EgNKThu

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - New Kingdom Thutmosid Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ New Kingdom; 18th Dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1300 BCE ♥

c1300 BCE zenith. [1]

Amenhotep III (c1417-1379 BCE)


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1550-1293 BCE ♥

Ahmose (1550-1525 BCE) was the first king of the 18th Dynasty. [2]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Ramesside period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Thebes ♥

If a timeline were to be drawn up of the shift of importance commonly attributed to New Kingdom cities, it might look like this: Thebes: 1570-1373 BCE; Akhetaten: 1373-1330 BCE; Thebes: 1330-[1278-1237 BCE]; Per-Ramesse: [1278-1237 BCE]-1069 BCE

In 1373 BCE Akhenaten (c1379-1361 BCE) moved capital from Thebes to Akhetaten (El Amarna).

Capital returned to Thebes in 4th year of the reign of Tutankhamen. [3]


♠ Language ♣ Late Egyptian ♥ "The Afro-Asiatic Egyptian language is related to the Asiatic Semitic, the North African Berber, the Ethiopian Kushitic and some languages spoken in Chad and the Sudan. A few people ... consider Egyptian to be part of a single black African language family." [4]

General Description

During the New Kingdom, the Egyptian king acquired the title of 'pharaoh', meaning 'great house'. In the Thutmosid Period, or Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1293 BCE), the pharaohs turned the Egyptian 'home' into a great empire stretching from Kush in northern Sudan (conquered by Thutmose I) to the south to Palestine and Syria in the northeast (taken by Thutmose III).[5][6] For the first time, the capital of a great Egyptian state was in Upper Egypt, at Thebes (although in 1373 BCE Akhenaten briefly had the capital moved to El Amarna in Middle Egypt).

Population and political organization

The pharaoh, a living god-king, was also the chief priest, highest judge and top military commander; he usually fought in battle, as Thutmose III apparently did at the famous Bronze Age battle of Megiddo in the 15th century BCE.[7] The professional army was augmented by troops from conquered places such as Nubia and Libya.[8]
During the New Kingdom, labyrinthine networks of imperial power and wage-earning agents we know as scribes[9] were overseen by two viziers: one for the north and one for the south of Egypt.[10] The Egyptian vizier was the second-highest judge;[11] he supervised the activities of the state bureaucracy and served as a representative of the pharaoh's interests.[12] Most of the viziers' duties seem to have been judicial, involving dispute settlement, answering petitions, and authorizing transfers of property.[13] For most of the two to three million people who occupied New Kingdom Egypt, however, the law was usually administered at the local level,[14] under chiefs of towns (the capitals of nomes) and mayors of villages.
The resources commanded by the New Kingdom Egyptian state enabled the pharaohs to carry out grand architectural and tomb-building projects.[15] The most prolific builder of the Thutmosid Period was a female pharaoh called Hatshepsut.[16] At Deir el-Medina, in the Valley of the Kings, opposite Thebes, a workers' village was created at the start of the Eighteenth Dynasty to house craftsmen dedicated to building royal tombs.[17] The community was managed by a palace scribe appointed by the vizier. The scribe oversaw supervisors, who managed two teams of five workers on ten-day shifts.[18] In the village, oracle statues attended by priests served as the 'highest local voice of authority'.[19]
Although not a typical town, documents written by skilled workers at Deir el-Medina reveal that writing was not confined to the elite, but had become important in wider society.[20] Major temples across Egypt included libraries and archives, most likely managed by scribes educated in local schools.[21] Documents attesting to the sophistication of this Late Bronze Age state include government archives, wills, title deeds, census lists, conscription lists, orders, memos, tax lists, letters, journals, inventories, regulations, and transcripts of trials.[22]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 650,000: 1500-1451 BCE; 900,000: 1450-1351 BCE; 1,000,000: 1350-1294 BCE ♥ [23]

Thutmose I (c1530-1520 BCE) conquered the independent kingdom of Kush in northern Sudan. [24]

Under Thutmose III (c1504-1450 BCE) Syria and Palestine first conquered 1470-1450 BCE, then lost 1380-1365 BCE. Mostly reclaimed between 1299-1232 BCE, under Ramses II. [25]

Ramses III (c1182-1151 BCE) Asiatic colonies conquered by Sea Peoples.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [3350000-4500000] ♥

Province of Nubia, 100,000. Palestine: 250,000. Egypt: 3m. Total = 3.35 mln [26] However, McEvedy and Jones tend to underestimate.

A likely maximum population estimate is around 7 million. [27]

Egypt: 4.5m by the end of the New Kingdom. [28]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [30,000-100,000] ♥ people. Thebes according to Modelski, Piramesse or El-Amarna according to Mumford.[29][30]

60,000: 1500 BCE; 80,000: 1400 BCE; 80,000: 1300 BCE

EWA: Amarna probably largest settlement for brief period

Amarna or 'the city of Akhetaten' "covered a large area of about 10 by 8 miles (16 by 13 kilometers). Much of the area on the Nile's west bank was intended for agriculture and the fields there could support an estimated 45,000 people."[31] "The number of houses in the entire South Suburb (including unexcavated areas) was about 2400, covering an area of over 1.5km2. Janssen (1983: 286) suggests that the 'southern zone' housed between 35,000 and 45,000 people, and that this was probably over half of the city's population, while Kemp (1981: 96) suggests a lower figure of about 16,000-25,000 individuals."[32]


Thebes until Ramses II (c1278-1237 BCE) built new capital, Per-Ramesses.

