EgMidKg

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Middle Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ 11th Dynasty; 12th Dynasty; XI Dynasty; XII Dynasty ♥ JGM: Note Dyn. 13 now usually included in the Middle Kingdom historic cycle

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1850 BCE ♥ Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom began with Amenemhet I (c1991-1962 BCE) and ended around 1800 BCE. [1][2] Middle Kingdom was “classical age of Egyptian civilization with a flowering of art and literature in a time of peace and prosperity.” [3]

Amenemhat III (c.1831-1786 BCE) was "the cultural climax of the Middle Kingdom."[4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2016-1700 BCE ♥

"Because of the diversity that characterized the Middle Kingdom, Egyptologists have divided this period into the ‘early phase’ (2050-1878 BC) and the ‘late phase’ (1878-1780 BC). A most decisive discontinuity occurred when, in the 1870s BC, Sesostris (Senustret) III embarked on his Nubian campaign."[5]

"In 1860 BC, ‘a complete reorganization of provincial administration was undertaken by King Sesostris [Senusret] III. As a result, the old system of hereditary nomarchs was destroyed and replaced by a bureaucratic machinery, the operators of which owed their allegiance to the king in his residence’ (James, 1985: 51)."[6]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Period of the Regions ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Thebes-Hyksos Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Thebes; Itjtawyamenemhat ♥

11th Dynasty ruled from Thebes; 12th Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht. [7]

Amenemhet I (1991-1962 BCE) built a new capital at Itjtawy ("Seizer-of-the-Two-Lands") at a still-unidentified location. [8] near modern Lisht. [9] Full name: Itjtawyamenemhat. No royal residence apparent prior to Itjtawy. [10]

♠ Language ♣ Ancient Egyptian ♥

General Description

After a phase of decentralized state power during the Period of the Regions (or First Intermediate Period), Egypt became unified once again during the Middle Kingdom (Eleventh, Twelfth and Thirteenth Dynasties, 2016‒1700 BCE), experiencing a 'golden age'.[11] Achievements in art, architecture, writing and religion ‒ coupled with a growing 'middle class' and the increased importance of scribes ‒ reached their peak during this period, particularly under Amenemhat III (r. 1831‒1786 BCE).[12]

Population and political organization

The Middle Kingdom king ruled via royal decree,[13] but he and his officials were responsive to petitions from the people. We lack detailed information about the royal palace, although Stephen Quirke suggests that the terms k3p and hnty might refer to an inner and outer palace respectively.[14] The first Middle Kingdom capital was at Thebes in Upper Egypt, but was moved during the Twelfth Dynasty to El-Lisht at the neck of the Delta in Lower Egypt. From this new location, the monarchy exerted more centralized control over the country and expanded the bureaucratic system.[15] Administrative reforms under Senusret III (r. 1878-1839 BCE) resulted in the reorganization of the provinces around 1860 BCE: 'the old system of hereditary nomarchs was destroyed and replaced by a bureaucratic machinery, the operators of which owed their allegiance to the king'.[16][17] For the first time since the Classic Old Kingdom, the central state had become powerful enough to directly command all the regions of Egypt.
During the Middle Kingdom, the nome (province) of the Old Kingdom was replaced by a 'city district' centred on an urban complex and headed by a hat-ya ('mayor').[18] The mayors received orders from the central government, specifically the vizier, and were responsible for tax collection and supervising the royal domains.[19] Thebes was the administrative centre for southern Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia.[20] The army was professional in the Middle Kingdom.[21] The king remained a divine ruler, legitimated as the guarantor and preserver of maat, the principle of harmony and cosmic order.[22][23]
Amenemhat III laid the foundations for a much larger Egyptian population (in his time, the country still had under two million inhabitants).[24] Using giant waterwheels and a canal from the Faiyum to the Nile, the Egyptians managed to improve irrigation in this fertile region and control flooding: a measure of sophisticated technology, strong central control, and a good deal of foresight. Another indication of the sophistication of Middle Kingdom technology is that the scribe responsible for the famed Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, dating to the Second Intermediate Period, noted that the work was copied from a Middle Kingdom original.[25] Literacy and a culture of storytelling were widespread: the Tale of the Eloquent Peasant, Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, Story of Sinuhe, Account of the Sporting King, and many others represent the birth of written fiction in Egypt.[26] The Tale of King Cheops' Court reveals a lively interest at this time in the history of Classic Old Kingdom Egypt.[27]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 238,000: 2000 BCE; 413,000: 1900 BCE; 450,000: 1800 BCE ♥ [28] Senusret III, 1878-1843 BCE, fixed Egypt's southern border above the second cataract of the Nile. [29]

257,000: 1700 BCE

Annexed part of Nubia directly south of Egypt. [30]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,500,000-2,500,000] ♥

"the population must still have been very small - an oft-cided estimate for the Middle Kingdom amounts to less than two million - ... "[31]

Increased from 2 million to 2.5 million during Middle Kingdom. [32]

“As Egypt's population began to exceed food production levels, Amenemhat III ordered the exploitation of the green fertile region 100 km south of modern-day Cairo known as the Fayyum” [33]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 30,000 ♥ Inhabitants.

Thebes, over 10,000: 1800-1700 BCE.[34] Memphis, 30,000, 1800 BCE. [35]

Population of Lahun: 3000 people. 12-14 ha, possibly 250 per hectare. [36]

Elephantine: 3.5 ha. [37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥

EWA: 4 Memphis, 3 regional centres like Hierakonpolies and Abidos, 2 minor centre like Aswan/Naga-el-Deir, 1 villages. ref. Bard 2014, 2nd edition.

