EgMamBu

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate III ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Circassian Mamluks; Burji Mamluks; Mamluk Sultanate; Bahri Dynasty; State of Turkey; Dawla al Turkiyya ♥ Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya [2] "The second dynasty took the dynastic name of Circassian Mamluks (also Burji Mamluks, from the word for castle) (1382-1517)."[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ {1425 CE; 1495 CE} ♥ End of the Ottoman-Mamluk war (1485-1491 CE). Sultan Qaitbay (1468-1496 CE) commissioned a great amount of architecture and conducted 16 military campaigns.

For Cairo this period "is considered a period of decline, interrupted only by remissions during the reigns of Barsbay and Qaytbay." [2]

Cairo experienced an "urban and economic revitalization" in its "ancient center in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries."[3]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1412-1517 CE ♥

"The traditional division of the Mamluk period into a Bahri/Turkish dynasty (1250-1382) and a Burji/Circassian one (1382-1517) is an inheritance from medieval chroniclers, but it corresponds to no fundamental changes in the organization of the Mamluk state or in Egypt's fortunes. A chronological division responsive to the vagaries of history seems preferable: first, a period of expansion and prosperity, encompassing particularly the reign of Nasir Muhammad, which may be said to end conveniently (if somewhat arbitrarily) in 1348. Next comes a period of crisis starting with the great plague epidemic of 1348, encompassing Tamerlane's expedition, which brought ruin to Syria and decline to Egypt, and ending with the crisis of 1403 and the disastrous reign of Faraj. There follows a period of relative recovery, with a return to normality and periods of brilliance, even as the factors of decline (demographic stagnation in particular) continued to exercise their effects..."[4]

First Burji Sultan was Barquq from 1382 CE.

For Cairo this period "is considered a period of decline, interrupted only by remissions during thereigns of Barsbay and Qaytbay: the great Mamluk institutions experienced irreversible deterioration; the country faced external problems to the north that would bring about its fall, its demographic and economic bases collapsed, disorder and insecurity reigned." [5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Ottoman Empire II ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Islam ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Cairo ♥

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥ However, few Mamluks could speak Arabic. [6]

General Description

During the Burji period of the Mamluk Sultanate, Egypt was ruled by an elite 'slave' military caste of Circassian origin. These rulers had replaced the earlier Bahri Dynasty, of Turkish origin, in 1382 CE during the preceding 'crisis phase'. With the assassination of Sultan Faraj in 1412 CE, Mamluk Egypt entered a 'relative recovery' with 'periods of brilliance', although problems such as demographic stagnation did not disappear.[7] The most renowned of the rulers were the Sultans Barsbay and Qaytbay, but they did little to prevent the deterioration of the Mamluk institutions and the economic collapse and disorder that preceded the Ottoman takeover.[8] We begin our Burji Mamluk period in 1412 and end it with the fall of the dynasty to Ottoman forces in 1517.[9]

Population and political organization

Since the children of mamluks could by law never become mamluks,[10] the Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign 'slave-elite' that had to be constantly replaced by new 'slave' recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role. Manumission was essential because under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. The sultan performed a ritual manumission at his inaugural ceremony but the legal manumission would usually have occurred when he was about 18 years old, following the mamluk training.[11] In the Bahri period the Mamluks were of Turkish origin (like those recruited by the last Ayyubid sultan), but later sultans recruited mostly Circassians from the Caucasus.[12] Mamluk recruits were employed in the central government, the military and as governors in the provinces. While promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was 'granted according to precise rules', succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest in which 'seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence' all jostled for prominence.[13] Nevertheless, the deck was stacked such that from 1290 to 1382 CE, the sultanate was inherited by 17 different descendants of Sultan Qalawun.[14]
The Mamluk sultan ruled from Cairo and during his absence from the capital, Egypt was governed by his viceroy, the na'ib al-saltana.[15] The bureaucracy did not tightly control the countryside. Rather, influence was projected informally through 'iqta holdings (allotments of land along with the right to their tax revenue) - first used in Egypt during the preceding Ayyubid Dynasty period. These were assigned as a way to remunerate the slave soldiers of the centrally organized professional military,[16] as well as more formally through the na'ib, governor of a mamlaka administrative district.[17] The Mamluk elite controlled the appointment of 'judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy'.[18] In Cairo, Islamic law was kept by three traditional magistracies called qadi (pl. qudah), whose courts had a wide remit over civil law. A law-enforcement official called the chief of the sergeant of the watch oversaw wulah (sg. wali) policemen who kept watch at night and also fought fires.[19]
Although struck by plague and famines during the crisis period, Cairo was never short of people: a lower-bound estimate of its resident population places it at about 150,000 people.[20] The population of the sultanate perhaps recovered slightly in this period, reaching about 6 million in 1500 CE.[21]

