EgNaqa2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Malwina Brachmańska; Jenny Reddish ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Naqada II ♥ Naqada IIC-D

♠ Alternative names ♣ Naqada II; Naqada II; Naqada IIC-D; Naqada IIC; Naqada IID; Gerzean period ♥ Gerzean Period [1] Naqada II = German. Nagada II = French.

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥

The Naqada II culture’s peak is the time when its expansion started, in the later part of the period, both to the South - to Nubia - Group-A region and to the North - to the Delta’s area[2]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3550-3300 BCE ♥ [3] Naqada, IIC-D

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unknown ♥

Unknown

During the Naqada period there is a system of quasi-polities.
settlement pattern consists of scattered villages without any ties
eventually supravillages polities. By the end of that stage the chiefdoms start to change politically. First we have chiefdoms on the pre-state stages and in the Naqada III proto-states and the kings of Dynasty 0 in the later part of that period[4].
There are a few centres and villages on each territory. However the exact degree of centralization is unknown - it may be loose or nominal.

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Naqada I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Dynasty 0 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ inapplicable: Naqada was an independent culture. However, because of Naqadians' expansion to the North in the late Naqada II, during that time it coexisted with Maadi sites in the Nile Delta.
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Naqada; This; Hierakonpolis ♥

Egypt during Naqada period is a collection of quasi-polities. So for the most of IVth milenium it is impossible to indicate capital.

However according to for example B. Andelković, from the Naqada IC one can talking about pre-states and there is a suggestion of 8 Upper-Egyptian centers, from which 3 remained on the very high position and were the capital of their growing polities[5]
That is Naqada, Hierakoonpolis and This.
The political strength of all of three capitals is evident in the Naqada II period.


♠ Language ♣ suspected unknown ♥ probably very similar to Archaic Egyptian

General Description

The Naqada is a Predynastic archaeological culture located in Upper Egypt, the strip of land flanking the Nile river south of the Faiyum region and north of the First Cataract. Named after the site where British archaeologist Flinders Petrie uncovered a necropolis of over 3000 graves in the late 19th century,[6] the Naqada culture is dated from around 3800 to 3100 BCE.[7] The Naqada has been subdivided into three periods ‒ the Amratian, Gerzean, and Semainean ‒ as well as, more recently, into Naqada IA-C, IIA-D, and IIIA-D.[8][9] Seshat's 'Naqada 1' (3800-3550 BCE) corresponds to the Naqada IA-IIB phases; Naqada 2 (3550-3300 BCE) to IIC-IID; and Naqada 3 (3300-3100 BCE) to IIIA-IIIB. We end Naqada 3 with the IIIB-C transition, because the First Dynasty of the Egyptian state is considered to begin with the accession of King Aha in Naqada IIIC.[10] Naqada III is also sometimes referred to as the Protodynastic period or 'Dynasty 0'.
Early Naqada archaeological material is clustered around the key sites of Naqada itself, Abydos, and Hierakonpolis (ancient Nekhen) in the fertile land nestled around the 'Qena bend' of the Nile.[11] However, from the late Naqada II onwards, there is an archaeologically visible expansion of the culture both southwards along the Nile and northwards into Lower Egypt (the Delta), eventually reaching as far north as the Levant in Naqada IIIA-B.[12]

Population and Political Organization

The 4th millennium BCE was a crucial period for Egyptian state formation. Prior to roughly 3800 BCE, Upper Egypt was inhabited by seasonally mobile farmers and herders, constituting an archaeological culture known as the Badarian.[13] However, the Naqada periods brought a series of key social transformations to the region, including increasing inequality, a greater commitment to sedentary settlement and cereal farming, the emergence of full-time craft specialists, and, towards the end of the millennium, the invention of writing.[14][15][16] The growth of hierarchical social structures and the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt laid the foundations for the divine kings and complex bureaucracy of the Old Kingdom and beyond.
During Naqada I, new forms of political organization appeared ‒ relatively swiftly compared to other prehistoric cultures ‒ in the upper Nile Valley.[17] According to the Egyptologist Branislav Anđelković, previously autonomous agricultural villages began to band together to form 'chiefdoms' or 'proto-nomes' between Naqada IA and IB (a 'nome' was an administrative division in the later Egyptian state).[18] In Naqada IC, even larger political entities ‒ 'nome pre-states' ‒ started to form, centred on Naqada, Abydos and Hierakonpolis. It has been suggested that a 'primitive chiefdom' centred around a 'royal' authority based at Hierakonpolis, had formed by around 3700 BCE.[19] Not all researchers agree with this terminology, believing that it creates the impression of an inexorable march towards state formation, and some prefer to stress the fragile and experimental nature of early complex social formations in Upper Egypt.[20] However, the term chiefdom remains in common usage as a label for the new ranked societies of the early 4th millennium.[21][22][23] In the Naqada II period, 'proto-states' formed, and by the Naqada III we can speak of kings and a centralized government ruling over a unified Upper and Lower Egypt.[24]
We lack firm figures for the population of Egypt during the Naqada. At the beginning of the period, most inhabitants of Upper Egypt were living in small villages.[25] However, as the 4th millennium progressed, archaeologists can discern a process of urbanization and aggregation into larger political units. The largest known settlement, Hierakonpolis, grew into a regional centre of power in the 3800‒3500 BCE period[26] and may have reached a population of between 5,000 and 10,000 people in the late Naqada I.[27] Other researchers consider this figure 'inflated'[28] and point to recent evidence from the Abydos region for low population numbers throughout the Predynastic period.[29]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Malwina Brachmanska; Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [5,000-20,000] ♥ KM2. Estimate will be somewhere under 25,000 KM2 and somewhere over 3,000 KM2. A code of [5,000-20,000] captures the main part of this range.