1. Memphis

2. Regional centres like Hierakonpolis and Abydos
3. Minor centres like Aswan and Naga-el-Deir
4. Villages
(5. Hamlets)

EWA final: this variable for early dynastic to Hyksos should be 4 to 5. The reason is that we can infer the existince of hamlets at the bottom end of the scale. This should be implemented for all the intermediate polities.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-7] ♥ [5-7] central government line + crew organization

1. King

The term "Pharaoh" as political title emerged in the New Kingdom. In earlier times "Pharaoh" means literally what the Egyptian phrase does i.e. "great house."
JGM: Note the interesting royal portrait sculpture of Dyn, 12, "veristic" portraits of the King as a tired, worried ruler. Quite interesting, must be tied to Dyn. 12 royal ideology, king as human, and a "manager"

_ Central government line _ [38]

2. Central elite (150 people + families). Vizier was the head of the bureaucracy.
3. Controller of the 'h.
Many Middle Kingdoms inscriptions for a head/controller of the 'h.[39] Nb: "The 'h-palace must be intended as a holy locality as well as the temples because the Horus-king is the holder of religious and magical power. The 'h would have been the place where all the ceremonies connected to the transition of the magical power of the sun-god to the king were performed: here the king took over the role of Horus and was legitimated as his successor."[40]
4. Overseer of the chamber of the 'h
Middle Kingdom inscription for Overseer of the chamber of the 'h (Stele of Rn-sbf from Sinai).[41]
4. Overseer of the place/position/seat of the 'h (Stele of S3[..]-ibt (?))[42]
5. Attendent of the 'h (Stele of Sn-pw)[43]
3. pr-'3
4?. Overseer of the chamber of the pr-'3 (Stele of 'ihms-n-3ht-w3s-htp)[44]
4?. Overseer of writing in the pr-'3 (Stele of Tit-nb-im3h)[45]
5?. majordomo/domestic servant of the pr-'3 (Stele of R'-nfr)[46]
5?. retainer of the pr-'3 (Stele of Nb-'nh)[47]
5?. Inspector of the Garden of the pr-'3.[48]
3. Overseer of the pr-nswt (Stele of Wsir-sn-pw)[49]


_Crew system used to organize labour_

1. Leader of the crew

"In the Old Kingdom, a crew was made up of two gangs" [50]
2. Leader of a gang
"In the Old Kingdom... a gang was divided into four or five phyles" [51]
3. Leader of a phyle
"In the Old Kingdom... each phyle had four divisions of about 10 men each, although this number could vary (Roth, 1991). Hence, the total labour force in a crew could well reach 400 men, possibly even more."[52]
4. Foreman of a division
"In the Middle Kingdom, the most frequent sizes of a division (including one foreman) were 10, 14 and 20 (Gardiner et al., 1952, 1955; Mueller, 1975; Simpson, 1963, 1965, 1969, 1986). However, there were smaller division sizes of 9 and 4, with two supervisors combined into one larger division (Griffith, 1898)."[53]


ET: More research needed on the central government line. If it's similar to the Old Kingdom there will be more levels than the provincial line.

_ Provincial line _ [54]

2. Central elite North
2. Central elite South
2. "throughout the late Middle Kingdom, Thebes had been the second capital of Egypt, the Southern City (nwt rst) as counterpart to the Residence (hnw) of Lisht. Thebes had its own royal palace, vizieral bureau and an administrative apparatus that directly governed the "Head of the South" (w'rt tp rsj), a region extending from the First Cataract to Akhmim, located some 25 miles north of Abydos." [55]
3.
4.
3. Provincial governors - Before 1850 BCE
Provincial administration: Nomarchs, above the "big men" [56]
3. District overseers - After 1850 BCE
Reference to a "district-councillor" in a Middle Kingdom letter to the king from Lahun ("Letter of Sn-bwbw").[57]
4. Mayors
"mayors held a relatively minor position as compared to nomarchs" [58]
the mayors of Menat Khufu were "in charge of only a relatively minor part of the nome." [59]
"Each town was governed by a provincial official (mayor)."[60]
4. Village governors
Village chiefs and mayors (heqa nwt, haty-a) enjoyed real local authority
"a passage of papyrus Harris I evokes referring to the anarchy prevailing at the end of the 19th dynasty: “the land of Egypt was in the hands of chiefs (wrw) and of rulers of towns (heqa nwt)” (Grandet 1994: 335). The precedents might be traced back to late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period inscriptions, when governors of villages (heqa nwt) and “chiefs” (hery-tep) are mentioned in enthusiastic terms, their role as mediators in the administration of temple land recorded in royal decrees, and priests and scribes proudly proclaimed that they worked for simple village governors (heqa), chiefs (hery-tep) and administrators. Middle and New Kingdom inscriptions confirm that they collected taxes for their superiors, provided royal agents with supplies and manpower and cultivated the fields of the pharaoh (Moreno García 2013b and 2013c: 88-91)." [61]
5. Scribes
5. Big men
"Some of them may have been merely the heads of an isolated farmstead, others of a hamlet, a small village, or a smaller or larger town" [62]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥

1. Pharaoh

"Janssen (1979: 509) has remarked that the depiction of the Pharaoh in every temple in the land as the real high priest 'was no only an expression of a dogmatic theory, but also of the actual economic reality. The temples together with all their property were at the disposal of the Pharaoh."[63]
"the temples served as state institutions; they were organized via the administrative machinery and were subject to frequent state intervention."[64]
2. Overseer of the Temples and Prophets of All the Gods New Kingdom
3. High priest New Kingdom
4. God's servant New Kingdom
5. Wab priest New Kingdom
5. Scroll carrier New Kingdom


"The temples also had their own labour force, many of them renting land at a rate of 30 per cent of the crop."[65]


the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE) "describes three categories for a physician based on rank."[66]

1. Great of the Palace Doctors

"For a 'saw' the highest position attainable would have been 'Great of the Palace Doctors.'"[67] "Not only was the physician responsible for treating the pharaoh but he was also responsible for the medical care of the country."[68]
2. saw
"'The Guardian.' A 'saw' was generally educated and trained within the temple palace schools."[69]
3. wabw
"'The Pure' or 'Those who are ceremonially pure'"[70]
4. wr-swnw
"Senior doctors".[71]
5. imy-r-swnw
"Doctors".[72]
6. swnw
"Junior doctors".[73] "Doctor of the People".[74]
4?. smsw-swnw
"Registrar".[75]
4?. shd-swnw
"Consultant".[76]
4?. (example they give appears to be the name of an individual from 5th Dynasty, Sekhetnankh)
"specialist in a given field".[77]


♠ Military levels ♣ [3-7] ♥ EWA changed to 4 [78][79][80][81]

The army became professionalized in the Middle Kingdom.[82]

EWA: 4 King, 3 chief of the army/general (leads the expedition or the building project) ,2 officers ,1 soldiers

Spalinger [83] 1. King

2. Crown Prince
3. Chief of Army
4. Provincial Governors (brought own troops with them)
5. Town regiments
6. Division Commander
7. individual soldiers


1. King

2. Chief of the leaders of the town militia
3. Soldier of the town militia
2.Crew of the ruler
2. Chief of the leaders of the dog patrols

There were also "scribe of the army."[84]


Alternative:

1. King

2. Chief of the army.
3. Provincial governors.
4. Generals (Overseers of the host).
5. Commanders of town militia.[85]
6. individual soldiers.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [86] Permanent, specialized only by time of the New Kingdom. In earlier periods "it can hardly be distinguished from a workforce for mining, quarrying, and trade expeditions." Highest official called "Overseer of the Army" (or "General"). [87]

EWA: ref. Berlev. Examples of titles 'Atju' and 'Ankhu'.

