EgNaqa1

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Brachmanska; Liibert; Edward A L Turner; Jenny Reddish ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Naqada I ♥ Naqada, IA-IIB.

♠ Alternative names ♣ Negade Kultur; culture de Nagada; Naqada IA-IIB; Naqada IA; Naqada IB; Naqada IC; Naqada IIA; Naqada IIB; Amratian Period ♥ Amratian Period.[1] Negade Kultur (German); culture de Nagada (French).

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥

The Naqada II culture’s peak is the time when its expansion started, in the later part of the period, both to the South - to Nubia - Group-A region and to the North - to the Delta’s area[2]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3800-3550 BCE ♥ Naqada, IA-IIB.


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ none; suspected unknown ♥

During the Naqada period there is a system of quasi-polities.
settlement pattern consists of scattered villages without any ties
eventually supravillages polities. By the end of that stage the chiefdoms start to change politically. First we have chiefdoms on the pre-state stages and in the Naqada III proto-states and the kings of Dynasty 0 in the later part of that period[3].
There are a few centres and villages on each territory. However the exact degree of centralization is unknown - it may be loose or nominal.


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥ inapplicable: Naqada was an independent culture. However during the Naqada I period in Upper Egypt it seems that the Badarian and Naqadian sites shared the same region. And because of Naqadians' expansion to the North in the late Naqada II, during that time it also coexisted with Maadi sites in the Nile Delta.
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Naqada II ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Naqada; This; Hierakonpolis ♥

Egypt during Naqada period is a collection of quasi-polities. So for the most of IVth milenium it is impossible to indicate capital.

However according to for example B. Andelković, from the Naqada IC one can talking about pre-states and there is a suggestion of 8 Upper-Egyptian centers, from which 3 remained on the very high position and were the capital of their growing polities[4]
That is Naqada, Hierakoonpolis and This.
The political strength of all of three capitals is evident in the Naqada II period.


♠ Language ♣ suspected unknown ♥ probably very similar to Archaic Egyptian

General Description

The Naqada is a Predynastic archaeological culture located in Upper Egypt, the strip of land flanking the Nile river south of the Faiyum region and north of the First Cataract. Named after the site where British archaeologist Flinders Petrie uncovered a necropolis of over 3000 graves in the late 19th century,[5] the Naqada culture is dated from around 3800 to 3100 BCE.[6] The Naqada has been subdivided into three periods ‒ the Amratian, Gerzean, and Semainean ‒ as well as, more recently, into Naqada IA-C, IIA-D, and IIIA-D.[7][8] Seshat's 'Naqada 1' (3800-3550 BCE) corresponds to the Naqada IA-IIB phases; Naqada 2 (3550-3300 BCE) to IIC-IID; and Naqada 3 (3300-3100 BCE) to IIIA-IIIB. We end Naqada 3 with the IIIB-C transition, because the First Dynasty of the Egyptian state is considered to begin with the accession of King Aha in Naqada IIIC.[9] Naqada III is also sometimes referred to as the Protodynastic period or 'Dynasty 0'.
Early Naqada archaeological material is clustered around the key sites of Naqada itself, Abydos, and Hierakonpolis (ancient Nekhen) in the fertile land nestled around the 'Qena bend' of the Nile.[10] However, from the late Naqada II onwards, there is an archaeologically visible expansion of the culture both southwards along the Nile and northwards into Lower Egypt (the Delta), eventually reaching as far north as the Levant in Naqada IIIA-B.[11]