Per-Ramesses. 160,000: 1200 BCE. 120,000: 1100 BCE. [33]

Thebes. 60,000: 1500 BCE. 80,000: 1400 BCE. 80,000: 1300 BCE. 150,000: 1200 BCE. 100,000: 1100 BCE. 120,000: 1000 BCE. [34]

Thebes. 80,000: 1360 BCE. 60,000: 1000 BCE. [35]

Memphis 50,000: 1200 BCE, 34,000: 1000 BCE. [36]

Population estimates for the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BCE) [37]

Piramesse 350 (1,000?) ha 100,000 persons 286 (1000?) people per ha
Tanis 105 ha 31,000 persons 295 per ha
Luxor 280 ha 85,000 persons 305 per ha
Memphis 79 ha
el-Amarna 380 þ (1,200?) ha 30,000- 50,000? 79-131 (25-42)/ha.
Hermopolis 100 ha
Tell el-Yahu- diya 13.7 ha

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

EWA: example of vassal capital: Byblos. District capital and vassal capital is the same but district capital is within Egypt and vassal capital is for outside. There is strong inferred evidence for the level of hamlets.

1. Memphis, Thebes, Pi-Ramesses

2. Provincial Capital or Regional Centre [38]
3. Town (rare)
4. Village
5. Hamlet

"There was a distinct heirarchy of settlements. The cities were Memphis, Thebes and (later) Pi-Ramesse. Elsewhere, in any given region, the provincial capital was usually the most important administratively and probably the largest in population. It was surrounded by a zone of fairly large and densely concentrated villages (interspersed by rare towns intermediate in administrative function (and size?) between the villages and the capital. Unfortunately, it is impossible to equate this hierarchy with any certainty to Egyptian nomenclature; 'cities', 'towns' and 'villages' (respectively niwt, dmi and whyt) were distinguished from each other, but the terms appear to be used with great looseness. Slightly less ambiguous are smaller units, such as 'nobleman's estate' (bhm) and 'house (hamlet? of X' ('tnx)."[39]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥

Source 1: Brier and Hobbs (2008, 72)- Diagram "Government organization at the time of the New Kingdom."[40] 1. Pharaoh (not included in diagram)

2. Northern Tchety
3. Northern nomarchs
4. Village chiefs
5. Constables
4. Great Kenbet of the North
5. Village Kenbets
2. Southern Tchety
3. Southern nomarchs
4. Village chiefs
4. Great Kenbet of the South
5. Village Kenbets
5. Constables
2. Overseer of the House of Gold (Treasury)
3. Overseer of Granaries
3. Overseer of Cattle
2. Taxes ?


Source 2: "Fig. 3.4. Schematic outline of the developed structure of government in the New Kingdom. The fragility of much of the evidence on which this diagram is based must be emphasized, as must its inability adequately to illustrate significant changes in the structure ... Nevertheless, the writer believes that the diagram gives a reasonable approximation of the divisions of functions and powers within New Kingdom government."[41]

1. King

2. Chancellor of the Court
3. Camberlain of the Court
2. Chief Steward of the Royal Estates
3. Bureaucracy for the Royal Domain
2. Commander-in-Chief
3. Chief Deputy of the Northern Corps
3. Chief Deputy of the Southern Corps
4. General Officers
4. Bureaucracy
5. Garrisons / Town and Village Levies / Military villages
2. Overseer Of Prophets Of (All The Gods) Of Upper and Lower Egypt -- "held at various times by vizier, high priest of Amun."
3. God's Wife of Amun
4. Priesthoods Bureaucracy
3. High Priest of Amen
4. Priesthoods Bureaucracy
3. High Priests of Other Gods
4. Priesthoods Bureaucracy
2. Northern Vizier
2. Southern Vizier
3. Overseers (2) of the Treasury
4. Bureaucracy
5. Village Chiefs
5. Town Mayors
6. for both mayors and kenbet-councils "there was internal hierarchization and differences in function."[42]
5. Councils
6. for both mayors and kenbet-councils "there was internal hierarchization and differences in function."[43]
4. Judiciary
5. Village Chiefs
5. Town Mayors
5. Councils
4. Police
5. Village Chiefs
5. Town Mayors
5. Councils
2. Overseer of the Granaries of Upper and Lower Egypt / Overseer of Cattle not sure I understand the correct position of these titles
2. Governors of Northern Lands
3. Vassel Kings
Battalion Commanders
2. Governor of Southern Lands. King's Son of Kush.
3. Deputy of Wawat
4. Mayors of Egyptian Centres
4. Chiefs of Indigenous Groups
3. Deputy of Kush
4. Mayors of Egyptian Centres
4. Chiefs of Indigenous Groups
3. Battalion Commanders

van den Boorn (1988)