"The army was well organized and in the 12th dynasty it had a core of professional soldiers. They served for prolonged periods of time and were regularly stationed abroad." [88]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [89]

EWA: changed code

"The army was well organized and in the 12th dynasty it had a core of professional soldiers. They served for prolonged periods of time and were regularly stationed abroad." [90]

Instruction for Merikare: "Enrich the young men who follow you, provide with goods, endow with fields, reward them with herds."[91]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Priests worked rotating shifts. Not full-time professional until the New Kingdom. [92]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥

Instructions for Merikare "set down basic guidelines for administering justice."[93]

Middle Kingdom prison register "cites variations of the general offence, and in so doing implies the existence of a very detailed code of law".[94]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥

In the Story of Khuninpu ("Tale of the Eloquent Peasant") a victim of crime could petition a high official at his town house.[95] -- may not be a specialist if the petitioner had to visit the official's house, rather than e.g. justice building

Also there is no evidence for the same system of law that existed in the Old Kingdom.[96] All officials were responsible for reporting crime to the vizier's office, which either ratified decisions made by the lower officials or set up an investigation itself (and if necessary enacted a punishment).[97]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446 probably from Thebes 12th-13th Dynasty "confirms information from other sources that a woman in the Middle Kingdom had the right to her own property and that she could start a court action."[98]

No evidence for the same system of law that existed in the Old Kingdom. [99]

All officials were responsible for reporting crime to the vizier's office, which either ratified decisions made by the lower officials or set up an investigation itself (and if necessary enacted a punishment).[100]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ No professional judges or lawyers. [101]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Sesostris II (1897-1878 BCE) irrigation and land reclamation in Fayyum. Project completed under Amenemhet III (1842-1797 BCE). [102] Evidence of major public projects in Kush so Egyptians could colonise region.[103] Middle Kingdom irrigation systems were pre-shaduf. Shaduf introduced middle second millennium BCE [104], which would be around start of the New Kingdom. "the irrigation regime, which lay at the root of the economy, was based on a system with basins or basin chains, i.e. smaller or larger areas within which collaboration is a precondition for successful agriculture."[105]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥ Earliest wells date to the el Napta/Al Jerar Early Neolithic (c6000-5250 BC) at Napta Playa in the Western Desert. There is written evidence for wells from 4th dynasty Old Kingdom. "Most of the inscriptions seem to be connected to mining or quarrying activities in the Eastern Desert or travel routes from the Nile Valley towards the Red Sea." [106] A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Before the New Kingdom inter-regional trade was conducted between institutions. "Merchants who worked for their own gain existed in ancient Egypt only during the New Kingdom." Ancient Egypt was a "supply state" with the necessities distributed down from institutions to the people. Goods exchanged at markets were primarily consumables like beer and bread, also some dried meat, fish, vegetables and fruits. Non-consumables included household artifacts.[107] Warburton disagrees with the supply state view "lack of evidence of state 'control' of crafts or of the economy; ... absence of evidence of 'redistribution' ... increasingly widespread evidence of commercial activity ... exaggerated attention to titles has paid neither sufficient attention to their absence, nor to the lack of evidence for an administrative role of titles when they are documented. Together these points suggest that the Ancient Egyptian economy was a pre-capitalist market economy in which administration played a relatively unimportant role in itself."[108]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Askut fortress, granaries could supply 3,668 men on an annual basis [109] Large granaries. [110]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Improvements made by the Egyptians to the north—south route 2000—1780 BCE. Nubian Corridor "the principal artery between Africa, the lower Nile valley and the Mediterranean world: the navigable channels through the First Cataract were kept clear, a doilkos - a track for hauling boats over land - was constructed parallel to the impassable rapids of the Second Cataract, and a dam was built at Semna to facilitate navigation of the minor rapids of Batn el-Hagar."[111] Road network emerged with development of irrigation systems. Excavated soil was piled by the side of ditches, these formed embankments which were used as paths and roads. Generally not paved. (An exception was the 11.5 km paved straight road - using flagstones and petrified wood - discovered in the Fayyum, which artefacts date to Old Kingdom).[112]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Earliest reference to small bridge is for the new kingdom. Bridges over wide expanse of water unknown.[113] However, it is highly probable that small bridges were necessary before this time and Egyptians would have been more than capable of building and maintaining them.
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ [114] c2000 BCE Bahr Yousuf canal dug to irrigate the Fayyum basin. [115]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Red Sea port of Mersa/Wadi Gawassis, east from Coptos. [116] Port. "Shipping goods from the coast of the Levant was a regular commercial activity at this time." [117]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ hieroglyphs
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.[118]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Coffin Texts. [119]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ The 'Testament of Amenemhet', included in the Milligan Papyrus and the Papyrus Sallier II, defined royal obligations and the needs of the people. [120] 11th Dynasty, literature flourished. Admonitions of Ipuwer. Instructions for King Merikare. [121]
♠ History ♣ ♥ unknown. Had all sorts of other literatue.
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ "The philosophical literture is something perculiar to the Middle Kingdom and First Intermediate Period."[122] "Another religious development of the Middle Kingdom was the idea that all people (not just the king) had a ba, or spiritual force. The most evocative evidence for this is the literary text, the Dialogue between a Man Tired of Life and his 'Ba', which must be the world's earliest debate on the issue of suicide - a powerful philosophical treatise."[123] Instructions for Merikare "set down basic guidelines for administering justice."[124] - advice for kings genre
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematical, medical, philosophical inquiry preserved on Egyptian papyri. Examples: The Akhmim Wooden Tablet (2000-1950 BC); The Heqanakht Papyri (2000-1950 BC); The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (1850-1800 BC); The Berlin Papyrus (1800 BC); The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus(1650 BC). [125] Kahun Gynecological papyrus (1825 BCE), the Edwin Smith papyrus (1700 BCE), and the Ebers papyrus (1500 BCE) covered "surgery, healing, skin diseases, stomach ailments, medicines, the head, dentistry, gynecology, and diseases of the extremities".[126]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor. [127] Story of Sinuhe. [128] Prophecies, moral tales and hymns. [129] Biographies, wisdom literature, stories such as "The Eloquent Peasant."[130] "Loyalist instruction of Kaires", "Teaching of a Man for his Son", "The Teaching of Ptahhotep", "Teaching of King Khety" (also known as "Satire of the Trades"), "Words of Nerferti", "Teaching of King Amenemhet", "Words of Khakheperreseneb", "Hymn to the Innundation", "Tale of the Eloquent Peasant", "The Tale of King Cheops' Court", Cairo Mythological Tale, "Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor", "Dialogue of a Man with his Soul", "Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All" (philosophical, on the nature of good and evil), "Tale of Neferkaremd Sasenet", "Tale of the Herdsman", "Teaching for Kagemni", "Teaching of Hardedef", "Pleasures of Fishing and Fowling", "Account of the Sporting King."[131] Concept of Ma'at central to Egyptian society important throughout "Tale of the Eloquent Peasant." [132]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ The Hekanakhte correspondence has evidence for "the purchase of land and commodities by barter with copper, oil, and linen."[133]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Official dispatches from border fortresses survive on papyrus, discovered at Thebes.[134]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ copper used in bronze. Evidence for bronze arrowheads and spearheads. Bronze arrowheads used may have been imported from Middle East. Production not common in Middle Kingdom. [135] Spearheads were made of copper.[136] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, then replaced by bronze. [137]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Evidence for bronze arrowheads and spearheads. Bronze arrowheads used may have been imported from Middle East. Production not common in Middle Kingdom. [138] Spearheads were made of copper.[139] Spearheads and arrowheads initially flintstone and bone, then replaced by bronze. [140]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "The principal weapons in the late Predynastic and Protodynastic Periods were undoubtedly the bow and arrow, spear, axe and mace. These are frequently shown in relief depictions of hunting and battle scenes (figure 18)."[141] Regular troops carried javelins and axes. [142]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ [143]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Middle Kingdom infantry based on powerful archer divisions. [144] [145] Self-bow was used. [146] "One of the most important sources for the study of Egyptian weapons in the early Middle Kingdom is a pair of painted wooden models (Cairo, Egyptian Museum) from the tomb of Mesehti, a provincial governor at Asyut in the Eleventh Dynasty (figure 22). Forty Egyptian spearmen and forty Nubian archers are reproduced in faithful detail, showing the typical costume and arms of the common soldier."[147] "By the Dynastic Period, archers were most commonly depicted using a 'self' (or simple) bow"[148]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[149] "The composite bows spread into Palestine around 1800 BCE and were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in 1700 BCE."[150] Hyksos introduced composite bow into region.[151]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not present during this time period