Infrastructure and Public Services

Like previous Mamluk rulers, the Burji Sultans expended considerable resources on public works projects - both directly and indirectly via patronage. They built and restored schools, hostels, bathhouses and mosques, and, under Sultan Qayt Bey (reigned 1468‒1496) in particular, arts and architecture flourished.[22] The El Muayyad Mosque (1420 CE), the Mosque of Barsbay (1425 CE),[23] and the mausoleum complex of Sultan Qaitbay (1468‒1496 CE) all date from this period. Cairo also had a water supply system, paid for by its users, that conducted water from the Nile to the city's streets and houses.[24] Waqf (religious foundations) were set up through initial endowments in property with the intention that they would become self-funding. Many public baths, caravanserais and shops were built by charitable and religious foundations,[25] often in combination with initial patronage from the sultan or other Mamluk aristocrats. Sultan Qaytbay built many urbu (multi-storey apartments) and used the revenues to fund a charitable foundation for the inhabitants of Medina.[26] However, despite the continued financing of elaborate construction projects, increasingly the government could not afford the upkeep of essential infrastructure such as canals, dams and irrigation systems.[27]
These public works were matched by lavish private buildings for the sultan and his retainers. Sultan Ghuri notably built an ornate palace and garden, with soil and trees imported from Syria and an aqueduct to water it.[28] Mamluks treated themselves and foreign dignitaries to entertainment in hippodromes and to polo tournaments on the maydan (public square).[29] In the royal pavilion (maqad), 'incense burned and wine flowed, while musicians played and poets recited to a court society clad in silk and sprinkled with rosewater, the beards of its male luminaries perfumed with the musk of civet'.[30]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 2,100,000 ♥ KM2. [31]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 3,200,000 ♥ People.

6,000,000: 1500 CE. Egypt (4m), Levant (0.5m) and Syria (1.5m). [32]

Suggested estimates: 5-6 million in 1300 CE, 3.5 million in 1400 CE; 3.2 million in 1500 CE[33]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [150,000-400,000] ♥ People. Originally coded as 150,000. Modified to a range to account for more possibilities. 150,000 corresponds to a mid-14th century estimate. AD

Fourteenth century Cairo - Raymond [34]

"The data available to us (location of mosques) suggests that the built-up area in 1348 was more extensive than can be supposed from Maqrizi's information, but less extensive than is indicated by the Description de l'Egypte. As to Cairo's population, it probably did not exceed 200,000. Paris had a population of only 80,000 in 1328 (in a built-up area of 437 hectares), and London a population of 60,000 in 1377 (on 288 hectares). Of the cities in the West at this period, only Constantinople could claim a greater population."

Demographic decline from 1348 CE (plague). [35]

"Michael Dols concludes that the total number of deaths came to one-third or two-fifths of the population of the city, a proposition that seems plausible given what we know about mortality from the Black Death in other localities (Europe, for example) and from other epidemics in other periods. We may therefore estimate that a reasonable figure would be 100,000 dead."[36]

Fifteenth century Cairo - Raymond [37]

"total built-up area of no more than 450 hectares. If we estimate the population density at 400 residents per hectare - a plausible average for classical Arab cities - we obtain a total population in the neighborhood of 150,000 residents, a distinctly lower estimate than the (Admittedly hypothetical) estimate we reached for the city in the middle of the fourteenth century."

Suggested estimates: 200,000-250,000 CE in 1300 CE; 150,000-200,000 in 1400 CE; 140,000-180,000 in 1500 CE.[38]

Cairo. 360,000: 1400 CE; 380,000: 1450 CE; 400,000: 1500 CE [39]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [6-7] ♥ [40]

1. Cairo, capital.

2. Provincial capitals (e.g. Damascus)
3. Dependent cities (e.g. Mecca and Medina)
4. Large townships.
5. Small towns. [41]
6. Villages
7. Hamlets and Tribes.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥


1. Sultan (Cairo)

During his absence Egypt/Cairo was governed by a viceroy (na'ib al-saltana)[42]

_ Central government line _[43]

