concave sides narrowing down to a curved edge (figure 23b)"[71]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ used in earlier time in this region [72]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the weaponry being used by the Egyptians and their opponents--a combination of bows and arrows, shields, spears and axes--remained virtually unchanged from the Sixth to Thirteenth Dynasties."[73]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "One of the most important sources for the study of Egyptian weapons in the early Middle Kingdom is a pair of painted wooden models (Cairo, Egyptian Museum) from the tomb of Mesehti, a provincial governor at Asyut in the Eleventh Dynasty (figure 22). Forty Egyptian spearmen and forty Nubian archers are reproduced in faithful detail, showing the typical costume and arms of the common soldier."[74]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ "Whereas the conventional spear was intended to be thrown at the enemy, there was also a form of halberd (figure 25c), which was effectively a spear shaft fitted with an axe blade and used for cutting and slashing."[75]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "During the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians depended upon the donkey's back for land transport. ... Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads."[76] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[77]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [78]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[79]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[80]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Cowhides probably most common material. [81] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[82]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Not until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[83] "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[84]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[85]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[86]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[87]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[88]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[89]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[90]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Definitely for troop transport. Ankhtfi "sailed downstream" with his troops before a siege of Thebes. [91]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Navy was the main fighting force until the New Kingdom. [92]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ [absent; present] ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ [absent; present] ♥
♠ Moat ♣ [absent; present] ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Walls were present in Thebes when Ankhtfi attacked. [93] Non-mortared or mortared?
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Walls were present in Thebes when Ankhtfi attacked. [94] Non-mortared or mortared?
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ The expansionist Theban state likely to have used garrisons? [95]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "During the First Intermediate Period the town [of Efdu] expanded to almost double its size, a trend which can be seen from the erection of new enclosure walls along the northwestern and southwestern side of the tell. The old walls, however, did not go out of use: an additional wall-layer was added on the outside of the Old Kingdom enclosures (Fig, 3, F116), leaving an inner walled citadel or part of the town enclosed by the former city walls. One can speculate that this now enclosed the religious or administrative quarter of the town."[96]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. "The traditional borders of Egypt comprised the Western Desert, the Sinai Desert, the Mediterranean coast and the Forst Nile Cataract at Aswan. Such natural physical barriers were sufficient to protect the Egyptians fromoutside interference for the many centuries during which their distinctive civilisation developed."[97] "The Neo-Sumerian mental map of an internal land (Sumer and Akkad) surrounded by a turbulent periphery found its concrete application in the construction of a fortification wall crossing the alluvial plain. This wall was located slightly to the north of Akkad, and was meant to protect the empire from the Martu. This small 'Chinese wall' was built roughly at the same time as the Prince's Wall, built by the Egyptian twelfth dynasty to face the same nomadic group."[98]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred present ♥ executive was weak at this time so many constraints upon the position of Pharoah can be inferred End 3rd millennium: "contemporary priests and scribes proudly proclaim that they worked for simple village governors (hq3w), chiefs (hrjw-tp), and administrators (jmjw-r pr), they reveal the real importance of these authorities, usually hidden under the stereotypical iconography of the punished or bowing chief of a village."[99]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ executive was weak at this time so many constraints upon the position of Pharoah can be inferred
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Late in Old Kingdom "the ex officio system of remuneration no longer functioned satisfactorily and the fiscal system was probably on the verge of collapse. Some offices became, in effect, hereditary and were kept in the same family for several generations."[100] there was a provincial aristocracy.[101] "During the 6th dynasty the power of the center declined. Nomarchs and other provincial officials no longer obtained their appointments from the king but instead passed their offices on to their sons, as if they made up dynasties."[102]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ The ideology of state was a 'social contract' between the king and his subjects. This contract was, however, not one made between the ruler and the people (and e.g. enshrined in a written constitution); it was one signed with the gods. The king who failed to carry through his side of the contract would expect to lose favour with the gods. The people, for their part, could not legitimately rebel on their own evaluation of the king's performance; only given signs that the gods did not consider the king legitimate.