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from use in previous periods, though no longer one of the main weapons: "the weaponry being used by the Egyptians and their opponents--a combination of bows and arrows, shields, spears and axes--remained virtually unchanged from the Sixth to Thirteenth Dynasties."[152]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Throughout the Dynastic Period of the most commonly used weapon was the axe. In the Old and Middle Kingdoms the conventional axe usually consisted of a semicircular copper head (see figures 23a and 24) tied to a wooden handle by cords, threaded through perforations in the copper and wrapped around lugs. At this stage there was little difference between the battleaxe and the woodworker's axe. In the Middle Kingdom, however, some battleaxes had longer blades with concave sides narrowing down to a curved edge (figure 23b)"[153]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "From the Middle Kingdom onwards the dagger grew in popularity as a weapon for stabbing and crusing at close quarters."[154]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the weaponry being used by the Egyptians and their opponents--a combination of bows and arrows, shields, spears and axes--remained virtually unchanged from the Sixth to Thirteenth Dynasties."[155]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "One of the most important sources for the study of Egyptian weapons in the early Middle Kingdom is a pair of painted wooden models (Cairo, Egyptian Museum) from the tomb of Mesehti, a provincial governor at Asyut in the Eleventh Dynasty (figure 22). Forty Egyptian spearmen and forty Nubian archers are reproduced in faithful detail, showing the typical costume and arms of the common soldier."[156]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ "Whereas the conventional spear was intended to be thrown at the enemy, there was also a form of halberd (figure 25c), which was effectively a spear shaft fitted with an axe blade and used for cutting and slashing."[157]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "During the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom the Egyptians depended upon the donkey's back for land transport. ... Well before 3000 BC donkeys in Upper Egypt were trained to carry loads."[158] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[159]
♠ Horses ♣ inferred absent ♥ Hyksos introduced horse-drawn chariot into region at the end of this period. [160] Horses non-native to Egypt. Introduced c1700 BCE. [161] Horses and wagons known from trade and war booty. [162] "some scholars have long recognized indications that horse riding was being adapted, possibly as early as the late Middle Kingdom, as part of military scouting and rapid movements (Schulman 1957). Horse riding may have been used in military tactics, and by elite levels of the military prior to the advent of chariot technology in Egypt. Horses may well have a history in gift exchanges among elites during the Middle Bronze Age indepedent of chariot technology (Bibby 2003).£[163]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[164]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[165]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Cowhides probably most common material. [166] "From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[167]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Not until the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[168] "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[169]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[170]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[171]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[172]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[173]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[174]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "The soldiers of the Old and Middle Kingdom wore no armour. In the Old Kingdom they are usually depicted wearing only a belt and a small triangular loincloth, and by the Middle Kingdom their costume was invariably the same short linen kilt as that worn by civilian workmen. [...] From the late Predynastic Period to the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian soldiers' only bodily protection (apart from the occasional use of a band of webbing across the shoulders and chest) was supplied by long, roughly rectangular shields made of cowhide stretched over a wooden frame."[175]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ River vessels used for conflict.[176]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ "The key differentiation between the fully developed army of the New Kingdom and that in the previous era of the Middle Kingdom is reflected best in the amphibious nature of the earlier institution. Thus as in Dynasty XIII and onwards, when the chariotry division was the attractive sector of the army for the sons of nobles, in the Middle Kingdom it was the fleet that provided the positions of importance." [177]


Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Middle Kingdom fortresses "were remarkable examples of military architecture with huge walls, ramparts and ditches, bastions, and fortified gates with drawbridges. Inside them were barracks, magazines, workships and offices, as well as small temples for Egyptian gods... Large granaries contained the rations to feed the troops and personnel stationed there." [178] e.g. southern border.[179]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ [180]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Middle Kingdom fortresses "were remarkable examples of military architecture with huge walls, ramparts and ditches, bastions, and fortified gates with drawbridges. Inside them were barracks, magazines, workships and offices, as well as small temples for Egyptian gods... Large granaries contained the rations to feed the troops and personnel stationed there." [181]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ [182]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ [183]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ [184]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Senusret I (1971-1928 BCE) controlled Nubia with fortresses, among them Buhen. [185] Set up a series of massive fortresses. [186] Fortified towns designed to control river traffic and trade. [187] Fortifications at the Isthmus of Suez and the southern frontier at the First Cataract of the Nile. [188]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "The strength of these forts and the effort made to render them impregnable can be seen from the fortress at Buhen, which was one of the best-preserved forts in Nubia before it was flooded by the waters of the new Aswan High Dam . This formidable Middle Kingdom fortress consisted of an elaborate series of fortifications within fortifications built on a rectangular plan measuring 172 by 160 metres. The defence system consisted of a brick wall 4.8 metres thick and at least 10 metres high with towers at regular intervals. At the bottom of this main wall was a brickpaved rampart, protected by a series of round bastions with double rows of loopholes. The whole fort was surrounded by a dry ditch cut into the bed rock 6.5 metres deep. The ditch was 8.4 metres wide and the other scarp was heightened by brickwork. There were two gates on the east side facing the Nile, and a third, heavily fortified, on the west side facing the desert."[189]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ KM. "The traditional borders of Egypt comprised the Western Desert, the Sinai Desert, the Mediterranean coast and the Forst Nile Cataract at Aswan. Such natural physical barriers were sufficient to protect the Egyptians from outside interference for the many centuries during which their distinctive civilisation developed."[190] Amenemhet I (c1991-1962 BCE) began the construction of the Wall of the Prince, a string of fortresses on the eastern border of the Delta. [191] This wall was mentioned in the Story of Sinuhe. Need to confirm whether archaeological evidence of this wall has been found or whether it is a literary fiction. However, there is archaeological evidence for a wall built by Ur III against the same peoples in Mesopotamia: "The Neo-Sumerian mental map of an internal land (Sumer and Akkad) surrounded by a turbulent periphery found its concrete application in the construction of a fortification wall crossing the alluvial plain. This wall was located slightly to the north of Akkad, and was meant to protect the empire from the Martu. This small 'Chinese wall' was built roughly at the same time as the Prince's Wall, built by the Egyptian twelfth dynasty to face the same nomadic group."[192]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ General fortifications reference: [193]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ At end of 12th Dynasty the power of local governors - nomarchs - was reigned in.[194] Most important government official in Old and Middle Kingdoms was the vizier. "next to the king, his was the ultimate responsibility for fiscal, administrative and judicial affairs."[195] Middle Kingdom provincial governor (or "town governor") combined temple and civil duties, and governed a town for which he was responsible for order and tax collection. Attested for Upper and Lower Egypt and often called nomarchs by other writers.[196] "Middle Kingdom pharoahs worked hard to centralize authority once more and to establish dynastic stability. Especially those of the 12th Dynasty were successful in this effort, but they never fully thwarted the power of provincial elites."[197]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ "One must imagine a network of government agencies spread through-out the country, attempting by bureaucratic methods total assessment and management of resources, and overlying to varying degrees the semi-autonomous functioning of pious foundations and private estates whose own 'officials' would have had as their principal concern not the facilitating of the transfer of wealth to the crown, but rather the effective operation of the foundation or estate of which they themselves were the chief beneficiaries. The resulting tension, or division of loyalty ... will become clearer when provincial government is discussed."[198] "Middle Kingdom pharoahs worked hard to centralize authority once more and to establish dynastic stability. Especially those of the 12th Dynasty were successful in this effort, but they never fully thwarted the power of provincial elites."[199]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "The royal house at Itj-tawi sought to keep kingship in the same family and avoid usurpations of the throne. They initiated the practice of co-regency: the ruling king trained his successor by giving a chosen son the status of junior king. ... For the rest of ancient Egyptian history kings used co-regencies as a means to select an heir, although the practice was rare between the Middle Kingdom and the Ptolemaic Period."[200] 13th Dynasty: "Contemporary records reveal only one clear father-son sequence."[201] present for 12th Dynasty absent for 13th Dynasty?

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ [202] The ideology of state was a 'social contract' between the king and his subjects. This contract was, however, not one made between the ruler and the people (and e.g. enshrined in a written constitution); it was one signed with the gods. The king who failed to carry through his side of the contract would expect to lose favour with the gods. The people, for their part, could not legitimately rebel on their own evaluation of the king's performance; only given signs that the gods did not consider the king legitimate.

"In the case of Ancient Egypt, the ideology of the state, promoted through religious, artistic and literary texts, was centred around the divine right of the king to secure the submission of his subjects to his royal will in return for their right to expect protection, subsistence and the preservation of Maat (order, justice, righteousness) in society."[203]

"Divine kingship is the most striking feature of Egypt in these periods."[204]

"The 'h-palace mst be intended as a holy locality as well as the temples because the Horus-king is the holder of religious and magical power. The 'h would have been the place where all the ceremonies connected to the transition of the magical power of the sun-god to the king were performed: here the king took over the role of Horus and was legitimated as his successor."[205]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥

New Kingdom

Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) "took the idea of self-deification further than any previous pharaoh and was the first to present himself as a divine being during his lifetime."[206]

Middle Kingdom

Mentuhotep embarked on "a programme of self-deification". He had a second Horus name "Netjeryhedjet ('the divine one of the white crown') [which] emphasize[d] his self-deification."[207]
"Evidence from his Deir el-Bahri temple indicates that he intended to be worshipped as a god in his House of Millions of Years, thus pre-dating by hundreds of years ideas that became a central religious preoccupation of the New Kingdom. It is evident that he was reasserting the cult of the ruler."[208]