Upper Egypt is the core territory of Naqada culture.

Naqada II

"Gerzean culture extended from its source at Naqada northwards toward the Delta (Minshat Abu Omar) and southwards as far as Nubia." [30]
Another more popular theory indicates a continuous existence of a few developing political and territorial chiefdoms or even a proto-states[31]
The size of those polities varied and changed during the process of state formation. It seems, however, that until the end of Naqada IIB period (3400 BCE) only three polities in Upper Egypt prevailed (there is still a huge lack of information about the Middle Egypt region), which remain quite stable for the rest of the Naqada II period. The exact size of polity territories remains uncoded[32]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 13,000: 3500 BCE; 50,000: 3400-3300 BCE ♥ People.

EWA: standard ref is Michael Dee. Dee, Michael, David Wengrow, Andrew Shortland, Alice Stevenson, Fiona Brock, Linus Girdland Flink, and Christopher Ramsey 2013. An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 469 (2159, November, article no. 2013.0395), 1-10. This data need to be incorporated.

13,000: 3500-3400 BCE; 50,000: 3400-3200 BCE

Naqada IIA-IIB: over 13,000; Naqada IIC-D: 50,000 [33]

The ref here should be David Wengrow's book.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [5,000-15,000] ♥ People.

Hierakonpolis [>5000] [34].

EWA: Naqada is likely to have a greater population. would this be the figure of over 13,000?

Naqada IC-IIB: over 13,000[35] Hoffman thought that in most of villages less than 75 people lived. In centers there were much more[36] is the IC-IIB a typo? elsewhere we have written IIA-IIB. IC-IIB doesn't make sense chronologically.

Naqada IIA-IIB: over 13,000 [37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ [38]

1. Large centres (Hierakonpolis, Naqada, Abydos...)

2. Minor centres (e.g. Adaima)
3. Villages (inferred)
Gerzean: "The hierarchy of chiefs amounted in essence to a hierarchical management system. Village chiefs were "clients" of a district chief, who in turn was a client to a regional chief. Clients owed loyalty to their superior chief (Mair, 1967)."

"The Predynastic towns were probably not major centers of population and their function must have been primarily symbolic of a new order of life and a center of sacred shrine and deities. There were probably no more than a few towns and perhaps only two important ones in all of Upper Egypt - South Town and Hierakonpolis (Kemp, 1977)." [39]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ Gerzean: "The hierarchy of chiefs amounted in essence to a hierarchical management system. Village chiefs were "clients" of a district chief, who in turn was a client to a regional chief. Clients owed loyalty to their superior chief (Mair, 1967)." [40] Hierakonpolis and Abydos: "some kind of “royal” authority or primitive chiefdom existed about 3700 BCE, well before the Predynastic kings of Abydos" [41]

1. ?Proto-king
1-2. Regional chief (was this the king?)
3. District chief
4. Village chief


♠ Religious levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The introduction of professional priesthood occurred during the New Kingdom[42].