"We note, that the interrogation of local urban officials takes place in the bureau of the vizier ... It is evident, that interrogations and hearings of urban authorities entailed their journeying to the seat of the vizier: for the vizier, a perfect means of exercising effective control over his urban officials. For the functionaries involved, the possibility of being called back to the residence-city meant a check on possibile irregularities, also support for their local politics in having the opportunity to consult the vizier and knowing that they were backed. On the practical side, it entailed a great deal of traveling. Moreover, it presupposes a local apparatus managing affairs in their absence."[44]
The knbty n w was the "'councillor of the district' the official responsible for the rural district. As Luft aply remarks ... these officials are apparently treated as members of a collective of officials, as members of a knbt, instead of being treated as individual officials with an individual title. It would seem possible, therefore, to assume the existence of an overall 'council of the district(s)' in which these officials were group as a separate echelon of the local government (parallel to the 'urban authorities'?) or perhaps according to some geographical principle. At present, there seems to be no evidence for the existence of such a council. ... he has definite and direct ties to the vizier and his executive departments ... This would seem to contradict the viewpoint held by Helck to the effect that the councillor of the district was subordinate to the mayor ... He is known to have at his disposal a 'bodyguard' and a scribe ... they clearly operate on their own behalf, independent from the mayor, as representatives of their own administrative area."[45] knbty n w mainly Middle Kingdom but also early New Kingdom[46]

Alternative attempt (multiple sources):

1. Pharaoh

The term "Pharaoh" - Egyptian for "great house" - emerged as political title in the New Kingdom.
JGM: Note also use of term in the Old Testament.
"One office that was more often that not held by foreigners was that of 'royal butler,' a senior executive position outside the normal bureaucratic hierarchy, the holder of which was often entrusted with special royal commissions." [47]
2. "Scribe of the house of the Pharaoh." (Papyrus BM 10053 recto. Ram IX)[48]


_ Central government line _[49]

2. Vizier [50]
3. Overseer of policemen
(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'": "It is he (the vizier) who appoints the overseer of policemen in the bureau of the pr-nswt."[51]
3. Overseer of Pharoah's treasury (Papyrus Chester Beatty III. Meren.)[52] Overseer of the treasury[53]
4. "Scribe of the overseer of the treasury of the Pharoah, I.p.h" (Papyrus Anastai VI., Sety II.)[54]
4. Deputy of Pharoah's treasury (Papyrus Chester Beatty III. Meren.)[55]
4. "The chief of the record keepers of the treasury of the Pharoah, I. p. h. (Papyrus Sallier I, Meren.)[56]
4. Overseers of gold and silver houses, royal stewards, overseers of the granary [57], Overseer of works [58]
5. Royal scribe[59]
3. Overseer of pr-'3 inferred
4. "Overseer of the workshop of the armory of the pr-'3, I. p. h." (Papyrus Bologna 1094, Meren.)[60]
5. Scribe of the armory of the pr-'3 (Papyrus Bologna 1094, Meren.)[61]
3. "Overseer of the treasuries/enclosures in the mansion of the pr-'3"(Wine jar sealing no. 47 from Malkata, Am.III)[62]
4. "Chief archivist of the treasury of the pr-'3, I. p. h." (Inscription of Rameses III referring to the official Pn-p3-t3 at Tod)[63]
3. Overseer of the hnwty (Ostracon from the Tom of Sn-n-Mwt. Hatsh.)[64]
3. Overseer of the hnw (Ostracon from the Tom of Sn-n-Mwt. Hatsh.)[65]
3. Overseer of the pr-nswt (Ostracon from the Tom of Sn-n-Mwt. Hatsh.)[66] Overseer of the pr-nswt (Inscription from the tomb of the recruiting scribes Hr-m-hb. Thut. IV)[67]

Are these public officials appointed by central or local government? Was there an "Overseer of the market places" at level 4.? Perhaps they appointed the public weighers.

5. Qabbaneh (public weighers in the market place) [68]
6. Notary assisted the Qabbaneh [69]


_ Provincial line _[70]

2. Vizier
"It is he [the vizier] who holds the hearing of the mayor and the settlement-leaders who have gone out in his name to Upper and Lower Egypt."(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'"[71]
2. Nomes [72]
Nomes had capitals. Hebenu was the capital of the Oryx nome. [73]
3. Chiefs of towns
"It is he [the vizier] who holds the hearing of the mayor and the settlement-leaders who have gone out in his name to Upper and Lower Egypt."(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'"[74]
3. Chiefs of villages
Mayors e.g. mayor of Thinis (region of Abydos). [75]
"It is he [the vizier] who holds the hearing of the mayor and the settlement-leaders who have gone out in his name to Upper and Lower Egypt."(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'"[76]
4. Local bureaucrats
5. Scribes


_ Nubian line _ [77]

2. Governor
"Viceroy and overseer of southern countries."[78]
Provinces in Palestine and Syria [79]
3. Bureaucrats for the whole of Nubia
4. Bureaucrats for both Nubian Provinces
5. Scribes


(Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'" mentions mayors and settlement-leaders.[80]

EWA: Central line/capital: King, Central elites, bureaucrats

Provincial line: King, Central elites, chiefs of towns and chiefs of villages, local bureuacrats and scribes

