EgMamBh

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate I ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Turkish Dynasty; Mamluk Sultanate; Bahri Dynasty; Empire of the Turks; Dawlat al Atrak; State of Turkey; Dawla al Turkiyya ♥ Turkish Dynasty. [1] Dawlat al-Atrak and/or Dawla_al-Turkiyya ... could not be machine read. In contemporary sources "Dawlat al-Atrak": Empire of the Turks. [2] State of Turkey or Dawla_al-Turkiyya.

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1341 CE ♥

After "the splendor of the Fatimids" there was "a new climax" under the reign of Sultan Nasiri. [3] End of reign: 1341 CE.

Before the plague which arrived in Alexandria 1347 CE [4]
Zenith was reached during the 14th Century.
In the 14th century the state's annual revenue was 9.5 million dinars "higher than at almost any other time since the Arab conquest." [5]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1260-1348 CE ♥

"The traditional division of the Mamluk period into a Bahri/Turkish dynasty (1250-1382) and a Burji/Circassian one (1382-1517) is an inheritance from medieval chroniclers, but it corresponds to no fundamental changes in the organization of the Mamluk state or in Egypt's fortunes. A chronological division responsive to the vagaries of history seems preferable: first, a period of expansion and prosperity, encompassing particularly the reign of Nasir Muhammad, which may be said to end conveniently (if somewhat arbitrarily) in 1348. Next comes a period of crisis starting with the great plague epidemic of 1348, encompassing Tamerlane's expedition, which brought ruin to Syria and decline to Egypt, and ending with the crisis of 1403 and the disastrous reign of Faraj. There follows a period of relative recovery, with a return to normality and periods of brilliance, even as the factors of decline (demographic stagnation in particular) continued to exercise their effects..."[6]

Two possible start dates: 1250 CE (end of Ayyubid Sultanate) or 1260 CE, the beginning of rule of Baybars. Baybars (Sultan 1260-1277 CE) killed the first two Sultans after victories on the battlefield (second, Sultan Qutuz, after defeat of the Mongols). His rule initiated great reforms and according to Oliver (1977) was a statesman and organizer, "the real founder of the Mamluk state." [7] Sultan Aybeg (1250-57 CE) called himself the Caliph's viceroy. Baybars installed a new line of Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo. [8]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Ayyubid Sultanate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Mamluk Sultanate II ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Islam ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 11,000,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Cairo ♥

♠ Language ♣ Arabic ♥

General Description

The Mamluk Sultanate has two possible start dates: 1250 CE, when the last Ayyubid ruler in Egypt was deposed, or ten years later, once a period of disorder that included an attack from the Mongols had ended. Baybars (sultan from 1260 to 1277 CE) killed the first two Mamluk sultans after victories on the battlefield and, as a statesman and organizer, was 'the real founder of the Mamluk state'.[9] The sultans of the Bahri Dynasty or 'Dawlat al-Atrak' (Empire of the Turks)[10] - so-called because the rulers were of Turkish origin - oversaw a new climax of sociopolitical development, wealth and splendour in Egypt, which peaked under the reign of Sultan Nasiri[11] before plague arrived in Alexandria in 1347 CE.[12] We end our early Mamluk Sultanate period in 1348 CE, a year when crisis struck Egypt.
The traditional chronological division of the Mamluk Sultanate into Bahri (Turkish) and Burji (Circassian) periods is not followed here because, according to the historian André Raymond, these periods 'correspond to no fundamental changes in the organization of the Mamluk state'.[13] We have chosen to split the sultanate in 1348 and 1412 CE instead in recognition of the crisis period following the Bahri period of prosperity. After the 'great plague epidemic' of 1348, Mamluk troops were defeated by the Turco-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane (Timur) at the end of the 14th century, and, in 1403, the sultanate faced another political crisis and the 'disastrous reign of Faraj'.[14] The final Burji period began in 1412 CE and, while known for 'a return to normality and periods of brilliance', was marked by demographic decline.[15]