Population and Political Organization

The 4th millennium BCE was a crucial period for Egyptian state formation. Prior to roughly 3800 BCE, Upper Egypt was inhabited by seasonally mobile farmers and herders, constituting an archaeological culture known as the Badarian.[12] However, the Naqada periods brought a series of key social transformations to the region, including increasing inequality, a greater commitment to sedentary settlement and cereal farming, the emergence of full-time craft specialists, and, towards the end of the millennium, the invention of writing.[13][14][15] The growth of hierarchical social structures and the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt laid the foundations for the divine kings and complex bureaucracy of the Old Kingdom and beyond.
During Naqada I, new forms of political organization appeared ‒ relatively swiftly compared to other prehistoric cultures ‒ in the upper Nile Valley.[16] According to the Egyptologist Branislav Anđelković, previously autonomous agricultural villages began to band together to form 'chiefdoms' or 'proto-nomes' between Naqada IA and IB (a 'nome' was an administrative division in the later Egyptian state).[17] In Naqada IC, even larger political entities ‒ 'nome pre-states' ‒ started to form, centred on Naqada, Abydos and Hierakonpolis. It has been suggested that a 'primitive chiefdom' centred around a 'royal' authority based at Hierakonpolis, had formed by around 3700 BCE.[18] Not all researchers agree with this terminology, believing that it creates the impression of an inexorable march towards state formation, and some prefer to stress the fragile and experimental nature of early complex social formations in Upper Egypt.[19] However, the term chiefdom remains in common usage as a label for the new ranked societies of the early 4th millennium.[20][21][22] In the Naqada II period, 'proto-states' formed, and by the Naqada III we can speak of kings and a centralized government ruling over a unified Upper and Lower Egypt.[23]
We lack firm figures for the population of Egypt during the Naqada. At the beginning of the period, most inhabitants of Upper Egypt were living in small villages.[24] However, as the 4th millennium progressed, archaeologists can discern a process of urbanization and aggregation into larger political units. The largest known settlement, Hierakonpolis, grew into a regional centre of power in the 3800‒3500 BCE period[25] and may have reached a population of between 5,000 and 10,000 people in the late Naqada I.[26] Other researchers consider this figure 'inflated'[27] and point to recent evidence from the Abydos region for low population numbers throughout the Predynastic period.[28]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Brachmanska; Liibert ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [5-20]: 3800 BCE; [5000-7500]: 3700-3600 BCE ♥ KM2. AD: estimate for 3800 BCE has been changed to 5-20 square kilometers to reflect the territory that could have been controlled by a village for agricultural/foraging purposes. Considering that Hierakonpolis covered at least 7.5km2 the range should allow for variations.

Upper Egypt is the core territory of Naqada culture.

This describes a 7.5km2, 750ha site if taken as a square

In the Naqada I period Hierakonpolis occupation "stretched for over 2.5 kilometers along the edge of the desert and back almost 3 kilometers into the great wadi that bisects the site"[29]

Naqada I: A few thousand meters-3 ha [30]; Naqada II-III: uncoded quasi-polities

At the end of Naqada I the villages started to united, first creating chiefdoms/nome pre-states and in the Naqada III or even in the end of Naqada II - proto-states. The size of those polities varied and changed during the process of state formation. That remains uncoded.


♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown: 3800-3651 BCE; 13,000: 3650-3551 BCE ♥ People. "[O]n average an Early Predynastic chiefdom consisted of a population of over 13,000 with a ceremonial centre or town including outlying settlements, as well as many villages."

150 estimate from previous RA.

50-200: [3900-3800]-3500 BCE; 13,000: 3500-3400 BCE; 50,000: 3400-3200 BCE; 60,000: 3400-3000 BCE

Naqada IA-B[31] Hoffman thought that in most of villages less than 75 people lived. In centers there were much more[32]

50-200[33]

Naqada IC-IIB[34] Hoffman thought that in most of villages less than 75 people lived. In centers there were much more[35]

over 13,000

Naqadian Egypt is a quasi-polity, or rather a collection of quasi polities. During the majority of Naqada I there were single villages, which might have formed temporary alliances with other villages, but in fact were politically independent. Most of these villages consisted of 50 to 200 habitants. However it is possible that some of these alliances grew up to the bigger towns consisting of 1,000 or 2,000 people.

It is during Naqada IC that these towns and villages started to unite and polities began to form. Now instead of scattered villages, there are a few chiefdoms with the town-centres, called sometimes pre-states and later, as the unification and polity development proceed, proto-states. So the rapid changes in the polity population coded above is not only an effect of growing population but also or even first of all the result of development of the chiefdoms size.

The exact time and the spreed of unification is not known so scholars can only show the level of changes in some distinguishing point. And this is exactly what G. P. Gilbert did.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [50-200]: 3800 BCE; [1,000-2,000]: 3700 BCE; 13,000: 3600 BCE ♥ People.

Naqada IC-IIB[36] Hoffman thought that in most of villages less than 75 people lived. In centers there were much more[37]

over 13,000

Naqadian Egypt is a quasi-polity, or rather a collection of quasi polities. During the majority of Naqada I there were single villages, which might have formed temporary alliances with other villages, but in fact were politically independent. Most of these villages consisted of 50 to 200 habitants. However it is possible that some of these alliances grew up to the bigger towns consisted 1,000 or 2,000 people.

Hierakonpolis and Abydos: "some kind of “royal” authority or primitive chiefdom existed about 3700 BCE, well before the Predynastic kings of Abydos" [38]

It is during Naqada IC that these towns and villages started to unite and polities began to form. Now instead of scattered villages, there are a few chiefdoms with the town-centres, called sometimes pre-states and later, as the unification and polity development proceed, proto-states. So the rapidly changes in the polity population coded above is not only an effect of growing population but also or even first of all the result of development of the chiefdoms size.