Nubian line as an example of 'foreign' territory: King, Nubian Governor, bureaucrats for the whole of Nubia and for both Nubian provinces, scribes

O'Connor (1983)[81]

"The garrisons of Egyptian (and Kushite) troops in the 'Northlands' were small, scattered and under the direct control of several 'battalion-commanders' and not of the governors. ... The 'Southlands' (Wawat and Kush), with their Nubian population ... was ruled by a single governor, who shared no important administrative power with the local chieftains; its military forces were centralized under a single 'battalion-commander'".[82]
"The internal government of Egypt was divided for functional reasons, into four major units (fig. 3.4) and these were sometimes further divided geographically ... Centralized control was maintained by means of the small group of powerful officials who headed each department, who reported directly who the king, who were appointed and removed by him."[83]

Dier-el-Medina worker village

1. Pharoah

2. Vizier
3. Palace scribe
Palace scribe managed the community and was himself appointed by the Vizier.[84] Two teams of workers worked ten days and then were replaced.[85]
4. Team on the left(or right) supervisor
5. Team on the left(or right) worker (*5)
4. Team on the left(or right) doctor
4. Team on the left(or right) non-commissioned officer
5. Team on the left(or right) guard
5. Team on the left(or right) gate-keeper

♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥

Brier and Hobbs (2008, 72)- Diagram "Government organization at the time of the New Kingdom."[86]

1. Pharaoh (not included in diagram)

2. Overseer of the Temples and Prophets of all the Gods
"a government official who functioned not as a priest but as the civil overlord of an institution that controlled great national wealth. So entwined were Egypt's civil and religious affairs, however, that, in addition to his civil post, a vizier often held the position of overseer of the temples. Ranked directly below the overseer stood high priests ..."[87]
3. High Priests of each god
"the chief priest was designated as the 'first god's servant'."[88] "at Karnak, a second, third or even fourth god's servant served under him."[89]
4. Second god's servant are these servants at the same or at different levels i.e. does the second command the third etc.?
5. Scroll carrier
cleric who "maintained and read the sacred texts of the temple."
5. Wab priests
maintained idols and instruments. had to be circumcised. shave whole body every two days, bathe twice a day and twice a night, weather non-animal clothing, avoid pork, fish and beans, they worked shifts of one month followed by three months of rest.[90] "Wab priests ... were organized into squadrons of ten or so, and served under the command of a 'god's father.' All were male, but women could serve as priestesses who sang and danced for a god."[91]
4. Third god's servant
5. Scroll carrier
5. Wab priests
4. Fourth god's servant
5. Scroll carrier
5. Wab priests


1. King

"In the temple, the sun-god's daily journey through the heavens was symbolically enacted by means of rituals and hymns, the principal aim of which was to maintain the created order of the universe. The king played a crucial role in this daily ritual; he was the main officiant, the sun priest, who had an intimate knowledge of all aspects of the sun-god's daily course."[92]
"Although the seat of government during most of the New Kingdom was the northern capital, Memphis, the 18th-Dynasty kings had originated from Thebes, and this city remained the most important religious centre of the country. Its local god, Amun ('the hidden one'), had become associated with the sun-god Ra and as Amun-Ra King of the Gods was worshipped in every major temple in Egypt, including Memphis."[93]


_ Cult of Amun, Thebes _

2. God's father or Amun[94]
2. God's wife of Amun [95]
3. Steward of the estate of Amun" administered the land owned by the temple.[96]
3. Overseer of priests. [97] same as? High Priest of Amun[98]
4. Second Priest of Amun [99][100]
5. Third Priest of Amun [101][102]
6. Fourth Priest of Amun [103]
7. Scribes and other workers?


_ Cult of Osiris, Abydos _

2.
3.
4.
5.


_ Amarna Period _


2.
3.
4.


_ Cult centres _

2.
3.
4.


EWA: 1 Pharaoh, 2 High Priest/Temple Steward, 3 Lector-priests, God's servants. God's fathers. 4 Wab priests.

Pharaoh (1). Divine Adoratrice (?). Overseer of Priests of Upper and Lower Egypt (2). High Priest/Temple Steward (3). God's servants. God's fathers. Lector-priests (4, 4-5 or 4-6). Wab priests (5, 5-6 or 5-7). Non-priestly workers.


♠ Military levels ♣ 7 ♥

Brier and Hobbs (2008, 72)- Diagram "Government organization at the time of the New Kingdom."[104]

1. Pharaoh (not included in diagram)

2. Great Overseer of the Army
3. Overseer of the North Armies
4. General officers
3. Overseer of the South Armies
4. General officers

EWA: This is based upon the cavalry as this is better known and represents likely the longest chain of command: 6 Pharaoh (Commander-in-Chief), 5 Chief of army/general (leads expedition or building work), 4 Intermediate officer (equivalent of batalion) , 3 Commander of Company, 2 Commander of Platoon, 1 Soldiers

1. Pharaoh

2. South and North Chief Deputy
3. Chief of army/General
4. Intermediate officer
5. Commander of company
6. Commander of platoon
7. Individual soldier

Schulman's New Kingdom hierarchy - does not include scribal ranks [105]

1. General (Commander of a host)
2. Chief of troops
3. Troop commanders
4. Adjutants
4a. Standard bearers
4b. Chariot warriors were supervised by chiefs who had the rank of standard bearers. (18th Dynasty). [106]
Became Charioteer and Shieldbearer. Shieldbearer commanders. Chariotry commanders.
5. Adjutants of a company
6. Platoon leaders
7. Infantrymen

Pharaoh. Commander-in-chief. Chief deputy of the northern corps/Chief deputy of the southern corps. Division general/Military commander (5000 men). Host (? men). Company (250 men). Platoon (50 men). Squad (?).