♠ Military levels ♣ 2 ♥ "The scene in the Late Predynastic (Gerzean) Painted Tomb in Hierakonpolis (Kantor, 1944), showing a person smiting enemies in a manner prototypical of that of the later Pharaoh (Baines, 1987), indicates that regional, paramount chiefs may have commanded warriors who were mobilized by district and community chiefs." [43]

1. Chief
2. Warriors

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the Predynastic period there is no proof of the existence of a professional army. There is probably also no hieroglyphic sign meaning "army" by Dynastic Period[44]. Moreover, in Ancient Egyptian unitary state, introduction of regular army took place during the New Kingdom[45].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ [46] There is no convincing evidence for a functioning warrior class. G. P. Gilbert made a suggestion of existence of " the „universal warrior” type, with each man being required to maintain their efficiency as a trained warrior and being willing to participate in warfare when required"[47].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ The introduction of professional priesthood occurred during the New Kingdom[48].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent: 3550-3401 BCE; {absent; present}: 3400-3300 BCE ♥

absent

Naqada I-IIB

Naqada IIC-III

{present; absent}

Trade and recording

Probably the earliest evidence of bureaucratic processes can be observed in relation to trade and recording, and controlling of access to some goods which was standing behind that trade. Presumably it was not so much a full-bureaucracy but a set of obligations for a certain group of people.

From the Naqada IIC and Naqada IID existence of an administrative apparatus is well represented in the works of Andelkovic (2004) and Hendrickx (2002).[49] [50]

However there is currently are only indirect sources of evidence. We can name “artifacts of administration”[51] such as cylinder and stamp seals, seal impressions, labels, etc.

Altogether, those artifacts and architecture indicate the beginning of bureaucracy apparatus on the quite developed if not centralized level. Not all scientists, however, agree that existence of full-time, centralized bureaucracy is without any doubt. They rather talk about a “simple form of administration.”[52].

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ [absent; present] ♥ A few buildings existed, to which administrative function was assigned because of their architecture - bigger than for a typical household - and the findings from inside them. Example: the palace/administrative structure at HK34 at Hierakonpolis[53] or building complex in Naqada, South Town, associated with significant amount of seals, clay sealings, counters and tokens[54]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ irrigation canals or dams. a dam would also count as a water source infrastructure for agricultural use. "There is no field evidence of irrigation during the Gerzean as suggested by Krzyzaniak (1977), but some of the design motifs on Gerzean pots may be interpreted as canals." [55] However, the inhabitants of the Nile Valley were dependent on agriculture by c3800 BCE and "It has been noticed that in the end of Naqada I period, the climate became drier and Nile floods were declining. The fields could not be longer irrigated naturally[56] - does this suggest irrigation systems appear as a response to climate change, when the "natural irrigation" (known before the Naqada II period) no longer became as effective? The closest and earliest evidence we have for digging associated with irrigation is the ceremonial inauguration of a waterwork on the macehead of the Scorpion King, which shows two workmen with hoes excavating while the king wields a large hoe and a man holding a basket anticipates the king's action. The scene may represent not the digging of a canal but rather the ceremonial breaking of a dam to let floodwater flow into a natural irrigation basin, an act which was traditional in later times. [57] The iconographical interpretation of the mace-head of the Skorpion raises a lot of controversy and it is said that it could either be the canal building in a particular place (possibly Memphis), and not appearance of the irrigation system in general - or, there are also interpretations which are far from the canal digging. [58]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Earliest wells date to the el Napta/Al Jerar Early Neolithic (c6000-5250 BC) at Napta Playa in the Western Desert. There is written evidence for wells from 4th dynasty Old Kingdom. "Most of the inscriptions seem to be connected to mining or quarrying activities in the Eastern Desert or travel routes from the Nile Valley towards the Red Sea." [59] However, wells do not count as a supply system.
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred present since the Badarian.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is no field evidence of irrigation during the Gerzean as suggested by Krzyzaniak (1977), but some of the design motifs on Gerzean pots may be interpreted as canals." [60]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ Boats were in widespread use, but there is no archaeological evidence of port structures in the Predynastic Period.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[61]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[62]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[63]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ examples: rock-art, pottery paintings, pot-marks, iconography on the palettes and maceheads.
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ John Baines confirmed that these should not count as true written records until Naqada III. The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[64]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[65]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[66] Still they can be precursors of "real" hieroglyphs.
♠ Script ♣ inferred present ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[67]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[68]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[69]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred present ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[70]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[71]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[72]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[73]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[74]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[75]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ [absent; present] ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[76]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[77]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[78]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[79]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[80]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[81]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[82]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[83]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[84]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[85]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[86]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[87]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[88]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[89]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[90]
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[91]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[92]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[93]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[94]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[95]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[96]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[97]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[98]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[99]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[100]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[101]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[102]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ All replaceable material goods - e.g. agricultural products, craft products, as well as metals (ingots)[103].
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Baked clay and stone tokens - cones, spheres, disks, cylinders, tetrahedrons etc.; impressed tablets[104].
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Ingots [105].
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Altogether, those artifacts and architecture indicate the beginning of bureaucracy apparatus on the quite developed if not centralized level. Not all scientists, however, agree that existence of full-time, centralized bureaucracy is without any doubt. They rather talk about a “simple form of administration.”[106] Messengers would be part of a simple form of administration.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Malwina Brachmanska; Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [107] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, later replaced by bronze. [108]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ bronze includes copper. Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [109] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, later replaced by bronze. [110]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ not in use during this time
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ not in use during this time