The exact time and the spreed of unification is not known so scholars can only show the level of changes in some distinguishing point. And this is exactly what G. P. Gilbert did.

Hierakonpolis Naqada I

5,000-7,500: 3400-3000 BCE what is the reference for this?

Naqada I

[2,544-10,922] what is the reference for this?

In the Naqada I period people from the Hierakonpolis region inhabited mainly the edge of the desert. But later the situation changed. People started to move to the floodpain where the main zone of settlement quickly emerged. The population of the desert sites considerably decrease. M. A. Hoffman estimated it as:

Naqada I/II

185-835[39]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1: 3800-3651 BCE; 2: 3650-3551 BCE ♥

1: 4000-3650 BCE; 2: 3650-3000 BCE[40]

Naqada IA-B: Villages

Nagada IC-III: chiefdoms/proto-states centers. Villages


Naqada IC-IIB[41] Hoffman thought that in most of villages less than 75 people lived. In centers there were much more[42]

over 13,000

"The Predynastic towns were probably not major centers of population and their function must have been primarily symbolic of a new order of life and a center of sacred shrine and deities. There were probably no more than a few towns and perhaps only two important ones in all of Upper Egypt - South Town and Hierakonpolis (Kemp, 1977)." [43]

Naqada IC-IIB[44] Hoffman thought that in most of villages less than 75 people lived. In centers there were much more[45]

over 13,000

Naqadian Egypt is a quasi-polity, or rather a collection of quasi polities. During the majority of Naqada I there were single villages, which might have formed temporary alliances with other villages, but in fact were politically independent. Most of these villages consisted of 50 to 200 habitants. However it is possible that some of these alliances grew up to the bigger towns consisted 1,000 or 2,000 people.

It is during Naqada IC that these towns and villages started to unite and polities began to form. Now instead of scattered villages, there are a few chiefdoms with the town-centres, called sometimes pre-states and later, as the unification and polity development proceed, proto-states. So the rapidly changes in the polity population coded above is not only an effect of growing population but also or even first of all the result of development of the chiefdoms size.

The exact time and the spreed of unification is not known so scholars can only show the level of changes in some distinguishing point. And this is exactly what G. P. Gilbert did.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ Hierakonpolis and Abydos: "some kind of “royal” authority or primitive chiefdom existed about 3700 BCE, well before the Predynastic kings of Abydos" [46]

At the end of Naqada I the villages started to unite, first creating chiefdoms/nome pre-states and in the Naqada III or even in the end of Naqada II - proto-states. The size of those polities varied and changed during the proces of state formation. That remains uncoded.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ No more than 1 level. Does not have to be professional to have levels.

The introduction of professional priesthood occurred during the New Kingdom [47] As there is no professional priesthood in the Dynastic Egypt up to New Kingdom it seems improbable that this institution existed in the predynastic times[48]


♠ Military levels ♣ [1-2] ♥

In the Predynastic period there is no proof of the existence of professional army. There is also no hieroglyphic sign meaning "army" by Dynastic Period. Moreover, in Ancient Egyptian unitary state, introduction of regular army took place during the New Kingdom[49].