2a. Central administration
"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks. High government officials were also recruited from their number."[44]
"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns."[45]


_ Cairo line _

2cairo Magistracies. "The administration of Cairo and its inhabitants was in the hands of three traditional magistracies. The judges (qudah; sing. qadi) had a very broad jurisdiction that covered matters of civil law, and many urban problems were addressed in their courts.
3cairo Chief of the Sergeants of the watch. Top police prefect.
4cairo "The police prefects (wulah; sing. wali) saw to public order and security. They were particularly responsible for making the rounds at night and therefore also of fighting fires."[46]
Overseer of the market (muhtasib) [47]
"The quarter served as an important basis of communal association and as an essential administrative unit."[48]


_ Egyptian line _

2egypt "diwan (government bureau) of Salar" [49]
3egypt Na'ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [50]
4egypt Governor of a small town
5egypt. Village head.


_ Syrian line _

2syria Syrian chief governor [51]
Viceroy?
3syria Na'ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [52]
e.g. the bureaucracy niyaba of Safed contained:
4. katib al-sirr/katib al-insha (chief secretary who wrote governor's letters, read mail) [53]
5. muwaqqi (who ratified the governor's letters) [54]
6. katib al-dast [55]
7. katib al-darj (minor correspondent) [56]
nazir (overseer who was responsible for financial management, expenditure, salaries) [57]
kashif (inspector of bridges, agricultural lands and irrigation canals) [58]
muhtasib (market inspector) [59]
nazir diwan al-jaysh (superintendant of fiefs) [60]
nazir al-mal (financial controller) [61]
4. governor also had a dawadar (personal assistant) often sent to the villages to represent the governor and an ustadar (private caretaker) [62]
4syria wali al-wulat of a niyaba [63]
"The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [64]
often the wali al-wulat also doubled as the shadd or mushidd al-dawawin "whose duty it was to check and observe the collection of the Sultans' dues and taxes from state estates."[65]
5syria Wali, officer of a small town
"The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [66]
6syria Village head.


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥


1. Sultan

2. Ulama - religious scholars [67]
3. Imams

???


Under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. All Mamluk sultans performed a ritual demonstration of manumission at an inaugural ceremony. Manumission was performed at about 18 years old, following the Mamluk's training. [68]

"Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy. Never did the state attempt to define the content of religious teaching. Thus, the "Mamluks extended the Saljuq-Iranian pattern of organized religious life to Syria and Egypt."[69]


♠ Military levels ♣ 7 ♥

1. Sultan

2. Commander of Army
3. Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
4. Emirs of a thousand
5. Emirs of a hundred
6. Emirs of forty
7. Emirs of ten
8. Junior officer


_ Nicolle (1996)_

Sultan
Commander of Army
Mamluk I: Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
Mamluk II: Atabak al-asakir (Father of the Leader of Soldiers)
Mamluk III: Other titles with largely non-military status functions
Mamluk IV: Regular Mamluks
Mamluk V: Junior officer.
Rajjala I: Janib unit infantry leader
Rajjala II: Tulb unit infantry leader
Rajjala III: Jarida unit infantry leader
Mamluk army "essentially the same" as Ayyubid.
Professional haqa with an elite of slave-recruited Mamluks, called Royal Mamluks. Under Ayyubids, infantry was organized within the Rajjala. There was a military unit called a janib. The tulb was a smaller unit. A jarida was a small unit. A sariya was used in ambushes.[70]


_ Oliver (1977) describes the army structure this way _

Royal Mamluks

Of the Former Sultan
Of the Reigning Sultan
Of the Bodyguard and Pages
Of the Amirs

Mamluks of the Amirs

Of 100
Of 40
Of 10

Sons of Amirs and local population: Halqa. Initially knights of non-slave origin but eventually disappeared as military became a force of purely slave origin soldiers.[71]


_ Army structure according to Raymond[72] _

Sultan's Mamluks (elite corps)

The troops of the emirs

emirs ranked in a hierarchy rank determined how many men under them
emirs of a thousand [73]
emirs of a hundred
emirs of forty
emirs of ten

The halqa

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Army funded by Mamluk elite through their iqta (estates). These iqta holders formed an aristocracy, and they usually lived in Cairo or Damascus (rather than on their estates). [74]

"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [75]

"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks."[76]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [77]

"For rank-and-file mamluks, military salaries were their main sources of income and it is clear that throughout the medieval period, military wages were almost always above those earned by skilled craftsmen."[78]