Population and political organization

Since the children of mamluks could by law never become mamluks,[16] the Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign 'slave-elite' that had to be constantly replaced by new 'slave' recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role. Manumission was essential because under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. The sultan performed a ritual manumission at his inaugural ceremony but the legal manumission would usually have occurred when he was about 18 years old, following the mamluk training.[17] In the Bahri period the Mamluks were of Turkish origin (like those recruited by the last Ayyubid sultan), but later sultans recruited mostly Circassians from the Caucasus.[18] Mamluk recruits were employed in the central government, the military and as governors in the provinces. While promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was 'granted according to precise rules', succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest in which 'seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence' all jostled for prominence.[19] Nevertheless, the deck was stacked such that from 1290 to 1382 CE, the sultanate was inherited by 17 different descendants of Sultan Qalawun.[20]
The Mamluk sultan ruled from Cairo and during his absence from the capital, Egypt was governed by his viceroy, the na'ib al-saltana.[21] The bureaucracy did not tightly control the countryside. Rather, influence was projected informally through 'iqta holdings (allotments of land along with the right to their tax revenue) - first used in Egypt during the preceding Ayyubid Dynasty period. These were assigned as a way to remunerate the slave soldiers of the centrally organized professional military,[22] as well as more formally through the na'ib, governor of a mamlaka administrative district.[23] The Mamluk elite controlled the appointment of 'judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy'.[24] In Cairo, Islamic law was kept by three traditional magistracies called qadi (pl. qudah), whose courts had a wide remit over civil law. A law-enforcement official called the chief of the sergeant of the watch oversaw wulah (sg. wali) policemen who kept watch at night and also fought fires.[25]

Revenue and Resources

The Bahri Dynasty was highly effective at drawing revenue. In the 14th century CE, the annual revenue was 9.5 million dinars, which was 'higher than at almost any other time since the Arab conquest'.[26] This paid for the Al-Barid postal system initiated by Baybars (1260‒1277 CE), which was extremely expensive to set up. Horses were used for first time on routes such as Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; and Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria.[27] The Syrian region of the Mamluk Sultanate was run by a chief governor, who had governors below him.[28] Imperial communications via Palestine were reportedly so efficient that 'Baybars boasted that he could play polo in Cairo and Damascus in the same week, while an even more rapid carrier-pigeon post was maintained between the two cities'.[29]
The Mamluk rulers continued the tradition of dedicating much effort and resources to what might be termed public works projects, for which they largely used corvée labour.[30][31] In addition to a permanent medical staff, lecture halls and laboratories, a hospital established by Sultan Qalaun (1279‒1290 CE) included a library stocked with books on medicine, theology and law.[32] The Mamluks followed Ayyubid precedents when they embarked on an 'intense period of construction' in the first century of their rule, with building projects initiated by governors, generals, generals, rich merchants and judges.[33] André Raymond has identified 54 mosques and madrasas built in the 1293‒1340 CE period alone.[34] The Mamluks also built many 'tombs for venerated Muslim ancestors and for deceased rulers'.[35]
Private wealth was extensive at this time and the Karimi merchant and banking families operated fleets and agencies from China to Africa.[36] Cairo's population was probably under 200,000 in the mid-14th century (only Constantinople could claim a great population in Western Eurasia),[37] and the sultanate as a whole reached about 6-7 million people.[38] This would have fluctuated, however, as severe bouts of famine struck Egypt in 1284, 1295, 1296 and 1335 CE.[39]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 2,100,000 ♥ KM2. [40]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [5,000,000-6,000,000] ♥ People.

Egypt (5 m), Levant (0.5m) and Syria (1.5m) in 1300 CE. [41]

Demographic decline from 1348 CE (plague). [42]

Population of Egypt 4 million in 1348 CE. [43]

Suggested estimates: 5-6 million in 1300 CE, 3.5 million in 1400 CE; 3.2 million in 1500 CE[44]

Famines in Egypt[45]

1284 CE, 1295 CE, 1296 CE, 1335 CE

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [200,000-500,000] ♥ People. Cairo.