Noncommissioned officer headed the smallest army unit (50 men). Troop commander had authority over five of these units (250 men), which amounted to a company. A division of 20 companies (5,000 men) was headed by a military commander. There were 4 divisions - named after the royal gods Amun, Re, Ptah, and Seth and the four bases Thebes, Heliopolis, Memphis, and Piramesse - in the entire army (20,000 men).[107]

Fortresses had commanders. [108]

In New Kingdom the King became a more active military leader. Most military men were soldier-farmers, in a “kleruchic” system, where they could be mobilized when needed. Foreign mercenaries also used. [109]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [110] [111]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [112] [113]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ During the New Kingdom the priesthood became a full-time profession. The position of chief priest could be held by members of the royal family, then by officials appointed by the Pharaoh.[114] Temples "sustained by government grants bestowed in return for formal blessings on the undertakings of the state." [115]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Several major administrative departments, e.g. treasury, granaries, and other public works, overseen by vizier.[116]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ Schools attached to departments. [117]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Social order considered maat, that is, divinely intended.[118] However, in the army commoners could achieve promotion to officer status.[119] shn[t]y st.f m 'h "One whose position/status was promoted in the 'h." (tomb of Dhwty, Thut III - Hatsh. period).[120] the 'h is considered to be a palace with ceremonial and ritual functions.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Offices of government and police headquarters close to royal court. [121]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Not discovered.

Few codes known to exist. However, the law system was nationally integrated such that local disputes could be appealed to a higher court.

Legal Text of Mose concerns control of land tenure and tax obligations. "In a case that went through five lawsuits over control of, or rights to, disputed land in the Village of Neshi, the plaintive Mose, as descendant of Neshi sought to overturn the judgement of of the Qenbet, "council" or court of magistrates in Memphis." This was the local court that had jurisdiction over the case "at the level of the nome, because Memphis was the capital of the nome in which the disputed land was located." The case moved up to the "Great Qenbet over which the Vizier presided, at national level." [122]


Inscriptions record pharaonic decrees on crimes and punishments. Instructions for Merikare, written in Middle Kingdom, "set down basic guidelines for administering justice" and was well known in the New Kingdom.[123]

Legal system based on precedent and case law. [124]


♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ King highest judge, vizier second highest judge. However, law usually administered at local level. [125]

JGM: Note the important text: "The Duties of the Vizier" that lays out the chief judges responsibilities, and provides the formal organization of the legal system of the New Kingdom. See G.P.F. Van Den Boorn,The Duties of the Vizier:Civil Administration in the Early New Kingdom. Kegan Paul, 1988.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The following quotes are relevant but do not explictly confirm the existence of a physical building exclusively devoted to legal proceedings

van den Boorn (1988)

"We want to stress that the vizier apparently does not pronounce a verdict on the dispute itself. He only orders a re-assessment to be carried out by the local officials in charge and stipulates its duration. Therefore, the petitioner's request is not for a trial or re-trial, his appeal is concerned with obtaining legal permission for a re-assessment by the local authorities. Ultimately, the matter will be settled locally."[126]

O'Connor (1983)

"Oracles, which were always delivered by a specific god but variously in his 'national' or local form, were a source of reassurance and guidance for individuals and an important social mechanism easing the tensions and conflicts inherent in closely-knit and largely self-regulating town and village communities. The local kenbet-councils ... were clearly unable or unwilling to solve many disputes involving ownership or rights and cases of theft and other crimes, and these were therefore submitted to a god as a neutral arbitrator of unimpeachable authority."[127]
"The New Kingdom kenbet-councils were primarily judicial but they were also quasi-administrative, since they were often concerned with property rights."[128]
Archival texts of court proceedings.[129]

Courts called kenbet at local and provincial levels. [130]

"It is difficult to answer the question of whether the kenbet was a council or a court, or both." [131]

Civil service officials controlled the judiciary. Vizier was the chief judge on civil matters. [132]

"with priests of the local temples, nomarchs comprised the district court of justice." [133]