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ not among discovered weapons [111] "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18). Comparatively large numbers of maceheads have been excavated at late Predynastic and Protodynastic sites."[112]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New world weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Summaries of the development of Egyptian weaponry usually begin with the Late Predynastic. //Tools or weapons discovered that cannot yet be adequately placed in either category include: bows, spears, lances, axes, boomerangs, staffs, clubs, slings, knives, adzes etc[113] [114]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [115] "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[116] "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[117]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ [118] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[119] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[120]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥[121] Mace was the dominant weapon of war between 4000-2500 BCE in Sumer and until the Hyksos invasions (1700 BCE) in Egypt.[122] "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18). Comparatively large numbers of maceheads have been excavated at late Predynastic and Protodynastic sites."[123]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Present.[124] What did this reference say? Was it a tool? There was no/little armour in Egyptian warfare so why was the axe used? The socket axe, introduced by the Hyksos, was not used. Egyptians used a cutting axe with the blade insecurely tied to the shaft without a socket.[125] Ideally this variable should be split as there was a great difference in performance between these two axes. "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[126]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Tools or weapons discovered that cannot yet be adequately placed in either category include: bows, spears, lances, axes, boomerangs, staffs, clubs, slings, knives, adzes etc[127] The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[128]
♠ Daggers ♣ absent: 3500-3401 BCE; present: 3400-3301 BCE ♥ Before Naqada period people used the flint daggers, but they later disappeared. Metal daggers appeared no earlier than during Naqada IIC-D [129] "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[130]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ Long straight sword introduced to Egypt late in the New Kingdom period by Sherden mercenaries and the 'Sea Peoples.' (C. el Mahdy). [131] "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[132]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[133]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ While the dogs took part in hunting, it is unknown if they also participated in military expeditions.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "During the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians depended upon the donkey's back for land transport. ... Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads."[134] Donkeys were domesticated in the Naqada II period. They were used for travel and trade.[135] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[136] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)."[137] There is no information if donkeys had a role in warfare.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [138]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ The long bronze dagger "was an intermediate stage before the appearance of the long straight sword introduced to Egypt late in the New Kingdom period by Sherden mercenaries and the 'Sea Peoples.' (C. el Mahdy). [139]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[140][141]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[142][143]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Cowhides probably most common material. [144] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[145]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ In Egyptian warfare 3000-1700 BCE the "only personal protection was the shield".[146] Not until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[147] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[148] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[149][150]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ In Egyptian warfare 3000-1700 BCE the "only personal protection was the shield".[151] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[152][153]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ In Egyptian warfare 3000-1700 BCE the "only personal protection was the shield".[154] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[155][156]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[157] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[158][159]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[160] Coding this as scale armor. "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[161][162]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[163] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[164][165]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[166][167]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Sophisticated, elaborate boats were evidently used by 3600 B.C. (Late Nagada), but model boats from Merimda suggest that boats and canoes were already in use before 4500 B.C. [168]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ due to lack of trees in Egypt
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No walls made out of stone. Enclosure walls around a group of houses at Naqada [169]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No walls made out of stone. Enclosure walls around a group of houses at Naqada [170]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Crenellated walls around dwellings common from Amratian Period (Naqada I) onwards [171] "In the northern part of South Town Petrie found the remains of a thick mudbrick wall, which appeared to be "a fortification with divisions within it" (Petrie and Quibell 1896: 54)." [172]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned for this period in Shaw's (1991, 15-24) discussion of Egyptian fortifications.[173]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ "From the Naqada II phase onwards, highly differentiated burials are found in cemeteries in Upper Egypt (but not in Lower Egypt). ... These burials are symbolic of an increasingly heirarchical society."[174]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence that rulership was in some way "sacred" [175].

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ {present; absent} ♥ Ruler deification absent according to Aksamit [176]. However, a different source refers to the ruler as "divine": "Indeed, below its pragmatic surface, the territorial expansion of the Naqada culture might have had deeper ideological and religious overtones, namely the subjugation of enemies (read: chaos) of cosmological order by the victorious divine ruler and his followers." [177]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ "From the Naqada II phase onwards, highly differentiated burials are found in cemeteries in Upper Egypt (but not in Lower Egypt). ... These burials are symbolic of an increasingly heirarchical society."[178]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "From the Naqada II phase onwards, highly differentiated burials are found in cemeteries in Upper Egypt (but not in Lower Egypt). ... These burials are symbolic of an increasingly heirarchical society."[179]
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [180] [181] [182]

References

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