Cairo. 500,000: 1300 CE [46]

Raymond: "The data available to us (location of mosques) suggests that the built-up area in 1348 was more extensive than can be supposed from Maqrizi's information, but less extensive than is indicated by the Description de l'Egypte. As to Cairo's population, it probably did not exceed 200,000. Paris had a population of only 80,000 in 1328 (in a built-up area of 437 hectares), and London a population of 60,000 in 1377 (on 288 hectares). Of the cities in the West at this period, only Constantinople could claim a greater population." [47]

Suggested estimates: 200,000-250,000 CE in 1300 CE; 150,000-200,000 in 1400 CE; 140,000-180,000 in 1500 CE.[48]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [6-7] ♥ [49] [50] Pollack mentions cities, small towns, villages, and farming hamlets that are turned into villages once they become too populous. [51]

1. Cairo, capital.

2. Provincial capitals (e.g. Damascus)
3. Dependent cities (e.g. Mecca and Medina)
4. Large townships.
5. Small towns.
6. Villages
7. (Hamlets?) Tribes.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 7 ♥


1. Sultan (Cairo)

During his absence Egypt/Cairo was governed by a viceroy (na'ib al-saltana)[52]


_ Central government line _[53]


2. Central administration
"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks. High government officials were also recruited from their number."[54]
"In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns."[55]
"although mamluks could marry, their children could never become mamluks. Thus, the foreign elite had constantly to be replenished by fresh recruits from the northern borderlands o Islam, educated in the discipline of a military household, and dependent for their manumission and their subsequent promotion upon their professional patrons and superiors."[56]


_ Cairo line _

2cairo Magistracies. "The administration of Cairo and its inhabitants was in the hands of three traditional magistracies. The judges (qudah; sing. qadi) had a very broad jurisdiction that covered matters of civil law, and many urban problems were addressed in their courts.
3cairo Chief of the Sergeants of the watch. Top police prefect.
4cairo "The police prefects (wulah; sing. wali) saw to public order and security. They were particularly responsible for making the rounds at night and therefore also of fighting fires."[57]
Overseer of the market (muhtasib) [58]
"The quarter served as an important basis of communal association and as an essential administrative unit."[59]


_ Egyptian line _

2egypt "diwan (government bureau) of Salar" [60]
3egypt Na'ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [61]
4egypt Governor of a small town
5egypt. Village head.

_ Syrian line _

2syria Syrian chief governor [62]
Viceroy?
3syria Na'ib, governor of a mamlaka, an administrative district [63]
e.g. the bureaucracy niyaba of Safed contained:
4. katib al-sirr/katib al-insha (chief secretary who wrote governor's letters, read mail) [64]
5. muwaqqi (who ratified the governor's letters) [65]
6. katib al-dast [66]
7. katib al-darj (minor correspondent) [67]
4. nazir (overseer who was responsible for financial management, expenditure, salaries) [68]
kashif (inspector of bridges, agricultural lands and irrigation canals) [69]
muhtasib (market inspector) [70]
nazir diwan al-jaysh (superintendant of fiefs) [71]
nazir al-mal (financial controller) [72]
4. governor also had a dawadar (personal assistant) often sent to the villages to represent the governor and an ustadar (private caretaker) [73]
4syria wali al-wulat of a niyaba [74]
"The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [75]
often the wali al-wulat also doubled as the shadd or mushidd al-dawawin "whose duty it was to check and observe the collection of the Sultans' dues and taxes from state estates."[76]
5syria Wali, officer of a small town
"The wali was a police officer in charge of keeping law and order in town. His rank: Amir of Ten. One should not confuse him with wali al-wulat, who was higher in authority and rank, being an Amir of Forty, and who was responsible for the minor sub-sections (wilaya) of the entire region (niyaba). [77]
6syria Village head.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ Was previously coded as 4. AD

1. Sultan (Baybar was "Servant of the two Holy Cities")

2. Ulama - religious scholars [78]
3. Imams

Under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign. All Mamluk sultans performed a ritual demonstration of manumission at an inaugural ceremony. Manumission was performed at about 18 years old, following the Mamluk's training. [79]

"Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials. They paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy. Never did the state attempt to define the content of religious teaching. Thus, the "Mamluks extended the Saljuq-Iranian pattern of organized religious life to Syria and Egypt."[80]


♠ Military levels ♣ 9 ♥


1. Sultan

2. Commander of Army
3. Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
4. Emirs of a thousand
5. Emirs of a hundred
6. Emirs of forty
7. Emirs of ten
8. Junior officer
9. Individual soldier


_ Nicolle (1996)_

Sultan
Commander of Army
Mamluk I: Naib al-Saltana (Viceroys of Egypt, Damascus etc.)
Mamluk II: Atabak al-asakir (Father of the Leader of Soldiers)
Mamluk III: Other titles with largely non-military status functions
Mamluk IV: Regular Mamluks
Mamluk V: Junior officer.
Rajjala I: Janib unit infantry leader
Rajjala II: Tulb unit infantry leader
Rajjala III: Jarida unit infantry leader
Mamluk army "essentially the same" as Ayyubid.
Professional haqa with an elite of slave-recruited Mamluks, called Royal Mamluks. Under Ayyubids, infantry was organized within the Rajjala. There was a military unit called a janib. The tulb was a smaller unit. A jarida was a small unit. A sariya was used in ambushes.[81]


_ Oliver (1977) describes the army structure this way _

Royal Mamluks

Of the Former Sultan
Of the Reigning Sultan
Of the Bodyguard and Pages
Of the Amirs

Mamluks of the Amirs

Of 100
Of 40
Of 10

Sons of Amirs and local population: Halqa. Initially knights of non-slave origin but eventually disappeared as military became a force of purely slave origin soldiers.[82]


_ Army structure according to Raymond[83] _

Sultan's Mamluks (elite corps)

The troops of the emirs

emirs ranked in a hierarchy rank determined how many men under them
emirs of a thousand [84]
emirs of a hundred
emirs of forty
emirs of ten

The halqa

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Army funded by Mamluk elite through their iqta (estates). These iqta holders formed an aristocracy, and they usually lived in Cairo or Damascus (rather than on their estates). [85]

"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [86]

"Army officers came from the Mamluk ranks."[87]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [88] "To understand the Mamluk army one must first understand the fragmented Ayyubid armies from which it emerged. The term ‘askar could refer to the unit garrisoning, or paid, by a town, as it would have done for centuries, and these early ‘askaris would not normally be considered part of the military elite. The ‘askar of an Ayyubid ruler, however, consisted of professional, full-time ‘askaris. The most highly regarded of them were by this time largely of mamluk origin, though their numbers could still be remarkably small. [89]

"For rank-and-file mamluks, military salaries were their main sources of income and it is clear that throughout the medieval period, military wages were almost always above those earned by skilled craftsmen."[90]

"‘Iqta fiefs were allocated to those of senior or sometimes middle rank. These men were called muqtas. In the Mamluk Sultanate a muqta maintained a certain number of soldiers, his own mamluks and sometimes other lesser troops. He and his military household then owed military service to the sultan. The muqta also paid his troops’ expenses from the revenues of his ‘iqta. The men would then purchase what they required on campaign from the suq al-‘askar ‘soldiers’ market’. Each regular soldier was also paid, either by his muqta or by the sultan." [91]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Mamluk state "paid the salaries of religious personnel, endowed their schools, and thus brought the religious establishment into a state bureaucracy." [92]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ "Although mamluks could marry, their children could never become mamluks. Thus, the foreign elite had constantly to be replenished by fresh recruits from the northern borderlands of Islam, educated in the discipline of a military household, and dependent for their manumission and their subsequent promotion upon their professional patrons and superiors."[93]