All officials were responsible for reporting crime to the vizier's office, which either ratified decisions made by the lower officials or set up an investigation itself (and if necessary enacted a punishment).[134]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ No professional judges or lawyers. [135] Not present until Ptolemaic era.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Irrigation was a local responsibility throughout the Pharaonic period. Central authority primarily concerned with taxation. However, central government was responsible for national projects like land reclamation and irrigation of new areas in Fayyum and Delta. Techniques employed included extension of canal network for the control of flood waters, and the human powered shaduf system. [136] Shaduf introduced middle second millennium BCE [137], which would be around start of the New Kingdom.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥ A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present. However, various technologies might have incorporated piped water? 1. Water filtration system in use since c2000 BCE. [138] (privately owned, but also used in temples and government offices?). 2. In Amarna many property compounds had their own well "a unique feature of this city, which made its inhabitants independent of the Nile for their daily water supplies."[139] 3. A map of Amarna labels a "Water Tower" [140] near the central city. This would store too much water for private consumption and could be a store of water intended for public consumption.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "Merchants who worked for their own gain existed in ancient Egypt only during the New Kingdom." In the New Kingdom there is "evidence that Asian merchants traded on the market in Thebes." [141] "Among the various public officials were the Qabbaneh, or public weighers, who erected their balances in the market place while a notary stood by to record the details." [142] Earliest known depiction of the balance dates to Amenophis III (1391-1353 BCE) [143] Warburton disagrees with the supply state view so presumably independent merchants could have existed earlier "lack of evidence of state 'control' of crafts or of the economy; ... absence of evidence of 'redistribution' ... increasingly widespread evidence of commercial activity ... exaggerated attention to titles has paid neither sufficient attention to their absence, nor to the lack of evidence for an administrative role of titles when they are documented. Together these points suggest that the Ancient Egyptian economy was a pre-capitalist market economy in which administration played a relatively unimportant role in itself."[144]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Granaries. [145]