Pharaoh equally 'god-king' throughout pharaonic period [209]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ "the association between ma'at and the just society finds expression in the Instructions of the vizier Ptah-hetep of the Fifth Dynasy: 'Justice (ma'at) is great, its value enduring. It has not been disturbed since the days of him who created it. He who transgresses the laws is punished."[210] Senusret III set up the "bureau of the people's giving".[211] title sounds prosocial, need to check if more is known about it. "There was a paramount expectation that the Pharaoh protected, and provided for, his subjects and secured social justice, an ideal rooted in the concept of Maat, which implied truth, righteousness and order among humans and between them and their gods (Hart, 1986; Lichtheinm, 1992; Watterson, 1996)."[212]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [213]"The growth of the Osirian cult was accompanied by a cultural phenomenon sometimes described as the 'democratization of the afterlife': the extension of once-royal funerary priveleges to ordinary people. ... thus receiving blessings that had once been restricted to kings."[214] "Another religious development of the Middle Kingdom was the idea that all people (not just the king) had a ba, or spiritual force."[215] Popularity of the cult of Osiris: "People from a surprising social range built chapels in order to receive mortuary offerings, in which they set up steles engraved with representations of themselves and sometimes accounts of their lives."[216] Coffin Texts "magical and liturgical spells inscribed principally onto the sides of wooden coffins." Majority Middle Kingdom, had begun in First Intermediate Period. [217] "Another interesting development in the Coffin Texts is that all deceased people can be identified with Osiris."[218]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ No strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [219]"The growth of the Osirian cult was accompanied by a cultural phenomenon sometimes described as the 'democratization of the afterlife': the extension of once-royal funerary priveleges to ordinary people. ... thus receiving blessings that had once been restricted to kings."[220] "Another religious development of the Middle Kingdom was the idea that all people (not just the king) had a ba, or spiritual force."[221]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "the association between ma'at and the just society finds expression in the Instructions of the vizier Ptah-hetep of the Fifth Dynasy: 'Justice (ma'at) is great, its value enduring. It has not been disturbed since the days of him who created it. He who transgresses the laws is punished."[222] "Perhaps the most important religious innovation of the Coffin Texts is the idea that everyone would be judged in the afterlife on the basis of his or her deeds while alive. Actually there are indications that belief in a final judgment had existed previously, but the Coffin Texts provide the first concrete evidence for the procedure in the next world. The judgment takes place before Osrisis and a council of gods, but no particular method of trial is spelled out. Allusions to the use of the balance occasionally appear in literary works such as The Eloquent Peasant."[223] In the Old Kingdom: "First, Maat is established as a moral order with divine, natural and social dimensions. Secondly, Maat is counterposed with isft (evil, chaos, wrong-doing) as well as with dw (evil), grg (falsehood) and 3bt (wrong-doing). Thirdly, Maat is a standard and measure of both moral life on the personal and social level. Fourthly, Maat is tied to the concept of moral and social excellence (ikr, mnh) and resultant worthiness (im3h). Finally, the ground of Maat is that it's God's will, and thus the king's will and that it is good, effective and life-giving."[224] In First Intermediate Period/Middle Kingdom: "All sections of the population - the rich, the poor, the rising middle class, now erect tombs and memorial stones with self-presentations designed to secure a share in immortality. And urdergirding this quest for immortality is the living of a Maatian life."[225] "There was a paramount expectation that the Pharaoh protected, and provided for, his subjects and secured social justice, an ideal rooted in the concept of Maat, which implied truth, righteousness and order among humans and between them and their gods (Hart, 1986; Lichtheinm, 1992; Watterson, 1996)."[226]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ Declaration of virtues for Intef "herald and governor under Thutmose III (Urk IV, 964-975)" that might suggest "both a reaffirmation of moral values held in the Middle Kingdom and a clear expansion of moral ideals in the 18th Dynasty" (includes): servant of the needy; father of the poor; guide of the orphan; mother of the timid; shelter for the battered; guardian of the sick; husband of the widow; refuge for the orphan. [227]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [228] [229] [230]