"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [79]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Mamluk state "paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy." [80]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ "Although mamluks could marry, their children could never become mamluks. Thus, the foreign elite had constantly to be replenished by fresh recruits from the northern borderlands of Islam, educated in the discipline of a military household, and dependent for their manumission and their subsequent promotion upon their professional patrons and superiors."[81]

Professional bureaucrats recruited from the ranks of enslaved people and free people (e.g. tax administrators were mostly free Copts). [82]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Mamluk slaves trained and likely tested and advanced on merit but career depended on master achieving office. No centralized examination system for the government. needs to be checked


♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ "Promotions were granted according to precise rules and could lead to the highest positions in the government, both military (atabak al-asakir, general-in-chief; amir silah, director of the arsenal; amir akhur, supreme commander of the army) and administrative (amir majlis, emir of the audience; dawawar, chancellor), as well as to the governorship of the provinces. ... To be acclaimed sultan was naturally the chief career objective of a capable and ambitious emir. One might reach it through seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence."[83]

"Elite personnel of the regime, including the sultan, were slaves or former slaves. In principle, although there were important exceptions, no one could be a member of the military elite unless he was of foreign origin (usually Turkish or Circassian), purchased and raised as a slave, and trained to be a soldier and administrator. No native of Egypt or Syria could ever belong to this elite, nor, in principle, could the sons of slaves." [84]

"The Mamluks' descendants, the awlad al-nas ... were in theory prohibited from holding political or military office. The rule, however, was subject to exceptions..." [85]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Government offices, customs offices, postal stations, offices of military administration.

Register of the army, in Cairo.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Slaves had "legal rights, almost as if they had been adopted as ‘foster sons’ by a master who accepted legal obligations as their ‘foster father’." [86]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Chief judges. [87] "Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials." [88]

"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [89]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ Prior to the Ottoman conquest in 1517, Egypt had no courts, and judges conducted business from their homes [90]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ four major schools of law