Taxes - usually grain and cattle - stored in temple or state granaries. [146] "The Great Harris Papyrus, in the British Museum, records that during the reign of Ramesses II, 81 322 men worked in the Temple of Karnak, tending over 400 000 livestock. The huge storehouses attached to the temples were major centres for the redistribution of goods."[147]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Western coast road.[148] Royal Road at Amarna. [149] Reliable road through Sinai had to be developed in order to advance by land into Canaan. Connected east Delta (or Avaris, at Perunefer) to Gaza.[150] Road network emerged with development of irrigation systems. Excavated soil was piled by the side of ditches, these formed embankments which were used as paths and roads. Generally not paved. (An exception was the 11.5 km paved straight road - using flagstones and petrified wood - discovered in the Fayyum, which artefacts date to Old Kingdom).[151]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridges over wide expanse of water unknown. Small bridges were built. A bridge at Amarna linked two parts of a royal palace that was separated by a Royal Road. It was supported by two pillars 5 meters apart.[152]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Thutmose I (r c1525-1512 BCE) re-excavated the canals. [153]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Memphis and Aswan were two large ports. At Avaris there was a dockyard called Perunefer.[154]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Annals of Thutmose III carved into temple walls at Karnak. [155][156] Armana Letters records on 350 clay tablets, written in cuneiform script, record diplomacy with the Near East.[157]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Practical Hieratic script and ornamental Hieroglyphs [158] Sacred script vs ordinary long-hand (Hieratic). [159]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ hieroglyphs
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.[160]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ "The existence of a festival calendar recorded on papyrus for the reign of Amenhotep I (Papyrus Ebers verso), raises the possibility that the king wished to rework earlier calendars. [161]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Each temple had religious ritual books; to some extent standardized perhaps? Greco-Roman texts suggests standardization of temple building and design. (J.G. Manning, personal communication)
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Prayers. [162]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The Instruction of Any, The Instruction of Amenemope. [163] The Installation of the Vizier. Duties of the Vizier. [164] Teaching of Amennakht. Teaching of Hori. [165]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "Annals, inscribed in the forty-second year" of the reign of Thutmose III.[166]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ The Duties of the Vizier TT 100. "Ancient Egyptians had a strict code of ethics as expressed by the New Kingdom Instructions of Amenemope who lived during the reign of Amenhotep III18. The instructions of Amenemope commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with handicapping conditions".[167]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Medical texts. Kahun Gynecological papyrus (1825 BCE), the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE), and the Ebers papyrus (1500 BCE) covered "surgery, healing, skin diseases, stomach ailments, medicines, the head, dentistry, gynecology, and diseases of the extremities".[168]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Love poems and tales. [169] JGM: on the absence of philosophy, often noted, I would hesitate about. Or do we mean here "non-religious"? Clearly there was a well thought out Philosophy/Theology, preserved in temple texts still for many temples unpublished. See for example: R.B. Finnestad, Image of the world and symbol of the creator. Harrassowitz, 1985. The scribe Kenhirkhepshef, who worked at Deir el Medina during the reign of Rameses II, had a large library with papyri on medical texts, religious spells, hymns, letters, poetry, household hints, dream interpretations. [170] "Prohibitions". Miscellanies used in Ramesside scribal education. Satirical letter of P.Anastasi I. Laus ubis (lyrical form), hymns and prayers. Love songs. "The Antef Song". "Songs from the Orchard". Tales: "Taking of Joppa", "Apophis and Seqenenre", "Doomed Prince", "Two Brothers", "Truth and Falsehood", "Head and Trunk", "Khonsuembheb and the Ghost", "Horus and Seth." [171]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "by far the most common were units of grain, copper, and silver (also popular was linen...)"[172] List of items tax paid in for New Kingdom: Gold, rainment, chest of linen, "large bolts", silver, oxen, calves, necklace bead, "1 two-year-old" and "two-year-olds" (two-year-old what?), garments, grain, yearlings, pigeons, firstlings of the year, honey.[173]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ "Messengers." [174] Mounted messengers.[175] (Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'" states the duties of the vizier. "It is he who dispatches every messenger of the pr-nswt sent to the mayors and the settlement-leaders; is he who dispatches everyone who will circulate all messages of the pr-nswt."[176]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥ Letters existed. [177] However this might not be enough to infer the presence of postal stations. (Thut III - Am II period). "Inscription from the tomb of Vizier Rh-mi-r'" states the duties of the vizier. "It is he who dispatches every messenger of the pr-nswt sent to the mayors and the settlement-leaders; is he who dispatches everyone who will circulate all messages of the pr-nswt."[178]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Bronze is made with copper. Bronze plates could be added to leather armor.[179] Copper and/or Bronze may also have been used for shields.[180]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze plates could be added to leather armor.[181] Mail coats made out of bronze. [182]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred absent ♥ 1274 BCE Battle of Kadesh, Egyptian mercenary army still using bronze weapons. [183]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ [184]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ [185][186]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite bow from beginning of New Kingdom. [187] Effective range of 160 to 175 meters.[188] Non-academic reference says Hyksos introduced the composite bow to Egypt - is this correct?
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Present but used less frequently. Preiser-Kapeller (2015) suggests next data for war clubs for an Upper Egypt NGA polity may be East Roman Empire 395-631 CE.[189]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ The socket axe was introduced by the Hyksos but axe technology remained behind that of Sumer even for some time afterwards. Egyptians previously had used a cutting axe with the blade insecurely tied to the shaft without a socket.[190]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Non-academic source for long bronze dagger. Can we confirm this?
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Military historian suggests "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[191] - can an historian of ancient Egyptian history confirm this? Sickle-shaped sword [192]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ First recorded use in Egypt 312 BCE [193]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[194] Military historian suggests "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)."[195] - can an historian of ancient Egypt confirm this?
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horse-drawn chariot first effectively exploited as a weapon by the 18th Dynasty. [196] Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE.[197] Mounted scouts important from the beginning of the New Kingdom. [198] According to Egyptian administrative records, a chariot would carry "one or two bows, two to four quivers attached at both sides of the chariot (providing eighty arrows altogether), a spear and/or a javelin, as well as axe and shield for close combat." The crew was the chariot driver and the bowmen with the addition of a shield man from late second millennium BCE.[199]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ elephants not used until Kushite military [200]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred from presence in previous polities [201]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Infantry carried round or oval shields covered with hide. [202] Cowhides probably most common material. Copper and/or Bronze may also have been used for shields.[203]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Appeared in 18th Dynasty, likely to have been made of bronze as the word for helmet is the same as the word for an "ingot of metal." Battle scenes do not depict soldiers wearing helmets. Likely used by charioteers who were unable to carry shields.[204] Sherdan mercenaries wore spiked helmets.[205]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used."[206]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Body armour, in the form of small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a a tapered lower half, began to be used."[207] Jerkins do not have sleeves. Infantrymen wore padded fabric armour. [208]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [209] "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[210]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[211] Bronze scale armor on short-sleeved, knee length shirt made out of linen or leather. [212]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. A military historian suggests lamellar armour was introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?) [213] - can an Egyptian historian confirm its absence at this time?