Professional bureaucrats recruited from the ranks of enslaved people and free people (e.g. tax administrators were mostly free Copts). [94]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Mamluk slaves trained and likely tested and advanced on merit but career depended on master achieving office or being agreeable to the reigning Sultan. No centralized examination system for the government.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ "Promotions were granted according to precise rules and could lead to the highest positions in the government, both military (atabak al-asakir, general-in-chief; amir silah, director of the arsenal; amir akhur, supreme commander of the army) and administrative (amir majlis, emir of the audience; dawawar, chancellor), as well as to the governorship of the provinces. ... To be acclaimed sultan was naturally the chief career objective of a capable and ambitious emir. One might reach it through seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence."[95] However, from 1290-1382 CE the top position of sultan was inherited by 17 descendants of Sultan Qalawun. [96]

"Elite personnel of the regime, including the sultan, were slaves or former slaves. In principle, although there were important exceptions, no one could be a member of the military elite unless he was of foreign origin (usually Turkish or Circassian), purchased and raised as a slave, and trained to be a soldier and administrator. No native of Egypt or Syria could ever belong to this elite, nor, in principle, could the sons of slaves." [97]

"The Mamluks' descendants, the awlad al-nas ... were in theory prohibited from holding political or military office. The rule, however, was subject to exceptions..." [98]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Government offices, customs offices, postal stations, offices of military administration.

Register of the army, in Cairo.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Slaves had "legal rights, almost as if they had been adopted as ‘foster sons’ by a master who accepted legal obligations as their ‘foster father’." [99]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Chief judges. [100] "Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders, and other Muslim officials." [101]

"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [102]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ Prior to the Ottoman conquest in 1517, Egypt had no courts, and judges conducted business from their homes [103]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ four major schools of law