"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [91]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Increasingly government could not afford upkeep of canals, dams and irrigation systems. [92]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ {present; absent} ♥ "For its water supply Cairo depended on the carriage of water from the Nile and its distribution to the streets and houses, a service paid for by the user: "One encounters many strong, handsome pack camels, used solely to carry water from the Nile. which is then sold throughout the city," noted Frescobaldi in 1384." Something similar was said in 1436 CE by Pero Tafur. [93] "Sabil public water source north of Cairo’s Citadel. Dating from the mid-14th century, it is decorated with the heraldic motif of its sponsor, the Mamluk Amir al-Kabir Sayf al-Din Shaykhu al-Nasiri." [94] "The remarkable aqueduct that brought water from the Nile to the Citadel of Cairo was built in steps, each originally marked by a saqiya water-mill. It was re-activated in the first half of the 14th century to bring water to a Mamluk palace complex at the southern end of the citadel." [95]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Markets "maintained right up until the end of Mamluk rule".[96] "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity."[97] "The markets were open structures on either side of a street at a crossroads, in most cases simply a series of shops. Generally grouped according to occupation, they were most often spontaneous developments, although some were built by powerful personages. ... The caravanserais, on the other and, were monumental structures." [98] Mamluk urban development: "the Suwayqa al-Izzi ... would remain one of the busiest markets in Cairo right to the end of the eighteenth century." [99] Caravanserais were built in the early 15th century by charitable and religious foundations.[100] Sultan Ghuri built a "great caravanseri (wakala) in 1504 CE and rebuilt the Khan- al-Khalili. [101] One of Qatybay's top officials, Emir Azback min Tutukh, governor of Syria and commander-in-chief (atabek) between 1476-1484 CE undertook a construction project intended to finance a religious foundation (waqf). Buildings included a commercial and financial complex and shops." [102]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Roads "maintained right up until the end of Mamluk rule".[103] In 1322 CE Simon Simeonis described the streets of Cairo as "narrow, tortuous, dark, rich in recesses, full of dust and other refuse, and unpaved."[104] "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity."[105]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridges "maintained right up until the end of Mamluk rule".[106] Bridge over Abu'l Managga irrigation canal. [107] "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity."[108]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ Present within the earlier Mamluk period.
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Present within the earlier Mamluk period.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Encyclopaedias and manuals: Al-Qalqasband (1355-1418 CE).[109] Land registry [110]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Qur'an.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Theological books.[111]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Exercise books.[112] "An Exposition of the Rules Concerning the Streets of Cairo."[113] Legal books. [114]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Al-Maqrizi (1364-1442 CE), historian of Cairo[115]. Historical topography Cairo and Egypt, work on plagues, coins, Islam in Ethiopia. Ibn Iyas (1448-1525 CE): chronicler with some very detailed work. Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 CE) last 20 years in Egypt.[116] Al Suyuti (1445-1505 CE) universal historian, author of over 500 books. [117]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Highly literature society.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Experimental weapons research, such as advanced pyrotechnics and a "rocket-powered torpedo". [118] Hospital established by Sultan Qalaun (1279-1290 CE) "included not only wards with a regular medical staff, lecture rooms, and laboratories but also an adjoining library of medical, theological, and legal books." [119]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "The Mamluk court listened to Turkish and Circassian poetry." [120]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ "In pre-modern times ... Geographically well-defined borders of currency zones hardly existed. If they did exist then it was for economic and fiscal reasons."[121]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Silver coinage becoming copper coinage following the Circassian takeover. [122] dirhams.[123] Fluctuation in economy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries which impacted the rise and fall of wages. Unskilled labourers made on average 3 dinars per month [124] [125] Plague and other factors in the 15th century caused fluctuation and decrease in wages for unskilled workers, some receiving 3 dinars each month and 33.3 dinars per year, some waqf workers as low as 7 gold dinars per year.[126]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Al-Barid postal system. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [127]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ Al-Barid postal system. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [128]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Greek fire projected through copper tube.[129]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Especially trimmings on weapons/armour. [130]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron mace.[131]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ "Though the iron mines of Lebanon had been virtually exhausted, craftsmen still made high quality arms in Damascus. Those who produced real steel were closely supervised by the Mamluk authorities to stop cheating or a decline in standards." However many armourers lost as a result of Timur's invasion and abduction of craftsmen, and although the industry was not finished the Mamluks subsequently made efforts to import European weapons, armour, and craftsmen.[132]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ no mention in sources so far consulted.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ new world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ no mention in sources so far consulted.
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite bows. [133] "armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [134]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Mounted crossbowmen.[135]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ Counter-weight mangonel/trebuchet common from 13th Century. [136]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ "experimented with cannons as early as 1464 and, at their last gasp, after Ghuri was crushed at Marj Dabiq (24 August 1516), organizing a corps of portable artillery and mounted gunmen." [137]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Used in low numbers. Mamluks had a cultural resistance to the introduction of fire-arms (cannon and arquebuses).[138]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mace.[139]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ War axe.[140]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Dagger. [141]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [142] Sabre. [143]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Lances.[144] Spears.[145]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa'id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited."[146]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [147]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Camels used to carry baggage. "On major campaigns, 13th- and 14th-century mamluks each received one or two baggage camels whereas every two non-elite halqa soldiers shared three camels." [148]
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Mamluks did not use war elephants.[149] However, three elephants (ceremonial use only?) observed in a procession departing for a campaign 1516 CE "decorated with pennants". [150]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Earlier Mamluk period: illustration suggests wood used in shields. [151]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Rawhide worked into mail and plate cuirass armour "to make the collar semi-stiff".[152]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Steel shields.[153]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Worn over a skull-cap padded with fibre to which helmet was fastened.[154]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "Mail and plate armour for the thigh and knee." There was also upper limb protection. [155]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail armour. [156]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Mamluk qarqal (scale or lamellar coat). Small iron scales sewn into fabric. [157]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Earlier Mamluk period: laminated leather cuirass and rawhide lamellar cuirass.[158]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Mail and plate cuirass.[159]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from necessity of Nile travel.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ 'Mamluk attack on Yemen ‘Husayn, with the main body of vessels, set out for Aden while Salman caught up with the trading vessels which were laden with goods. He left them unharmed and simply exchanged his own sea captain for the Tahirid on the sultan's ship. This was in order to ensure that they obtained the revenues from the sale of the goods and he also took the precaution of sending a letter to the sultan of Gujarat telling him that Yemen now belonged to them. The ship's captain was instructed to return with provisions, wood and iron.'"' Husayn al-Kurdf then began his siege of Aden, heavily bombarding the city from the ships.’ [160]'
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Naval shipyards in Bulaq. Cyprus conquered 1426 CE. [161] Fleet built in response to Portuguese activity in the Indian Ocean. Sent to India in 1507 CE. [162] The Mamluks had marines, lead by a qaid, and a rais al milaha who captained military ship and commanded sailors. [163]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Walls of Cairo protected by ditch in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate [164]
♠ Moat ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Height of the wall encircling Cairo citadel was raised. [165]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Ditch. Camp was a circle of tents with a ditch and an advance guard.[166] "A concern for morale and a tradition of efficient administration lay behind the cleanliness and good order of mamluk military camps, especially during sieges such as that of Acre in 1291. Such encampments had baths with warm water and professional attendants, along with latrines for the officers and probably for ordinary mamluks."[167] 1517 CE the troops of Ottoman sultan Selim "stormed the fortified camp of al-Raydaniyya, outside Cairo."[168]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Small forts used as coastal warning system.[169]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Present.[170] However, the highest positions in the military and administration were not hereditary, because the children of mamluks could by law never become mamluks,[171] the Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign 'slave-elite' that had to be constantly replaced by new 'slave' recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role.[172] Promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was 'granted according to precise rules' but succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest of 'seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence'.[173]