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[214]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ After the introduction of the horse and chariot in the New Kingdom, the importance of the land army increased relative to that of the navy.[215] Navy mostly of transport and communications sort. [216]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [217]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [218]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ Thutmose I at Karnak "extended its walls westwards to join two new pylon gates (the Fourth and Fifth) which he built as the entrance to the temple."[219]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ "With the exception of planned settlements, we have no evidence for wall-construction around towns in the New Kingdom."Spence does not describe complex fortifications.[220] According to Gnirs, "fortification architecture and techniques of siege had become the basic means of warfare by the third millennium BCE." [221]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ {absent; present} ♥ "Dominant as the royal position was, however, each branch of government exercised some degree of effective power."[222] An official e.g. mayor who disputed his tax assessment could register a formal complaint with the chief taxation official.[223] [224]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ "The 18th-Dynasty pharoahs' need to garner support from powerful elite families has been mentioned with respect to scenes of the enthroned ruler in private tombs of the reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, and powerful families held the positions of vizier and high priest of Amun during the reigns of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III."[225]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Pharoah as commander-in-chief, chief priest, and the individual who appointed the vizier to head the bureaucracy, was the most powerful figure in Egyptian society and one could infer he not be impeached.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "The elite - the royal dynasty in its fullest sense ... and the high-ranking officials of government - enjoyed status, substantial economic benefits and considerable potential for significant activity within the confines of the traditional political system. Of lesser status and ecnomic importance (except in periods of political fragmentation) were the provincial nobilities, also based upon government service, but perhaps more secure in the hereditary possession of their offices. A group of less bureaucrats, priests, military officers, wealthy farmers and artisans probably had a distinct enough intermediate socio-economic position to be identified as a 'middle class', while the 'lower class', by far the largest segment of the population, had great diversity of occupation (soldiers, minor officials and priests, tenant-farmers, peasants of virtually serf status and slaves), and also of income and quality of subsistence."[226] Government through the New Kingdom "characterized by the growing strength of hereditary office".[227]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ The ideology of state was a 'social contract' between the king and his subjects. This contract was, however, not one made between the ruler and the people (and e.g. enshrined in a written constitution); it was one signed with the gods. The king who failed to carry through his side of the contract would expect to lose favour with the gods. The people, for their part, could not legitimately rebel on their own evaluation of the king's performance; only given signs that the gods did not consider the king legitimate. "In the case of Ancient Egypt, the ideology of the state, promoted through religious, artistic and literary texts, was centred around the divine right of the king to secure the submission of his subjects to his royal will in return for their right to expect protection, subsistence and the preservation of Maat (order, justice, righteousness) in society."[228] "The story of Thutmose IV's elevation to the kingship related by the Giza Sphinx Stele inscription has been interpreted in the past to suggest that he was not the legitimate heir, but it need tell us no more than the royal ideology often drew upon divine legitimization in the New Kingdom."[229] "The form of this government was a unique quasi-divine kingship".[230]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) "took the idea of self-deification further than any previous pharaoh and was the first to present himself as a divine being during his lifetime. Some representations show him making offerings to his own image as a god. He identified himself with the gods of Egypt, rather than with his royal ancestors. He was no longer just the 'Son of Ra,' the sun god, but called himself 'the radiant solar disk.' There was no difference between his cult and that of the gods: he was venerated as the personification of other gods."[231] Rulers were deified.[232] "Thutmose IV, like Amenhotep II, increasingly emphasized divine associations of royal females. He placed his mother in the role of 'god's wife of Amun', as if she were the goddess Mut herself."[233] Pharaoh equally 'god-king' throughout pharaonic period [234]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Ideology/cosmology holds all humans as equal, though in practice acknowledged and accepted that there were stark social/political/economic differences [235]. "Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[236] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[237] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [238]"Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[239] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[240] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ No strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [241]"Through both their ritual and social activity men had a vital role to play in ensuring the continuity and survival of an ideal universal order - ma'at ... - established by a creator god aeons earlier. Conformity to earlier patterns of political and religious life was therefore encouraged, and innovations - if they were successful - had to adapt but not radically alter the supernaturally sanctioned formal structure."[242] "In Egyptian mythology, good and evil are respectively identified with cosmic order (Maat) and chaos (Isfet) (Assmann 1990) ... humanity's role was limited to the dutiful maintaining of maat on earth."[243] Since the cosmic order includes the social order then the good is identified with not only the status quo - which in New Kingdom Egypt was highly unequal - but also the maintaining of this order.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Festivals were community affairs, a time for the residents of a village or town to abandon their daily tasks and come together in celebration.” [244] "instructions of Amenemope give positive images of attitudes toward human limits. It also teaches that care for the old, sick, and malformed is a moral duty, because 'Man is clay and straw, the God is his builder. The Wise Man should respect people affected by reversal of fortune' [Simpson, 1973]."[245] perhaps in marriage: "In literary texts, extramarital liaisons were punishable by death (Eyre 1984: 97; Johnson 2003: 150 - 151). In non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina dating to the New Kingdom, erring individuals of both sexes face less dramatic repercussions (Toivari-Viitala 2001: 153 - 157; see also Galpaz-Feller 2004; Lorton 1977: 14 - 15, 38 - 39)."[246] "Ancient Egyptian ethical thought and action revolved around the notion of maat. Although there are no traces of a standard moral code surviving from ancient Egypt, moral principles are often reflected in the literature - especially works of wisdom literature, funerary books and songs, tomb biographies, and literary narratives. ... Through the study of these sources one can observe the occurrence of a major change in ancient Egyptian ethical thought during the New Kingdom, when piety and religiosity became significant criteria for the judgment of the individual."[247] "The gods explicitly sanctioned attention to the problems of the less fortunate, and government was aware of the importance of both the appearance and reality of correct behaviour. ... Periodic reforms of abuses are well documented, and officials' biographies frequently refer to their aid to the disadvantaged."[248] "The existence of institutional doctors and of a certain paternalism, shown by employers, resulting from their fear of offending the Gods and their beliefs in an after-life, played a role in softening the bleak scene of the Egyptian world of work."[249]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ 'Texts from 2200 BCE and 1450 BCE where people say that they improved the layout of the necropolis including water sources so people could perform the cult for their ancestors better. There are probably plenty more examples of elite provision'[250] Declaration of virtues for Intef "herald and governor under Thutmose III (Urk IV, 964-975)" that might suggest "both a reaffirmation of moral values held in the Middle Kingdom and a clear expansion of moral ideals in the 18th Dynasty" (includes): free of evil; without falsehood; hearer of his petition; not (neglectful) concerning Maat; turning his back to the liar; free from partiality; vindicating the just; punishing the guilty for his guilt; servant of the needy; father of the poor; guide of the orphan; mother of the timid; shelter for the battered; guardian of the sick; husband of the widow; refuge for the orphan. [251]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [252] [253] [254]

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