"In 1263, Sultan Baybars (1260-77) appointed a chief qadi for each of the four major schools of law, a chief shaykh (master, teacher) for the Sufis, and a syndic for the corporation of descendants of the Prophet (naqib al-ashraf). Under the Mamluks the state appointed judges, legal administrators, professors, Sufi shaykhs, prayer leaders and other Muslim officials." [104]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ New canals and dams opened up irrigated land. [105] Nasiri canal "made it possible to install waterwheels for irrigating gardens." [106]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ {present; absent} ♥ Four waterwheels installed on Nile 1313 CE.[107] However, these did not supply the water directly to the population? "For its water supply Cairo depended on the carriage of water from the Nile and its distribution to the streets and houses, a service paid for by the user: "One encounters many strong, handsome pack camels, used solely to carry water from the Nile. which is then sold throughout the city," noted Frescobaldi in 1384." [108] "Sabil public water source north of Cairo’s Citadel. Dating from the mid-14th century, it is decorated with the heraldic motif of its sponsor, the Mamluk Amir al-Kabir Sayf al-Din Shaykhu al-Nasiri." [109] "The remarkable aqueduct that brought water from the Nile to the Citadel of Cairo was built in steps, each originally marked by a saqiya water-mill. It was re-activated in the first half of the 14th century to bring water to a Mamluk palace complex at the southern end of the citadel." [110]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity."[111] "The markets were open structures on either side of a street at a crossroads, in most cases simply a series of shops. Generally grouped according to occupation, they were most often spontaneous developments, although some were built by powerful personages. ... The caravanserais, on the other and, were monumental structures." [112] Cairo "experienced a period of rapid development for businesses, shops, and caravanserais." [113] "The emir built a funduq, vast in area, and surrounded it with shops. He stipulated that the renter of any shop pay no more than five dirhams..." [114] Nasir Muhammad had a market built in Siriyaqus. [115]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity."[116] [117] In 1322 CE Simon Simeonis described the streets of Cairo as "narrow, tortuous, dark, rich in recesses, full of dust and other refuse, and unpaved."[118]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Bridge over Abu'l Managga irrigation canal. [119] "In a traditional society that lacked the concept of public or municipal agencies, as individuals, the members of this ruling class assumed responsibility for what we would consider public concerns. The mamluks were patrons of art, schools, and mosques; builders of roads, bridges, and markets; and overseers of "public works," morality, and charity."[120] Seven bridges constructed over al-Nasiri canal between 1325 and 1376 CE. [121]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Alexandrian canal lengthened. Employed 40,000-100,000 workers per year.[122] New canal, the Khalij al-Nasiri, dug 1325 CE. [123]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Arabic.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Encyclopaedias and manuals: al-Umar (1301-1349 CE); al-Nuwaya (1279-1332 CE).[124]. Land registry 1316 CE.[125]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Theological books. [126]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Exercise books.[127] Legal books. [128]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Abul Fida (1273-1332 CE) [129].
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 CE) resident in slightly later period which suggests the literate culture may have been producing philosophical works at this time.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Experimental weapons research, such as advanced pyrotechnics and a "rocket-powered torpedo". [130] Hospital established by Sultan Qalaun (1279-1290 CE) "included not only wards with a regular medical staff, lecture rooms, and laboratories but also an adjoining library of medical, theological, and legal books." [131]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poet Ibn Daniyal (d. 1310 CE).[132] "Arabian Nights" folk literature.[133]. "The Mamluk court listened to Turkish and Circassian poetry." [134]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ External trade: "From the fourteenth century on, Mamluk coins were minted in gold brought all the way from Bambuk and Bouré around the sources of the Niger and the Senegal. It was paid for mostly in Egyptian textiles which were greatly sought after in the western Sudan."[135]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Visit of Mansa Musa 1325 CE is famous for the quantity of gold he spent in Cairo.[136]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ "In pre-modern times ... Geographically well-defined borders of currency zones hardly existed. If they did exist then it was for economic and fiscal reasons."[137]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Silver coinage. [138] dirhams.[139] dinars.[140] Gold coins.[141] Fluctuation in economy during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries which impacted the rise and fall of wages. Unskilled labourers made on average 3 dinars per month [142] [143] Plague and other factors in the 15th century caused fluctuation and decrease in wages for unskilled workers, some receiving 3 dinars each month and 33.3 dinars per year, some waqf workers as low as 7 gold dinars per year.[144]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ Al-Barid postal system. State-funded institution (initiated by Baybars 1260-1277 CE) that required an enormous amount of money to set up. Horses used for first time. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [145]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ Al-Barid postal system. State-funded institution (initiated by Baybars 1260-1277 CE) that required an enormous amount of money to set up. Horses used for first time. Routes: Cairo to Qus in Upper Egypt; Cairo to Alexandria, Damietta and Syria. [146]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Greek fire projected through copper tube.[147]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Especially trimmings on weapons/armour. [148]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron mace.[149]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ "Though the iron mines of Lebanon had been virtually exhausted, craftsmen still made high quality arms in Damascus. Those who produced real steel were closely supervised by the Mamluk authorities to stop cheating or a decline in standards."[150]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ no mention in sources so far consulted.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ new world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention in sources so far consulted.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of self bows from previous and subsequent polities in Upper Egypt.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Composite bows. [151] "armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [152]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Mounted crossbowmen.[153]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ traction trebuchets preceded counter-weight trebuchet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ Counter-weight mangonel/trebuchet common from 13th Century. [154] 92 counter-weight trebuchets destroyed crusader stronghold Acre in 1291 CE. [155]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "A major development came around 1230 when knowledge of saltpetre reached the Middle East from Central Asia. A primitive form of gunpowder was soon in use, combining ten parts saltpetre, two of charcoal and one and a half of sulphur. ... Whether or not this primitive gunpowder was used as early as 1300 to propel a projectile, or (more probably) to spray a form of grapeshot from a fixed position, remains a hotly debated question."[156]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mamluk 'askari had iron mace.[157]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Carried by Mamluk heavy cavaryman.[158]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Mamluk 'askari had a dagger. [159]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "armored cavalry equipped with swords and bows" [160] Mamluk 'askari had a straight-bladed sword. [161]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Mamluk 'askari had spear. [162]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Mamluk Egypt e.g. Cairo (mentioned in the context of riding so pack use must be inferred) where foreign travellers were "particularly impressed by the omnipresence of donkeys. ... Abu Sa'id is quoted as remarking that he had never before seen so many donkeys in any city he had visited."[163]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [164]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Camels used to carry baggage. "On major campaigns, 13th- and 14th-century mamluks each received one or two baggage camels whereas every two non-elite halqa soldiers shared three camels." [165]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ The Mamluks did not use war elephants.[166]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Illustration suggests wood used in shields. [167]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "Mamluk ‘askari wearing laminated leather ‘hoop armour’ and a leather helmet."[168]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [169]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Worn over a skull-cap padded with fibre to which helmet was fastened.[170]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Mamluk 'askari: "The thigh defences are based upon pictorial sources because there is not yet archaeological evidence for this form of armour."[171] Arm protection for heavy cavalryman.[172]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Mail armour. [173]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Mamluk qarqal (scale or lamellar coat). Small iron scales sewn into fabric. [174]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Laminated leather cuirass. Rawhide lamellar cuirass.[175]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from necessity of Nile travel.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Mamluks did not like sea warfare. Lowly ranked within military. No permanent navy or naval administration. Contradicting this, the Mamluks had marines, lead by a qaid, and a rais al milaha who captained military ship and commanded sailors. [176]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Walls of Cairo protected by ditch in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate [177]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ present in preceding Ayyubate Sultanate
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ wall encompassing Cairo and Fustat in preceding Ayyubate Sultante [178]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Ditch. Camp was a circle of tents with a ditch and an advance guard.[179] "A concern for morale and a tradition of efficient administration lay behind the cleanliness and good order of mamluk military camps, especially during sieges such as that of Acre in 1291. Such encampments had baths with warm water and professional attendants, along with latrines for the officers and probably for ordinary mamluks."[180]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ Small forts used as coastal warning system.[181]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ de facto hereditary as the sultanate was inherited by 17 different descendants of Sultan Qalawun. Being a member of this family apparently conferred legitimacy on a prospective Sultan and gave him the status to rule. Since the children of mamluks could by law never become mamluks,[182] the Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign 'slave-elite' that had to be constantly replaced by new 'slave' recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role. Manumission was essential because under Islamic law no slave could be sovereign.[183] Mamluk recruits were employed in the central government, the military and as governors in the provinces. While promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was 'granted according to precise rules', succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest involving 'seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence'.[184] Nevertheless, the deck was stacked such that from 1290 to 1382 CE, the sultanate was inherited by 17 different descendants of Sultan Qalawun.[185] Present[186] What is the explanation for the Northrup (2008) code of present?