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawḥid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [174] The Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign 'slave-elite' that had to be constantly replaced by new 'slave' recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role.[175] Promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was 'granted according to precise rules' but succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest of 'seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence'.[176] Sometimes there is no evidence of any formal manumission.[177]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [178]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[179]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[180]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[181]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [182] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [183] "Of course, the Mamluks' most extensive and enduring form of charity was the waqf, which the Shafi‘i scholar al-Nawaw| (d. 676/1277) defined in economic and religious terms as 'the alienation of revenue-generating property with the principal remaining inalienable, while its revenues are disbursed for a pious purpose, in order to seek God's favor.' These endowments served the larger Muslim community by providing a range of essential services, including hospitals and medical care, education, some housing for students, employees, and destitute women, food and water for the poor, and the burial of their dead." [184]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, ʿUthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of ʿUmar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [185] "Of course, the Mamluks' most extensive and enduring form of charity was the waqf, which the Shafi‘i scholar al-Nawaw| (d. 676/1277) defined in economic and religious terms as 'the alienation of revenue-generating property with the principal remaining inalienable, while its revenues are disbursed for a pious purpose, in order to seek God's favor.' These endowments served the larger Muslim community by providing a range of essential services, including hospitals and medical care, education, some housing for students, employees, and destitute women, food and water for the poor, and the burial of their dead." [186]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [187] [188] [189]