References

  1. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  2. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  3. (Wawro 2008, 42)
  4. (Callender 1983, 156) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  5. (Ezzamel 2004, 502) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  6. (Ezzamel 2004, 502) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  7. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  8. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  9. (http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/a/ancient_egypt_the_middle_king.aspx)
  10. (Quirke 2001
  11. (Callender 2000, 171) Gae Callender. 2000. 'The Middle Kingdom Renaissance (c. 2055-1650 BC)', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 137-71. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. (Callender 2000, 156) Gae Callender. 2000. 'The Middle Kingdom Renaissance (c. 2055-1650 BC)', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 137-71. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  13. (Ezzamel 2004, 502) Mahmoud Ezzamel. 2004. 'Work Organization in the Middle Kingdom, Ancient Egypt'. Organization 11 (4): 497-537.
  14. (Pagliari 2012, 267-269) Giulia Pagliari. 2012. 'Function and Significance of Ancient Egyptian Royal Palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite Period: A Lexicographical Study and Its Possible Connection with the Archaeological Evidence'. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham.
  15. (Callender 2000, 146-47) Gae Callender. 2000. 'The Middle Kingdom Renaissance (c. 2055-1650 BC)', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 137-71. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  16. (Ezzamel 2004, 502) Mahmoud Ezzamel. 2004. 'Work Organization in the Middle Kingdom, Ancient Egypt'. Organization 11 (4): 497-537.
  17. (Callender 2000, 163-64) Gae Callender. 2000. 'The Middle Kingdom Renaissance (c. 2055-1650 BC)', in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw, 137-71. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  18. (Haring 2010, 225) Ben Haring. 2010. 'Administration and Law: Pharaonic', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 218-36. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  19. (Haring 2010, 225) Ben Haring. 2010. 'Administration and Law: Pharaonic', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 218-36. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  20. (Quirke 2001, 16) Stephen G. J. Quirke. 2001. 'Administration: State Administration', in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by D. B. Redford, 12-16. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  21. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 105) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  22. (Pu 2005, 86) Muzhou Pu. 2005. Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes towards Foreigners in Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  23. (Szpakowska 2010, 521) Kasia Szpakowska. 2010. 'Religion in Society: Pharaonic', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 507-25. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  24. (Willems 2013, 343) Harco Willems. 2013. 'Nomarchs and Local Potentates: The Provincial Administration in the Middle Kingdom', in Ancient Egyptian Adminstration, edited by Juan Carlos Moreno García, 341-92. Leiden: Brill.
  25. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 134) Marc Van De Mieroop. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  26. (Van Blerk 2006) N. J. Van Blerk. 2006. 'The Concept of Law and Justice in Ancient Egypt, with Specific Reference to The Tale of The Eloquent Peasant'. Master's dissertation, University of South Africa. Available online at http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/2447/dissertation.pdf.
  27. (Enmarch 2010) Roland Enmarch. 2010. 'Middle Kingdom Literature', in A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Volume 2, edited by Alan B. Lloyd, 663-85. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  28. (Chase-Dunn spreadsheet)
  29. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  30. (Garcia ed. 2013, 435)
  31. (Willems 2013, 343 cite: Butzer)
  32. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 226)
  33. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  34. (Modelski 2003, 34)
  35. (Modelski 2003, 33)
  36. (Mumford 2010, 331)
  37. (Mumford 2010, 331)
  38. (EWA, Sept 2014)
  39. (Pagliari 2012, 241-247) Giulia Pagliari. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  40. (Pagliari 2012, 235) Giulia Pagliari. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  41. (Pagliari 2012, 552) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  42. (Pagliari 2012, 575) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  43. (Pagliari 2012, 574) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  44. (Pagliari 2012, 570) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  45. (Pagliari 2012, 572) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  46. (Pagliari 2012, 565) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  47. (Pagliari 2012, 567) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  48. (Pagliari 2012, 569) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  49. (Pagliari 2012, 569) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  50. (Ezzamel 2004, 507) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  51. (Ezzamel 2004, 507) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  52. (Ezzamel 2004, 507) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  53. (Ezzamel 2004, 507) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  54. (EWA, Sept 2014)
  55. (Maree 2010, 266)
  56. (Willems 2013, 354)
  57. (Pagliari 2012, 435) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  58. (Willems 2013, 378)
  59. (Willems 2013, 378)
  60. (Ezzamel 2004, 502) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  61. (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Recent Developments in the Social and Economic History of Ancient Egypt, 24)
  62. (Willems 2013, 354)
  63. (Ezzamel 2004, 503) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  64. (Ezzamel 2004, 504) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  65. (Ezzamel 2004, 503) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  66. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  67. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  68. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  69. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  70. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  71. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  72. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  73. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  74. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  75. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  76. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  77. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  78. (Garcia ed. 2013, 422-425)
  79. (Manning 2012, 76)
  80. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  81. (Fields 2007, 9)
  82. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 105) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  83. (Spalinger 2013, 422-4)
  84. (Fields 2007, 5)
  85. (Garcia ed. 2013, 422-425)
  86. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5)
  87. (Haring 2010)
  88. (Van De Mieroop, M. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley)
  89. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5)
  90. (Van De Mieroop, M. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley)
  91. Instruction for Merikare. www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/information/REL499_2011/Instruction for Merikare.pdf
  92. (Doxey 2001)
  93. (Hinds 2006, 6)
  94. (Kemp 1983, 84) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  95. (Quirke 2001)
  96. (McDowell 2001)
  97. (McDowell 2001)
  98. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 119) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  99. (McDowell 2001)
  100. (McDowell 2001)
  101. (McDowell 2001)
  102. (Stearns 2001, 30)
  103. (Angelakis et al. 2012, 132)
  104. (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Recent Developments in the Social and Economic History of Ancient Egypt, 14)
  105. (Willems 2013, 352)
  106. (Franzmeier 2007)
  107. (Altenmuller 2001)
  108. (Warburton 2007) Warburton, David A. 2007. Work and Compensation in Ancient Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Vol. 93. pp 175-194. Egypt Exploration Society.
  109. (Spalinger 2013, 426 cite: Barry Kemp)
  110. (Willems 2013, 357)
  111. (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 239)
  112. (Partridge 2010)
  113. (Arnold 2003, 37)
  114. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  115. (Angelakis et al. 2012, 132)
  116. (Juan Carlos Moreno García, Recent Developments in the Social and Economic History of Ancient Egypt, 11)
  117. (Spalinger 2013, 431)
  118. Ritner, Robert Kriech. 1996. "The Coptic Alphabet". In The World's Writing Systems, edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. 1994:287-290.
  119. (Stearns 2001, 30)
  120. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  121. (Stearns 2001, 30)
  122. (Kemp 1983, 75) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  123. (Callender 1983, 169) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  124. (Hinds 2006, 6)
  125. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  126. (Marios, Hanna, Alsiegh, Mohammadali and Tubbs 2011) Loukas, Marios. Hanna, Michael. Alsaiegh, Nada. Mohammadali, M Shoja. Tubbs, R Shane. 20 April 2011. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. May 2011. Clinical Anatomy. Volume 24. Issue 4. pp 409-415. Wiley.
  127. (Stearns 2001, 30)
  128. (Stearns 2001, 30)
  129. (Wawro 2008, 42 )
  130. ([1])
  131. (Enmarch 2010, 663-676)
  132. (Van Blerk 2006)
  133. (Manning 2003, 173) Manning, J.G. in Mokyr, John ed. 2003. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  134. (Quirke 2001)
  135. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/weapons/index.html)
  136. (Fields 2007, 4)
  137. (Gnirs 2001)
  138. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/weapons/index.html)
  139. (Fields 2007, 4)
  140. (Gnirs 2001)
  141. (Shaw 1991: 31) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  142. (Garcia ed. 2013, 433)
  143. (Hoffmeier 2001)
  144. (Garcia ed. 2013, 433)
  145. (Gnirs 2001)
  146. (Fields 2007, 16)
  147. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  148. (Shaw 1991: 37) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  149. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  150. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  151. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  152. (Shaw 1991: 37) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  153. (Shaw 1991: 36) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  154. (Shaw 1991: 36) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  155. (Shaw 1991: 37) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  156. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  157. (Shaw 1991: 36) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  158. (Drews 2017, 34) Robert Drews. 2017. Militarism and the Indo-Europeanizing of Europe. Routledge. Abingdon.
  159. (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  160. (http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html)
  161. (Partridge 2010, 384)
  162. (Gnirs 2001)
  163. (Wegner 2015, 76) Wegner, Josef. 2015. A royal necropolis at South Abydos: New light on Egypt's Second Intermediate Period. Near Eastern archaeology. Volume 78. Issue 2. 68-78.
  164. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  165. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  166. (Hoffmeier 2001)
  167. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  168. (Hoffmeier 2001) J K Hoffmeier in D B Redford. ed. 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  169. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  170. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  171. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  172. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  173. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  174. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  175. (Shaw 1991: 32) Shaw, Ian. 1991. Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Princes Risborough: Shire. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  176. (Healy 1992, 25)
  177. (Garcia ed. 2013, 433)
  178. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 113) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  179. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 113) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  180. (Adam 1981, 232) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  181. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 113) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  182. (Adam 1981, 232) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  183. (Adam 1981, 232) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  184. (Adam 1981, 232) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  185. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  186. (Quirke 2001)
  187. (Manning 2012, 75-76)
  188. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007, 5)
  189. (Mokhtar ed. 1981, 258)
  190. (Shaw 1991: 16) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/7J8H86XF.
  191. (http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti)
  192. (Leverani 2014, 159) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  193. (Adam 1981, 232) Adam, S. 1981. “The Importance of Nubia: A Link between Central Africa and the Mediterranean.” In General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa, edited by G. Mokhtar, II:226-44. General History of Africa. Paris: UNESCO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/8APQDQV3.
  194. (Manning 2003, 173) Manning, J.G. in Mokyr, John ed. 2003. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History. Volume 1. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  195. (Kemp 1983, 84) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  196. (Kemp 1983, 110-111) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  197. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 100) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  198. (Kemp 1983, 83) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  199. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 100) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  200. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 102) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  201. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 107) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  202. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  203. (Ezzamel 2004, 505) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  204. (Kemp 1983, 71) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  205. (Pagliari 2012, 235) Pagliari, Giulia. 2012. Function and significance of ancient Egyptian royal palaces from the Middle Kingdom to the Saite period: a lexicographical study and its possible connection with the archaeological evidence. Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.
  206. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 194) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  207. (Callender 1983, 140) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  208. (Callender 1983, 140-141) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  209. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  210. (Kemp 1983, 76) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  211. (Callender 1983, 164) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  212. (Ezzamel 2004, 501) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  213. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  214. (Callender 1983, 168) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  215. (Callender 1983, 169) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  216. (Van De Mieroop 2011, 120) Van De Mieroop, Marc. 2011. A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Backwell. Chichester.
  217. (Seidlmayer 2003, 115)
  218. (Faulkner et al. 2008, 140) Faulkner, Raymond. Goelet, Ogden. Andrews, Carol. Wasserman, James. 2008. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day - The Complete Papyrus of Ani Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images. Chronicle Books.
  219. (John Baines, Oxford workshop January 2017)
  220. (Callender 1983, 168) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  221. (Callender 1983, 169) Callender, Gae. "The Middle Kingdom Renaissance" in Shaw, Ian. ed. 2003. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  222. (Kemp 1983, 76) Kemp, Barry. "Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period c. 2686-1552 BC" in Trigger, B G. Kemp, B J. O'Connor, D. LLoyd, A B. 1983. Ancient Egypt: A Social History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  223. (Faulkner et al. 2008, 140) Faulkner, Raymond. Goelet, Ogden. Andrews, Carol. Wasserman, James. 2008. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day - The Complete Papyrus of Ani Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images. Chronicle Books.
  224. (Karenga 2004, 55) Karenga, Maulana. 2004. Maat, the Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. Psychology Press.
  225. (Karenga 2004, 56) Karenga, Maulana. 2004. Maat, the Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. Psychology Press.
  226. (Ezzamel 2004, 501) Ezzamel, Mahmoud. July 2004. Organization. Vol. 11. No. 4. pp 497-537. Sage publications.
  227. (Karenga 2004, 85-86) Karenga, Maulana. 2004. Maat, the Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. Psychology Press.
  228. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  229. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  230. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Altenmuller H, Schwaigner E (trans.) in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Angelakis A N, Mays L W, Koutsoyiannis D (2012) Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia, IWA Publishing.