"In the case of Ancient Egypt, the ideology of the state, promoted through religious, artistic and literary texts, was centred around the divine right of the king to secure the submission of his subjects to his royal will in return for their right to expect protection, subsistence and the preservation of Maat (order, justice, righteousness) in society."[103]

"Divine kingship is the most striking feature of Egypt in these periods."[104] Pharoahs still legitimated by gods although they have much less power than before

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) "took the idea of self-deification further than any previous pharaoh and was the first to present himself as a divine being during his lifetime."[105]

Pharaoh equally 'god-king' throughout pharaonic period [106]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Ideology/cosmology holds all humans as equal, though in practice acknowledged and accepted that there were stark social/political/economic differences [107]. "The concept of imakhu ['honoured'] (which can also be translated as 'being provided for') was an expression of a remarkable moral dictum that ran through all levels of Egyptian society and that corrected the extreme cases of social inequality: it was the duty of a more influential and richer person to take care of the poor and socially disadvantaged in the same way the head of a family was responsible for all its members."[108]"Through ideology and its symbolic material form in tombs widely held beliefs concerning death came to reflect the hierarchical social organization of the living and the state controlled by the king"[109]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [110] Coffin Texts "magical and liturgical spells inscribed principally onto the sides of wooden coffins." Majority Middle Kingdom, had begun in First Intermediate Period. [111] "Another interesting development in the Coffin Texts is that all deceased people can be identified with Osiris."[112] "By this period, the Osirian afterlife is offered to non-royal persons, but Osiris has moved into the subterranean realm, which becomes his primary associated for the rest of Egyptian history."[113] Afterlife available, but hierarchies still allowed / justified by the ideology (in this life and afterlife). "Through ideology and its symbolic material form in tombs widely held beliefs concerning death came to reflect the hierarchical social organization of the living and the state controlled by the king"[114]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ No strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [115] "By this period, the Osirian afterlife is offered to non-royal persons, but Osiris has moved into the subterranean realm, which becomes his primary associated for the rest of Egyptian history."[116] Afterlife available, but hierarchies still allowed / justified by the ideology (in this life and afterlife). "Through ideology and its symbolic material form in tombs widely held beliefs concerning death came to reflect the hierarchical social organization of the living and the state controlled by the king"[117]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ Nomarch and Overseer of Priests Ankhtifi claimed to have given "bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked; I annoited those who had no cosmetic oil; I gave sandals to the barefooted; I gave a wife to him who had no wife..."[118] In Old Kingdom we had: "The concept of imakhu ['honoured'] (which can also be translated as 'being provided for') was an expression of a remarkable moral dictum that ran through all levels of Egyptian society and that corrected the extreme cases of social inequality: it was the duty of a more influential and richer person to take care of the poor and socially disadvantaged in the same way the head of a family was responsible for all its members."[119] "Perhaps the most important religious innovation of the Coffin Texts is the idea that everyone would be judged in the afterlife on the basis of his or her deeds while alive. Actually there are indications that belief in a final judgment had existed previously, but the Coffin Texts provide the first concrete evidence for the procedure in the next world. The judgment takes place before Osrisis and a council of gods, but no particular method of trial is spelled out. Allusions to the use of the balance occasionally appear in literary works such as The Eloquent Peasant."[120] In the Old Kingdom: "First, Maat is established as a moral order with divine, natural and social dimensions. Secondly, Maat is counterposed with isft (evil, chaos, wrong-doing) as well as with dw (evil), grg (falsehood) and 3bt (wrong-doing). Thirdly, Maat is a standard and measure of both moral life on the personal and social level. Fourthly, Maat is tied to the concept of moral and social excellence (ikr, mnh) and resultant worthiness (im3h). Finally, the ground of Maat is that it's God's will, and thus the king's will and that it is good, effective and life-giving."[121] In First Intermediate Period/Middle Kingdom: "All sections of the population - the rich, the poor, the rising middle class, now erect tombs and memorial stones with self-presentations designed to secure a share in immortality. And urdergirding this quest for immoirtality is the living of a Maatian life."[122]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ 'Text where people say they provided for people with times of famine 2100 BCE text says that a person’s province did not go hungry while all the other provinces did'[123]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [124] [125] [126]

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