There can be military levels without an army if there is warfare.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the Predynastic period there is no proof of the existence of professional army. There is also no hieroglyphic sign meaning "army" by Dynastic Period. Moreover, in Ancient Egyptian unitary state, introduction of regular army took place during the New Kingdom[50].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is no convincing evidence for functioning of the warrior class. G. P. Gilbert made a suggestion of existence of " the „universal warrior” type, with each man being required to maintain their efficiency as a trained warrior and being willing to participiate in warfare when required" and made an assumption that in Naqada III period "there was a trend towards the development of a "warrior arictocracy” within the Egyptian society. However (...) the king worked together with the ideology (...)prevented the “warrior aristocracy” from gaining a strength"[51].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ The introduction of professional priesthood occurred during the New Kingdom [52] As there is no professional priesthood in the Dynastic Egypt up to New Kingdom it seems improbable that this institution existed in the predynastic times[53]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "There is no field evidence of irrigation during the Gerzean as suggested by Krzyzaniak (1977), but some of the design motifs on Gerzean pots may be interpreted as canals." [54] The inhabitants of the Nile Valley were dependent on agriculture by c3800 BCE and "It has been noticed that in the end of Naqada I period, the climate became drier and Nile floods were declining. The fields could not be longer irrigated naturally.[55]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Earliest wells date to the el Napta/Al Jerar Early Neolithic (c6000-5250 BC) at Napta Playa in the Western Desert. There is written evidence for wells from 4th dynasty Old Kingdom. "Most of the inscriptions seem to be connected to mining or quarrying activities in the Eastern Desert or travel routes from the Nile Valley towards the Red Sea." [56] A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ silos present during the Badarian period: "The shelters consisted of huts and windbreaks associated with hearths and large, well-shaped granary pits or silos up to about 2.7 m in diameter and up to about 3 m in depth." [57] In this period settlements had thousands of people.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is no field evidence of irrigation during the Gerzean as suggested by Krzyzaniak (1977), but some of the design motifs on Gerzean pots may be interpreted as canals." [58] - but these would surely be for irrigation not transport.
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[59]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[60]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[61]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ examples: rock-art, pottery paintings, pot-marks, iconography on the palettes and maceheads.
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[62]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[63]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[64] Still they can be precursors of "real" hieroglyphs.
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[65]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[66]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[67]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[68]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[69]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[70]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[71]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[72]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[73]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[74]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[75]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[76]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[77]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[78]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[79]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[80]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[81]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[82]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[83]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[84]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[85]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[86]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[87]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[88]
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[89]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[90]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[91]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[92]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[93]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[94]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[95]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[96]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[97]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ The earliest phonetic hieroglyphic writing was found in the tomb J at the Abytos Cemetary U - on the pottery vessels and small bone/ivory labels[98]. They are dated to Naqada IIIA. But it should be noticed that already in Naqada I, signs similar to hieroglyphs have been found, especially on the pottery vessels (pot marks). However "none of these signs hints at the existence of phonograms, phonetic complements or detenninatives" and "the absence of an important component of the hieroglyphic writing system does not allow us to designate these signs as "hieroglyphic writing""[99]. It can be rather treated as an abstract symbolic system[100]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ all replaceable material goods - e.g. agricultural products, craft products, as well as metals (ingots)[101]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ baked clay and stone tokens - cones, spheres, disks, cylinders, tetrahedrons etc.; impressed tablets[102]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Ingots [103]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Brachmanska; Liibert; Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [104] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, later replaced by bronze. [105]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ bronze includes copper. Copper metallurgy from 2500 BCE. [106] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, later replaced by bronze. [107]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ not in use during this time period
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ not in use during this time period

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ not included in tools or weapons which have been discovered [108]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ new world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Tools or weapons discovered that cannot yet be adequately placed in either category include: bows, spears, lances, axes, boomerangs, staffs, clubs, slings, knives, adzes etc [109]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Bows were among tools discovered.[110]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[111] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[112]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not yet invented

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Tools or weapons discovered that cannot yet be adequately placed in either category include: bows, spears, lances, axes, boomerangs, staffs, clubs, slings, knives, adzes etc[113]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Tools or weapons discovered that cannot yet be adequately placed in either category include: bows, spears, lances, axes, boomerangs, staffs, clubs, slings, knives, adzes etc.[114]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Tools or weapons discovered that cannot yet be adequately placed in either category include: bows, spears, lances, axes, boomerangs, staffs, clubs, slings, knives, adzes etc[115]
♠ Daggers ♣ {present; absent} ♥ Daggers present in burials in the Amratian Period.[116] absent: Naqada IA-IIB; present: Naqada IIC-III. Before Naqada period people used the flint daggers, but they later disappeared. Not earlier than during Naqada IIC-D the metal daggers appeared[117]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ Summaries of the development of Egyptian weaponry usually begin with the Late Predynastic. However, swords appeared relatively late in Egypt (with Sherden mercenaries in the New Kingdom, Shaw 1991: 43-44), so it seems reasonable to infer absence at this stage.[118]
♠ Spears ♣ ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ While the dogs took part in hunting, it is unknown if they also participated in military expeditions.
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[119]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred absent ♥ Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [120]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Shields ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Not until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[121]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ No finds interpreted as armor or protection in fight. Worth noting that Egypt was relatively slow to develop defensive military technology.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ No finds interpreted as armor or protection in fight. Worth noting that Egypt was relatively slow to develop defensive military technology.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Sophisticated, elaborate boats were evidently used by 3600 B.C. (Late Nagada), but model boats from Merimda suggest that boats and canoes were already in use before 4500 B.C. [122]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred absent due to lack of trees Egypt
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Crenellated walls around dwellings common from Amratian Period (Naqada I) onwards [123]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Social stratification with the separation of burials[124] suggests that there were elites but it is not known whether their status was inherited or achieved by some means within their lifetimes. "From the Naqada II phase onwards, highly differentiated burials are found in cemeteries in Upper Egypt (but not in Lower Egypt). ... These burials are symbolic of an increasingly heirarchical society."[125]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [126] [127] [128]

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