Bietak, M "From where came the Hyksos and where did they go?" Maree, M ed. 2010. The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteen-Seventeenth Dynasties). Uitgeverij Peeters. Leuven.

Challen, P (2005) Life in Ancient Egypt, Crabtree Publishing Company.

Doxey D M, in in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Dupuy, R, Dupuy, T (2007) The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History, 4th Edition, BCA.

Fields, N (2007) Soldier of the Pharaoh: Middle Kingdom Egypt 2055-1650 BC, Osprey Publishing.

Willems, H "Nomarchs and local potentates: the provincial administration in the Middle Kingdom" in Garcia, J C M. ed. 2013. Ancient Egyptian Adminstration. Brill. Leiden.

Garcia, J C M. ed. 2013. Ancient Egyptian Adminstration. Brill. Leiden.

Gnirs A M in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Haring, B in Lloyd, A B (2010) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Publishing.

Healy, M (1992) New Kingdom Egypt, Osprey Publishing.

Hinds, K (2006) The Pharaoh's Court, Marshall Cavendish.

Hoffmeier J K in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Lloyd, A B (2010) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Publishing.

Maree, M "A sculpture workshop at Abydos from the late sixteenth or early seventeenth dynasty" in Maree, M ed. 2010. The Second Intermediate Period (Thirteen-Seventeenth Dynasties). Uitgeverij Peeters. Leuven.

McDowell A G in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

McEvedy, C, Jones, R (1978) Atlas of World Population History, Allen Lane, London.

Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS2000. Washington D.C.

Mokhtar, G ed. (1981) General History of Africa II, Ancient Civilizations of Africa, Heinemann/UNESCO.

Mumford, G. D. 2010. Settlements - Distribution, Structure, Architecture: Pharaonic. In A. B. Lloyd (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Egypt, pp. 326-349. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Pardey, E, Shillenn R E (trans.) in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Quirke G J, in Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Redford, D B (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, OUP, Oxford.

Spalinger, A. The Organization of the Pharaonic Army (Old to New Kingdom) in Garcia, J C M. 2013. Ancient Egyptian Adminstration. Brill. Leiden.

Stearns, P. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History. 6th Edition. James Clarke & Co Ltd. Cambridge.

Van Blerk, N J (2006) The Concept of Law and Justice in Ancient Egypt, with specific reference to The Tale of The Eloquent Peasant, Masters Dissertation, University of South Africa[2]

Wawro, G ed. 2008. Historical Atlas. Millennium House Pty Ltd. Elanora Heights.

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/weapons.htm

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/weapons/index.html

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history3-11.htm#11th

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/history12-17.htm#amenemheti

http://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/egypt02-04enl.html

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/a/ancient_egypt_the_middle_king.aspx

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/a/ancient_egypt_the_middle_king.aspx

http://ancientegyptonline.org/aeoHTML/timeperiods/middlekingdom.html

Franzmeier, F. 2007. "Wells and Cisterns in Pharaonic Egypt: The Development of a Technology as a progress of Adaptation to Environmental Situations and Consumers’ Demands". in Griffin, K. ed. Current Research in Egyptology 2007. Oxford: Oxbow Books. pg: 40, 48.

Fields, N. 2007. Soldier of the Pharaoh: Middle Kingdom Egypt 2055-1650 BC. Osprey Publishing.

Willard, R H "Weights and Measures in Egypt" in Helaine, S ed. 2008. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. 2nd edition. Springer.