References

  1. (Raymond 2000, 112)
  2. (Raymond 2000, 165)
  3. (Raymond 2000, 175)
  4. (Raymond 2000, 116-117)
  5. (Raymond 2000, 165)
  6. (Nicolle and McBride 1993, 4)
  7. (Raymond 2000, 116-17) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  8. (Raymond 2000, 165) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  9. (Winter 1992, xiii) Michael Winter. 1992. Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule, 1517‒1798. London: Routledge.
  10. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  11. (Hrbek 1977, 39-67) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. 'Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts', in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  12. (Raymond 2000, 112) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  13. (Raymond 2000, 113-14) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  14. (Raymond 2000, 114) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  15. (Raymond 2000, 152) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  16. (Lapidus 2012, 250) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. (Drory 2004, 169) Joseph Drory. 2004. 'Some Remarks Concerning Safed and the Organization of the Region in the Mamluk period', in The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society, edited by Michael Winter and Amalia Levanoni, 163-90. Leiden: Brill.
  18. (Lapidus 2012, 249) Ira M. Lapidus. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. (Raymond 2000, 153) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  20. (Raymond 2000, 152) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  21. (McEvedy and Jones 1978, 138-47, 227) Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. London: Allen Lane.
  22. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 21) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  23. (Raymond 2000, 173-74) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  24. (Raymond 2000, 154) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  25. (Raymond 2000, 174) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  26. (Raymond 2000, 174) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  27. (Hrbek 1977, 39-67) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. 'Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts', in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  28. (Raymond 2000, 180) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  29. (Raymond 2000, 112) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  30. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 21, 24) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  31. (Turchin, Adams and Hall, 2006)
  32. (McEvedy and Jones, 1978)
  33. (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)
  34. (Raymond 2000, 136-137)
  35. (Raymond 2000, 116)
  36. (Raymond 2000, 139-140)
  37. (Raymond 2000, 152)
  38. (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)
  39. (Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet)
  40. Luz, N. 2014. The Mamluk City in the Middle East: History, Culture, and the Urban Landscape. Cambridge University Press
  41. Rabbat, N. 2010. Mamluk History through Architecture: Monuments, Culture and Politics in Medieval Egypt and Syria. Bloomsbury Publishing
  42. (Raymond 2000, 152)
  43. (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)
  44. (Raymond 2000, 113)
  45. (Dols 1977, 152)
  46. (Raymond 2000, 153)
  47. (Raymond 2000, 154)
  48. (Dols 1977, 153)
  49. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178):::
  50. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 169)
  51. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 176)
  52. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 169)
  53. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180-181)
  54. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180-181)
  55. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180-181)
  56. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180-181)
  57. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 180)
  58. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 181-182)
  59. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 181-182)
  60. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 181-182)
  61. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 181-182)
  62. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 172)
  63. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178)
  64. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178)
  65. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178)
  66. (Joseph Drory in Winter and Levanoni 2004, 178)
  67. (Dols 1977, 153)
  68. (Oliver 1977, 39-67)
  69. (Lapidus 2012, 249)
  70. (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)
  71. (Oliver 1977, 39-67)
  72. (Raymond 2000, 113)
  73. (Raymond 2000, 187)
  74. (Nicolle 1996,135-181)
  75. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  76. (Raymond 2000, 113)
  77. (Oliver 1977, 41)
  78. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  79. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  80. (Lapidus 2002, 294)
  81. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  82. (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)
  83. (Raymond 2000, 113-114)
  84. (Lapidus 2012, 247)
  85. (Raymond 2000, 113)
  86. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  87. (Lapidus 2012, 248)
  88. (Lapidus 2002, 294)
  89. (Lapidus 2012, 249)
  90. (Andrey Korotayev, personal communication, March 2018)
  91. (Lapidus 2012, 249)
  92. (Oliver 1977, 39-67)
  93. (Raymond 2000, 154)
  94. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  95. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  96. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 21) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  97. (Dols 1977, 152)
  98. (Raymond 2000, 158)
  99. (Raymond 2000, 132)
  100. (Raymond 2000, 174)
  101. (Raymond 2000, 174-175)
  102. (Raymond 2000, 182-183)
  103. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 21) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  104. (Raymond 2000, 154)
  105. (Dols 1977, 152)
  106. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 21) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  107. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  108. (Dols 1977, 152)
  109. (Oliver 1977, 66)
  110. (Raymond 2000, 168)
  111. (Dols 1977, 177)
  112. (Raymond 2000, 112)
  113. (Raymond 2000, 173)
  114. (Dols 1977, 177)
  115. (Raymond 2000, 117)
  116. (Oliver 1977, 66)
  117. (Oliver 1977, 67)
  118. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  119. (Dols 1977, 177)
  120. (Lapidus 2012, 248)
  121. (Heidemann 2009, 276 [1])
  122. (Levanoni 1995, 133)
  123. (Raymond 2000, 112)
  124. Scheidel, W. 2010. Real Wages in Early Economies: Evidence for Living Standards from 1800 BCE to 1300 CE. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 53(3), 425-462.
  125. Meloy, J. 2001. Copper Money in Late Mamluk Cairo: Chaos or Control? Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 44(3), 293-321
  126. (42) Borsch, Stuart. 2014. "Subsisting or Succumbing? Falling Wages in the Era of Plague." Annemarie Schimmel Kolleg Working Papers 13 (May 2014): 1-46
  127. (Silverstein 2007, 173)
  128. (Silverstein 2007, 173)
  129. (Nicolle 1986, 40) Nicolle, D. 1986. Saladin and the Saracens. Osprey Publishing Ltd. Oxford.
  130. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  131. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  132. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  133. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  134. (Raymond 2000, 167)
  135. (Nicolle 1996,135-181)
  136. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  137. (Raymond 2000, 167)
  138. (Oliver 1977, 39-67)
  139. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  140. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  141. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  142. (Raymond 2000, 167)
  143. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  144. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  145. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  146. (Shehada 2013, 19) Housni Alkhateeb Shehada. 2013. Mamluks and Animals. Veterinary Medicine in Medieval Islam. BRILL. Leiden.
  147. (Nicolle 1996,135-181)
  148. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  149. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  150. (Raymond 2000, 187)
  151. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  152. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  153. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  154. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  155. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  156. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  157. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  158. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  159. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  160. Porter, Venetia Ann (1992) The history and monuments of the Tahirid dynasty of the Yemen 858-923/1454-1517, Durham theses, Durham University, p. 131, Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/5867/
  161. (Raymond 2000, 185)
  162. (Oliver 1977, 39-67)
  163. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  164. (Raymond 2000, 88)
  165. (Raymond 2000, 179)
  166. (Nicolle 1996, 135-181)
  167. (Nicolle 2014) Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.
  168. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 25) Oliver R and Atmore A. 2001. Medieval Africa 1250-1800. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  169. (Nicolle 1996, 159-181)
  170. (Northrup, Linda. 2008. Bahri Mamluk sultanate 1250-1390. ed. Petry, Carl. The Cambridge History of Egypt Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 262-3)
  171. (Oliver and Atmore 2001, 16) Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore. 2001. Medieval Africa, 1250-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  172. (Hrbek 1977, 39-67) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. 'Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts', in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  173. (Raymond 2000, 113-14) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  174. Tibi, Bassam . "Authority and Legitimation." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0085 (accessed 11-Aug-2016).
  175. (Hrbek 1977, 39-67) Ivan Hrbek. 1977. 'Egypt, Nubia and the Eastern Deserts', in The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3: From c. 1050 to c. 1600, edited by Roland Oliver, 10-97. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  176. (Raymond 2000, 113-14) André Raymond. 2000. Cairo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  177. (Korotayev Andrey. Personal Communication to Jill Levine, Dan Hoyer, and Peter Turchin. May 2020.)
  178. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ pp. 23-28. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  179. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  180. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  181. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 12. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  182. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ pp. 39-40. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  183. Yaran, C. 2007. ‘’Understanding Islam’’ p. 44. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  184. Homerin, T.E. 2005. The Study of Islam Within Mamluk Domains. Mamluk Studies Review IX.2: 1-30.
  185. Kahf, Monzer. "Waqf." In The [Oxford] Encyclopedia of Islam and Law.Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:5323/article/opr/t236/e0844?_hi=21&_pos=3 (accessed 11-Aug-2016).
  186. Homerin, T.E. 2005. The Study of Islam Within Mamluk Domains. Mamluk Studies Review IX.2: 1-30.
  187. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  188. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  189. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet.