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at Seshat Workshops, Oxford 2016 and 2017

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawḥīd and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [187] The Mamluk Sultanate was in every generation ruled by a foreign 'slave-elite' that had to be constantly replaced by new 'slave' recruits imported, educated, promoted, and manumitted specifically for the role.[188] Promotion to the highest echelons of the government and military was 'granted according to precise rules' but succession to the highest position - the Sultanate itself - was often a chaotic contest of 'seniority, merit, cabal, intrigue, or violence'.[189] Sometimes there is no evidence of any formal manumission.[190]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [191]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[192]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[193]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[194]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [195] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [196] "Of course, the Mamluks' most extensive and enduring form of charity was the waqf, which the Shafi‘i scholar al-Nawaw| (d. 676/1277) defined in economic and religious terms as 'the alienation of revenue-generating property with the principal remaining inalienable, while its revenues are disbursed for a pious purpose, in order to seek God's favor.' These endowments served the larger Muslim community by providing a range of essential services, including hospitals and medical care, education, some housing for students, employees, and destitute women, food and water for the poor, and the burial of their dead." [197]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, ʿUthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of ʿUmar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [198] "Of course, the Mamluks' most extensive and enduring form of charity was the waqf, which the Shafi‘i scholar al-Nawaw| (d. 676/1277) defined in economic and religious terms as 'the alienation of revenue-generating property with the principal remaining inalienable, while its revenues are disbursed for a pious purpose, in order to seek God's favor.' These endowments served the larger Muslim community by providing a range of essential services, including hospitals and medical care, education, some housing for students, employees, and destitute women, food and water for the poor, and the burial of their dead." [199]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [200] [201] [202]

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