Dols, M W. 1977. The Black Death In The Middle East. Princeton University Press. New Jersey.

Elbendary, Amina. 2016. Crowds and Sultans: Urban Protest in Late Medieval Egypt and Syria. London: British Academic Press.

Elfasi, M. Hrbek, I. eds. 1988. General History of Africa - Volume III - Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. UNESCO. Heinemann. California.

Garcin, Jean-Claude. 2008. The regime of the Circassian Mamluks. ed. Petry, Carl. The Cambridge History of Egypt Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 290-380.

Hodgson, M G S (1977) The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, Volume 2, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lapidus, I M (2002) A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Lapidus, I M. 2012. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Levanoni, A. 1995. A turning point in Mamluk history: the third reign of al-Nāṣir Muḥammad ibn Qalāwun (1310-1341). BRILL.

McEvedy, C. Jones, R. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Allen Lane. London.

Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS2000. Washington D.C.

Mujani, Wan Kamal, et al. Some Notes on The Iqta’ System in the Mamluk Period. 2011. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research 7: 103-107.

Nicolle, D (1996) Medieval Warfare Source Book, Volume 2: Christian Europe and its Neighbours, Arms and Armour Press, London.

Nicolle, D. McBride, A. 1993. The Mamluks 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing.

Northrup, Linda. 2008. Bahri Mamluk sultanate 1250-1390. ed. Petry, Carl. The Cambridge History of Egypt Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 242-290.

Oliver, R (1977) The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rabie, Hassanein. 1970. The Value of the Iqta in Egypt, 564-741 A.H. in ed. Cook, M.A. Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East: from the Rise of Islam to Present Day. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 129-139.

Raymond, A. 2000. Cairo. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.

Silverstein, A J (2007) Postal Systems in the Pre-Modern Islamic World, Cambridge University Press.

Turchin, P. Adams, J. M. Hall, T. D. 2006. East-West Orientation of of Historial Empires and Modern States. Journal of World-Systems Research. XII. II. December. 219-229.

http://www.davidmus.dk/en/collections/islamic/dynasties/tulunids-and-fatimids

Winter M and Levanoni, A. 2004. The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society. BRILL.

Nicolle, D. 2014 Mamluk Askar 1250-1517. Osprey Publishing Ltd.